Skip to main content

Full text of "Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire for the year .."

See other formats


GO 

942.7201 
H62t 

new  ser . C4thD 

v. 64 

1407134 


GENEALOGY  COLLECTION 


Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 
in  2014 


https://archive.org/details/transactionsofhi64hist 


TRANSACTIONS  OF  THE  HISTORIC 
SOCIETY  OF  LANCASHIRE 
AND  CHESHIRE 

VOL.  LXIV. 


V 


1407134 

CONTENTS 

PAGE 


List  of  Illustrations  vii 

Council  and  Officers  for  19 13  xi 

Officers  of  the  Society  since  Commencement  .  .  xii 
List  of  Honorary  Local  Secretaries       .       .       .  xiii 

Editorial  Notes  .   xiv 

List  of  Members  ........  xv 

List  of  Societies  in  Correspondence  .  .  .  xxv 
The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool.    By  A.  H. 

Arkle  (i  plate)  1 

A  Contest  for  the  Wardenship  of  Manchester.  By 

the  Editor  (i  plate)  17 

Ancient    Screens    in    Cheshire    and  Lancashire 

Churches.  By  A.  Wolfgang  (32  plates)  .  .  20 
Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration.    By  W. 

Fergusson  Irvine,  M.A.,  F.S.A  43 

Canting  Arms  in  Cheshire.     By  the  Rev.  E.  E. 

Dorling,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  (4  plates)  .  .  .  .72 
The  Overchurch  Chalice.    By  F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A. 

(2  plates)   .  79 

The  Royal  Manor  and   Park   of  Shotwick.  By 

Ronald  Stewart-Brown,   M.A.,  F.S.A.  (1  plate 

and  2  plans)    ........  82 

Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses.    By  the  Rev.  W.  A. 

Wickham,  Vicar    of  St.  Andrew's,  Wigan  (it 

plates  and  5  plans)  .        .       .       .       .       .  .143 

COMMUNICATIONS 

A  Narrative  of  the  "  Fifteen."    By  Miss  Dorothy 

Fitzherbert-Brockholes  (Mrs.  Longueville)     .  249 


viii 


List  of  Illustrations 


Malpas  :  Detail  of  Screen  to  Brereton 

Chapel   To  face  page     2  5 

mlddlewich  :  screenwork       ...,,„  26 

Mobberley:  Chancel  Screen  .  .  .  „  ,,  27 
mobberley  \  detail  of  coving  panel, 

First  Bay  ......  „     „  28 

Mobberley  :    Detail  of  Coving  Panel, 

Fourth  Bay  .....,,„  28 
Mobberley  :    Detail  of  Coving  Panel, 

Fifth  Bay   „     fl  28 

Mobberley:  Screen  Mullions        .  ,,     ,,  28 

Nantwich  :  Stone  Screen  and  Pulpit    .  „  30 

Prestbury:  Chancel  Screen  .       .       .  „     „  31 

Siddington  :  Chancel  Screen  32 

Siddington  :  Screen  Detail     .       .       .  „  32 

Wilmslow  :  North  Aisle  Screen     .  „     „  33 

Cartmel  :  Screen,  Detail  and  Panel    .  „  34 

Canting  Arms  in  Cheshire  72 

»          >»              >>  >>     >>  74 

»»                      »*                                »»  »>           >!  76 

»          i)               »  »  78 

overchurch  chalice  .  .  .  .  79 
overchurch     chalice,     paten,  and 

Breeches  Bible   „     „  81 

Shotwick  Castle   „     „  82 

Sketch  Plan  of  Shotwick  Parish  .  „  85 

Drawings  of  Shotwick  Castle       .       .  „  128 

York  Chapter-House       .       .       .       .  „     „  143 

Chapter-House,  York     ....  „  144 

Wenlock  Chapter-House  and  Detail    .  „  148 

Chapter-House,  Salisbury  .  .  .  ,,  ,,  161 
Winchester     Chapter-House,  looking 

West   „     „  168 

Salisbury. — Ground  Plan  of  Cloisters 

and  Chapter-House  .       .       .       .  170 

Chapter-House,  Wells    .       .       .       .  „  171 


List  of  I llustrations 


IX 


Chapter-House,  Bristol  . 
Chester  Cathedral:  The  Vestibule 
Plan  of  Cockersand  Chapter-House 
cockersand  chapter-house  . 
Cockersand. — Window  Arch  on  North 

Side  

Window  at  Stone  

Cockersand     Chapter-House  looking 

North  

Cockersand. — Capital  of  Central  Pier, 

%yl  S.  Side  

Cockersand. — Capital  of  Central  Pier, 

N.  Side  

Cockersand.  —  Entrance     Arch  and 

Springing  of  Arch  near  ;  also  of 

Arch  of  Recess  on  N.  Side 
Cockersand. — Female  Head  and  Capitals 

of  Nook-Shafts  . 
Cockersand  Chapter-House  . 
Cockersand  Chapter-House  . 
Badge  of  the  Five  Wounds  . 
The  Liscard  Palstave 
Acton  Church  in  1635  . 
Tarporley  Church  . 
Palimpsest  Brass,  Hawarden  . 


To  face  page  195 

»      »  199 
On  page  203 
207 

To  face  page  208 
208 


>5  ?5 


208 
209 
209 

2IO 


„            „  2IO 

On  page  214 

„  216 

To  face  page  267 


J  J  55 


287 


On  page  293 
To  face  page  320 


Note. — The  blocks  of  the  Booth  Brass  and  Tarporley  Church  are  from 
photographs  by  Donald  Macbeth, 


xi 


COUNCIL  AND  OFFICERS  FOR  THE  YEAR  1913. 


IPresibent. 

THE  RIGHT  HON.  THE  EARL  OF  DERBY,   P.C.,  G.C.V.O.,  C.B. 


Dtce=lpveBtbent9. 
THE  REV.   CANON  STEWART,  M.A. 
JOHN  PAUL  RYLANDS,  F.S.A. 
R.   D.   RADCLIFFE,   M.A.,  F.S.A. 
WM.   FERGUSSON  IRVINE,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

/members  of  (Council. 

TO  SERVE  TO  END   OP  1913. 


PHILIP  NELSON,   M.D.,   F. R.A.I. 
TO  SERVE  TO  END  OF  1914. 


THOMAS  GOFFEY. 

F.  C.    LARKIN,  F.R.C.S. 

LIEUT. -COL.   PILKINGTON,  F.S.A. 

TO  SERVE  TO  END  OF  1915. 


toon,  treasurer. 

S.  W.  PHIPPS,  STONEBY  DRIVE,  NEW  BRIGHTON,  CHESHIRE. 


JOHN  HARGREAVES. 
HENRY  PEET,  F.S.A. 
A.  M.  ROBINSON. 


R.  STEWART-BROWN,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 
R.  T.  BAILEY,  M.R.CS.,  L.R.C.P. 
H.   C.  GORST. 


A.  H.  ARKLE. 

LIEUT. -COL.  FISHWICK,  F.S.A. 


W.   FORSHAW  WILSON. 

R.  GLADSTONE,  Jr.,  M.A.,  B.C.L. 


toon,  librarian. 


Ibon.  Bssistant  librarian. 


GEORGE  THOMAS  SHAW. 


JAMES  A.  WAITE. 


Ibon.  Secretary. 
F.   C.   BEAZLEY,  F.S.A. 


toon,  assistant  Secretary. 
JAMES  A.  WAITE. 


toon.  JEMtor. 
J.   BROWNBILL,  M.A. 


F.  C.  LARKIN,  F.R.C.S. 


jSycurston  Committee. 

|  F.  W.  BAILEY,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P. 
F.   E.  AUBREY. 


Ipbotograpbic  Committee. 
R.  T.  BAILEY,  M.R.CS. ,  L.R.C.P.  JOHN  GILBERT. 

A.  WOLFGANG.  JAMES  A,  WAITE. 


Xll 


©meets  of  tbe  Society  since  Commencement. 


Ipresi&ents. 

Earl  of  Ellesraere, 


Lord-Lieutenant  of 


Right  Hon.  Francis, 

Lancashire  

Right  Hon.  Charles  William,  3rd  Earl  of  Sefton,  Lord-Lieutenant 
of  Lancashire  ........ 

General  the  Hon.  Sir  Edward  Cust,  K.C.H.,  D.C.L. 
Right  Hon.  William  Ewart  Gladstone,  M.  P.  . 

Joseph  Mayer,  F.S.A. ,  &c  

Rev.  Canon  Hume,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  &c.  ... 
The  Very  Rev.  J.  S.  Howson,  D.D.,  Dean  of  Chester 
Thomas  Glazebrook  Rylands,  F.S.A. ,  &c. 
Right  Rev.  The  Lord  Bishop  of  Oxford,  F.S.A. 
Right  Rev.  The  Lord  Bishop  of  Chester,  D.D. 
Right  Hon.  Arthur,  16th  Earl  of  Derby,  K.G.,  G.C.B. 

Lieutenant  of  Lancashire  

Right  Hon.  Edward,  17TH  Earl  of  Derby,  P.C. ,  G.C.  V.O. ,  C.B. 
Secretaries. 
A.  Hume,  LL.D.,  and  H.  C.  Pidgeon. 


Lord 


1848 

1854 
185S 
1863 
1 866 
1869 

1875 
1879 
1885 
1889 

1903 
1908 


1848. 
1851. 
1854. 

1855- 
1856. 

1857- 
1864. 
1867. 

I875. 
1876. 

1877. 
1882. 


1888. 
1892. 


Rev. 
Rev. 
Rev. 


Hume, 
Hume, 


LL.D. 
LL.D. 


and  Rev.  Thomas  Moore,  M.A. 


Rev.  A.  Hume,  LL.D. 

Rev.  A.  Hume,  LL.D. 

Rev.  A.  Hume,  LL.D. 

Nicholas  Waterhouse. 

David  Buxton. 

David  Buxton. 

David  Buxton. 

C.  T.  Gatty,  F.S.A. 

C.  T.  Gatty,  F.S.A. 

E.  M.  Hance,  LL.B.  ) 

R.  D.  Radcliffe,  M.A.  ( 

R.  D.  Radcliffe,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

R.  D.  Radcliffe,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 


1898.    R.  D.  Radcliffe,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

1903.    Win.  Fergusson  Irvine,  M.A. , 
F.S.A. 

1910.    F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A. 


Assistant  Secretaries. 
Thomas  G.  Wedgwood. 
W.  W.  Rundell. 
J.  H.  Genn. 
J.  H.  Genn. 
Charles  Dyall. 
[Arthur  Wakefield.] 
Eugenio  Londini. 
Eugenio  Londini. 
T.  N.  Morton. 

T.  N.  Morton. 

T.  N.  Morton. 
T.  N.  Morton. 
W.  F.  Irvine. 
W.  F.  Irvine. 
Jas.  A.  Waite. 

j  Jas.  A.  Waite. 

Jas.  A.  Waite. 


Treasurers. 


1848.    Thomas  Avison,  F.S.A. 
i860.    William  Burke. 
1867.    John  G.  Jacob. 

1911.    S.  W. 

Xflbrarians. 

Joseph  Mayer,  F.S.A. 
Rev.  Thomas  Moore,  M.A. 
David  Buxton. 
Nicholas  Waterhouse. 
Nicholas  Waterhouse. 
John  R.  Hughes, 
lohn  R.  Hughes. 
C.  T.  Gatty,  F.S.A. 
E.  M.  Hance,  LL.B. 


1886. 
1898. 
1905. 
Phipps. 


H.  D.  Eshelby,  F.S.A. 

W.  E.  Gregson. 

F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A. 


851. 
859. 
867. 
869. 
871. 
875- 
876. 

877. 
880. 
885. 
886. 


Curators. 
Joseph  Mayer,  F.S.A. 
Joseph  Maver,  F.S.A. 
A.  C.  Gibson,  F.S.A. 
A.  C.  Gibson,  F.S.A. 
H.  Ecroyd  Smith. 
H.  Ecroyd  Smith. 
J.  Harris  Gibson. 
J.  Harris  Gibson. 
J.  Harris  Gibson. 


911. 


{Offices  in  abeyance.) 
W.  Thompson  Watkin.  J.  Harris  Gibson. 

W.  Thompson  Watkin.  W.  Forshaw  Wilson. 

George  T.  Shaw.  W.  C.  Ashby  Pritt. 

.George  T.  Shaw.  Charles  Potter. 

George  T.  Shaw.  W.  F.  Price. 

George  T.  Shaw. 

Hssistaut  librarian. 
1911.    James  A.  Waite. 


xiii 


3Ltet  of  IfoonoratE  Xocal  Secretaries. 


LANCASHIRE. 


Wigan    .    .  . 
Wray,  near  Lancaster 


Name. 

W.  Farrer,  D.Litt.,  Hall  Garth,  Carnforth. 
W.  D.  Pink,  Public  Library,  Leigh. 
The  Rev.  W.  Stuart  White,  Healey  Vicarage,  Roch- 
dale. 

James  Bromley,  J. P.,  The  Homestead,  Lathom. 
The  Rev.  Canon  J.  Wright  Williams,  Farnworth. 
Lt.-Col.  Fishwick,  F.S.A.,  The  Heights,  Rochdale. 
W.  E.  Gregson,  43  Moor  Lane,  Great  Crosby. 
Charles  Madeley,  Municipal  Museum,  Warrington. 

W.  S.  Weeks,  Westwood,  Clitheroe. 

Sir  T.  R.  Ratcliffe-Ellis,  18  King  Street,  Wigan. 
The  Rev.  A.  Wickham,  St.  Andrew's  Vicarage,  Wigan. 
Rev.  C.  L.  Reynolds,  M.A.,  Wray  Vicarage,  Lancaster. 


CHESHIRE. 

Nantwich    ....    JaMes  Hall,  Chester. 


***  The  Council  would  be  glad  to  hear  from  Gentlemen,  not 
necessarily  members  of  the  Society,  willing  to  volunteer 
as  Hon.  Local  Secretaries  for  Districts  in  the  two 
Counties  not  already  provided  for. 


xiv 


EDITORIAL  NOTES 


The  authors  of  Papers  are  alone  responsible  for  the  statements 
and  opinions  in  their  several  communications. 


The  present  volume  has  been  prepared  for  the  press  by 
J.  Brownbill,  M.A.,  Honorary  Editor. 


XV 


N.B. — It  is  requested  that  notice  be  given  to  the  Secretary  of  any 
errors,  change  of  address,  or  death. 


LIST   OF  MEMBERS. 

{Corrected  to  1st  January  19 13.) 


The  names  of  Life  Members  are  printed  in  Black  Type,  and  those  of 
Resident  Members  have  an  asterisk  attached. 


Date  of  Election. 

1889.  April    4    *  Abraham,  Miss  E.  C.     Riverham,  Grassen- 
dale  Park,  Liverpool. 

1902.  Jan.    16    *  Abraham,  T.  Fell.  53  Bidston  Road,  Birken- 

head. 

1908.  Mar.     5    *Accrington  Public  Library,  Accrington. 
1895.  Nov.     7    *Allwood,  T.  Massey.    Haslemere,  Lathom, 
near  Ormskirk. 

1889.  Jan.    10    *Alsop,   J.  W.,  B.A.      16  Bidston  Road, 

Birkenhead. 

1 910.  Nov.  10    *Anderton,  Henry   Ince.    Palazzo  Capponi, 
28  Via  Gino  Capponi,  Florence. 

1903.  Jan.  15  *Arkle,  A.  H.  Elmhurst,  Oxton,  Birkenhead. 
1888.  Mar.   22    *  Athenaeum  Library.  Liverpool. 

1899.  Jan.    19    *Atkinson,  W.  J.  A.    Browside,  Gateacre. 
1907.  Sept.  16    *  Aubrey,  F.  E.,  L.D.S.    13  Upper  Duke  Street, 
Liverpool. 

1890.  Jan.    23    *Ayrton,  William.    10  Dale  Street,  Liverpool. 

1904.  Jan.    14    *Bailey,  F.  W.,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P.   51  Grove 

Street,  Liverpool. 
1904.  Jan.    14    *Bailey,  R.  T.,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P.   51  Grove 

Street,  Liverpool. 
1886.  Nov.   18    ^Banner,  Sir  John  S.  Harmood,  M.P.  Aston 

Hall,  Preston  Brook,  Cheshire. 
1 90 1.  Nov.     7    *Barlow,  W.  H.    70  West  Bank  Road,  Higher 

Tranmere,  Birkenhead. 
1912.  Jan.    18    *Barlow,  Miss  A.  L.,  70  West  Bank  Road, 

Birkenhead. 

b 


xvi 


List  of  Members 


Date  of  Election. 

1907.  Feb.  21    *Barrow-in-Furness,  Free  Library  of. 

1889.  Mar.   7    *Bartlett,  William.     St.  Clare   House,  West 

Derby,  Liverpool. 
19 1 2.  Nov.  21    *Barton,  S.  Saxon.    The  Beach,  St.  Michael's 

Hamlet,  Liverpool. 
1899.  Feb.  16    *Beazley,  Frank  C.,  F.S.A.     27  Shrewsbury 

Road,  Oxton,  Birkenhead.    Hon.  Secretary. 
1896.  Feb.  23     Beeston,  Charles  S.     Tan-y-Coed,  Ysceifiog, 

Holywell. 

1 89 1.  Dec.    3    *Bell,     Henry.       Greenfield,    West  Kirby, 
Cheshire. 

1864.  Dec.    1    *Benas,  B.  L.    5  Prince's  Avenue,  Liverpool. 
1905.  Nov.    2    *Bickerton,   T.   H.,    M.R.C.S.     88  Rodney 

Street,  Liverpool. 
1901.  Nov.    7    *Bigland,  Alfred,  M.P.    84  Shrewsbury  Road, 

Birkenhead. 

1896.  Jan.   16    ^Birkenhead   Free  Public   Library.  Birken- 
head. 

1889.  Oct.  31      Birmingham  Central  Free  Library.  Ratcliff 

Place,  Birmingham. 
1870.  April    7    *Blackburn  Free  Library.  Blackburn. 
1888.  Mar.  22      Bodleian  Library.  Oxford. 
1907.  Jan.     5    *Bolton-le-Moors,  Free  Public  Library  of. 

1890.  Nov.    6    *Bootle  Free  Library.    Oriel  Road,  Bootle. 

1888.  Mar.  22      Boston   Athenaeum.     Boston,    U.S.A.  ;  c/o 

Messrs.  E.  G.  Allen  &  Son,  Ltd.,  14  Grape 
Street,  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  London,  W.C. 

1889.  Jan.   10      Boston  Public  Library.    Boston,  U.S.A. ;  c/o 

B.  Quaritch,  n  Grafton  Street,  London,  W. 
1903.  Dec.  17    *Boult,  Cedric  R.    The  Abbey  Manor,  West 
Kirby. 

1 88 1.  Dec.    1      Bourne,  Robert  W.     18   Hereford  Square, 

London,  S.W. 
191 2.  Dec.  19    *Bradford  Public  Library.  Bradford. 

1891.  Nov.    5      British  Museum  Library;  c/o  Messrs.  Dulau 

and  Co.,  37  Soho  Square,  London,  W. 
1 90 1.  Nov.    7    *Bromilow,  Henry  John.    Green  Bank,  Rain- 
hill. 

1910.  Feb.  17    *Burnett,  Miss  Eleanor.    Devonshire  House, 

Devonshire  Park,  Birkenhead. 
1909.  Jan.   21    *Burnett,  Miss  M.  Edith.    Devonshire  House, 

Devonshire  Park,  Birkenhead. 
1905.  June    4    *Burrell,  Donald  D.    Cerrig,  Silverdale  Road, 

Oxton. 

1903.  Dec.    3    *Butterworth,  E.  W.    Hill  View,  West  Kirby. 

191 1.  Jan.   19    *Cameron,  S.    St.  Oswald's,  Claughton,  Bir- 

kenhead. 


List  of  Members 


xvii 


Date  of  Election. 

1885.  Jan.  22     Caroe,  W.  D.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.    3  Great  College 

Street,  Westminster,  S.W. 
1897.  Dec.    2    *Castle,   Septimus.      Park   Lodge,  Bidston, 

Birkenhead. 

1889.  Feb.  21    *Caton,  Richard,  M.D.     78  Rodney  Street, 
Liverpool. 

1879.  Jan.     9     Chetham  Library.  Manchester. 

1893.  Feb.  23     Chicago   Public   Library.     Chicago,  U.S.A. 

(Per  B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown,  4  Trafalgar 

Square,  London,  W.C.) 

1900.  Mar.  29     Chorley  Free  Public  Library.  Chorley. 
1912.  Oct.  24    *Clayton,    Joseph    C.      79    Laffert's  Place, 

Brooklyn,  N.Y.,  U.S.A. 
1 9 10.  Nov.  10    *Clover,   Mrs.   G.  R.     Ramie,  Manor  Hill, 
Birkenhead. 

1905.  April  11    *Congress,  Library  of.    Washington,  U.S.A. 

(Per  Edward  G.  Allen  &  Son,  Ltd.,  14 
Grape  Street,  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  London, 
W.C) 

1 89 1.  Nov.    5    *Cook,  Edmund.    Oakfield,  Abergele. 
1902.  Nov.   6    *Coventry,  Harold.    1  Hamilton  Road,  New 
Brighton. 

1895.  Dec.    5     Crook,  John.    6  Waterloo  Road,  Birkdale. 

1 90 1.  April  13    *Crosthwaite,  Charles  C.    The  Nook,  Town 

Row,  West  Derby,  Liverpool. 

1906.  Mar.    1    *Danson,  F.  C,  F.S.A.,     74  Bidston  Road, 

Oxton,  Birkenhead. 

1907.  July  15    *Darwen  Free  Library. 

1910.  Jan.  20    *Davies,  Robert.    67  Coltart  Road,  Liverpool. 
1906.  Feb.    1    *Deacon,   Stuart,   LL.B.,  J. P.     Gorse  Cliff, 
Warren  Drive,  New  Brighton. 

1895.  Nov.    7      De   Hoghton,  Sir  James,  Bart.  Hoghton 

Tower,  Preston. 

1896.  Dec.   3     Duffus,  George,  M.B.     Normanhurst,  Wok- 

ing, Surrey. 

1888.  Feb.    9    *Earle,  T.  Algernon.    Hartford,  Cheshire. 

1897.  Nov.   4    *Ellis,  John  W.,  M.B.,  L.R.C.P.     18  Rodney 

Street,  Liverpool. 
1901.  Feb.  14    *Ellsworth,  W.  S.     Ingleside,  Blundellsands, 
Liverpool. 

1910.  Mar.  3  *Elwell,  Rev.  H.  E.,  M.A.  Woden  House, 
Meols,  Hoylake. 

1878.  Jan.  10  Fairclough,  John.  Latchford  Grange,  War- 
rington. 

1891.  Mar.    5    *Farrer,  William,  Litt.D.  Hall  Garth,  Carnforth. 
1 910.  Oct.  27    *Fermor-Hesketh,   Thomas.      Rufford  Hall, 
Ormskirk. 


xviii  Lut  of  Members 

Date  of  Election. 

1880.  April  1  Fishwick,  Lieut.-Col.  Henry,  F.S.A.  The 
Heights,  Rochdale. 

1910.  Nov.     7    *Fleetwood-Hesketh,  C.  H.,  M.A.,  D.L.  The 

Rookery,  North  Meols,  Southport. 
1 89 1.  Mar.   19    *Fletcher,  Mrs.  Alfred.    Allerton,  Liverpool. 
1890.  Nov.     6    *Formby,  John.    Formby  Hall,  Formby. 

191 1.  Jan.    19    *Fraser,  J.  Scott,  F.R.G.S.    Messrs.  Houlder 

Bros.  &  Co.,  Royal  Liver  Buildings, 
Liverpool. 

1875.  Jan-  7  Garnett,  William.  Quernmore  Park,  Lan- 
caster. 

1909.  Oct.  28  *Gilbert,  John.  35  Kremlin  Drive,  Stoney- 
croft,  Liverpool. 

1907.  April  22  "^Gladstone,  Henry  Neville.  Burton  Manor, 
Cheshire. 

1889.  Feb.   21    ^Gladstone,  Robert.    Harrington  Street,  Liver- 

pool. 

1902.  Nov.    6     Gladstone,  Robert,  Jun.,  M.A.,  B.C.L., 

Woolton  Vale,  Liverpool. 
1893.  Nov.     2    *Goffey,    Thomas.      Amain,  Blundellsands, 
Liverpool. 

1897.  Nov.    4    *Goodacre,  William.    Greetby  Hill,  Ormskirk. 
1900.  Jan.    18    *Gorst,  Herbert  C.    42  Parkfield  Road,  Liver- 
pool. 

1854.  Aug.  31  Grenside,  Rev.  Canon  William  Bent,  M.A. 
Melling  Vicarage,  Carnforth. 

1906.  Feb.  14  *HallJ  Lawrence.  6  Canning  Street,  Liverpool. 
1909.  June  14    *Hampshire,  V.  Astley.    The  Carrs,  Graham 

Road,  West  Kirby. 

191 2.  Jan.    18    *Hand,  Chas.  R.    Ivydene,  Ash  field,  Waver- 

tree,  Liverpool. 

1907.  Mar.  21    *Hanmer,    Henry    H.     Harewood  House, 

Formby,  near  Liverpool. 

1890.  Nov.     6    *Hannay,  A.  M.    5  India  Buildings,  Water 

Street,  Liverpool. 
1883.  Jan.    25    *Hargreaves,  John.     The  Woodlands,  Rock 
Ferry. 

1908.  Jan.    23    *Hargreaves,  John,  Jun.   64  Dacre  Hill,  Rock 

Ferry. 

191 1.  Jan.    19    *Harrison,  Eustace.  Denhall,  Neston,  Cheshire. 

1912.  Mar.   14    *Harrison,  Jas.  Milner.    The  Grange,  Heswall, 

Cheshire. 

1912.  Nov.  21  ^Harvard  College  Library.  (Per  E.  G.  Allen  and 
Son,  14  Grape  Street,  Shaftesbury  Avenue, 
London,  W.C.) 

191 1.  Jan.  19  *Hewitt,  John.  21  Vicarage  Road,  Hoole, 
Chester. 


List  of  Members 


xix 


Date  of  Election. 

191  i.  Oct.    25    *Hignett,Theophilus.   St.  Ives,  Sandfield  Park, 
West  Derby,  Liverpool. 

1 9 10.  Feb.  10    *Hind,  Miss  Alice.      57  Willowbank  Road, 

Devonshire  Park,  Birkenhead. 
1 89 1.  Nov.    5    *Holland,  Walter.     Carnatic  Road,  Mossley 
Hill,  Liverpool. 

191 1.  Oct.  25    *Hoult,  James.    12  Brookland  Road,  Stoney- 

croft,  Liverpool. 

1887.  Mar.  24      Hutton,  Wm.  L.    Advertiser  Office,  Ormskirk. 

1891.  Nov.    5      Ireland,   National   Library  of;   c/o  Messrs. 

Hodges,  Figgis  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  104  Grafton 
Street,  Dublin.  ' 
1890.  Nov.    6    *Irvine,  Wm.  Fergusson,  M.A.,  F.S.A.    56  Park 
Road  South,  Birkenhead.  Vice-President. 

1 9 10.  Nov.  10    *John  Rylands  Library.  Manchester. 

1 91 2.  Dec.    5    *  Jones,  W.  Bell.    The  Church  House,  Hawar- 

den,  Flintshire. 

1890.  Nov.   6      Kent-Green,  Mrs.  Edward.    Eaton  Cottage, 
West  Derby,  Liverpool. 

1900.  Nov.  29    *Kirby,  Edmund  Bertram.     Overdale,  Oxton, 

Birkenhead. 

1 91 2.  Jan.   18    *Kitchingman,  Joseph.    Seabank  Nook,  Pro- 
menade, Liscard,  Cheshire. 
1897.  Nov.    4     Lancaster  Free  Public  Library.  Lancaster. 

1901.  Jan.   17    *Larkin,  F.  C,  F.R.C.S.    54  Rodney  Street, 

Liverpool. 

1888.  Nov.  29     Lawrence,  William  Frederick,  M.A.,  Cowes- 

field  House,  Salisbury. 
1912.  Oct.   24    *Layland  -  Barratt,    Lady.      Manor  House, 
Torquay. 

191 1.  Jan.  19    *Lee,  Harold,  J.P.    15  North  John  Street, 

Liverpool. 

191 1.  Nov.  23    *Lee,  H.  Ashton.    15  North  John  St.,  Liver- 
pool. 

1889.  Mar.    7      Leeds  Free  Public  Library.  Leeds. 

1903.  Dec.  17    *Legge,  Charles  J.    3  Grosvenor  Place,  Claugh- 

ton,  Birkenhead. 
191 1.  Oct.   25    *  Leigh  Public  Library.    Leigh,  Lancashire. 

1892.  Feb.  25    *Lever,  Sir  William  Hesketh,  Bart.  Thornton 

Manor,  Thornton  Hough,  Cheshire. 
1889.  Feb.    7    *Lister,  Alfred  Hamilton.     Hillfoot,  Breeze 
Hill,  Bootle. 

1904.  Jan.   28    *Liverpool  Free  Library.  Liverpool. 

1902.  Jan.   16    *Liverpool  Library  (Lyceum).     Bold  Street, 

Liverpool. 

1893.  Nov.    2    *Livesey,  John.     Bouverie  Lodge,  Harnhan 

Hill,  Salisbury. 


XX 


List  of  Members 


Date  of  Election. 

191  i.  Mar.  16    *Livsey,  Wm.  Edward.      10  Rodney  Street, 
Liverpool. 

1889.  Oct.  31      London,    Library   of   the    Corporation  of. 

Guildhall,  London,  E.C. 

191 1.  Oct.  25  *Lyell,  George  I.  10  Vernon  Street,  Liverpool. 
1908.  Feb.  20    *MacCormick,  Rev.  F.,  F.S.A.  Scot.  Wrock- 

wardine  Wood  Rectory,  Wellington,  Salop. 

1887.  Feb.  10    *Mackay,  Professor,  M.A.,  LL.D.  Liverpool 

University,  Liverpool. 

1888.  Mar.  22      Manchester  Free  Reference  Library.  King 

Street,  Manchester. 
1888.  Mar.  22    "^Manchester  University;  c/o  J.  E.  Cornish, 

Ltd.,  16  St.  Anne's  Square,  Manchester. 
1905.  Dec.  14    *Marshall,    Isaac,   M.A.     Sarnesfield  Court, 

Weobley,  R.S.O.,  Herefordshire. 

1898.  Jan.   20    *Mason,  George  Percival.     34  Castle  Street, 

Liverpool. 

1 9 10.  April  21    *Massey,   George.    137   Water   Street,  New 

York,  U.S.A. 

1904.  Mar.  25    *Mayer  Free  Library.    Bebington,  nr.  Birken- 

head. 

1890.  Nov.    6    *Meade-King,  Richard  R.     Sandfield  Park, 

West  Derby,  Liverpool. 

191 2.  Nov.  21    *Mountford,  E.  H.    6  Rodney  Street,  Liver- 

pool. 

1899.  Nov.    2    *Muir,  J.  R.  B.,  M.A.    10  Grove  Park,  Liver- 

pool. 

1908.  Dec.  10    *Nelson,  Philip,  M.D.,  F.R.A.I.  Beechwood, 

Beech  Lane,  Allerton,  Liverpool. 
1897.  Mar.  25      New  York,  Public  Library  of.     New  York, 

U.S.A. ;  c/o  B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown,  4 

Trafalgar  Square,  London,  W.C. 
1893.  Feb.    9    *Newberry   Library.      Chicago,   U.S.A.  (Per 

B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown,  4  Trafalgar  Square, 

London.) 

1909.  Jan.  21    *Nickels,  Lanyon.    Chenotrie,  Noctorum. 

1911.  Feb.    2    *Nottingham  Free  Public  Library.  Nottingham. 

1905.  Feb.  9  *Nowell,  Samuel.  17  Rock  Park,  Rock  Ferry. 
1907.  July  15    *01dham  Free  Library. 

1907.  Oct.  10    *Ormerod,   B.  M.     c/o    N.   Caine,  Spital, 
Cheshire. 

1907.  Mar.  21    *Owen,  Segar,  F.R.I.B.A.  Kelmscott,  Appleton, 
Cheshire. 

1901.  Feb.  28    *Paget-Tomlinson,  W.  S.,  M.D.    The  Biggins, 
Kirkby  Lonsdale. 

1891.  Dec.  17    *Parker,  Colonel  John  W.  R.,  C.B.,  F.S.A. 

Browsholme  Hall,  Clitheroe. 


List  of  Members 


xxi 


Date  of  Election. 

191 2.  Dec.  19  *Parker,  Mrs.  R.  E.  44  Bessborough  Road, 
Claughton,  Birkenhead. 

1910.  April  21    *Paterson,  David.     Vailima,  Queen's  Drive, 

Mossley  Hill,  Liverpool. 
1890.  Nov.    6    *Peet,  Henry,  F.S.A.    Ranelagh  PL,  Liverpool. 
1894.  Nov.    1    *Phipps,   S.   W.     25    Stoneby    Drive,  New 

Brighton.    Hon.  Treasurer. 

1890.  Dec.  18     Pilkington,  Sir  George  A.,  Knt.    Belle  Vue, 

Lord  Street  West,  Southport. 
1886.  Nov.  18    *Pilkington,  Lieut-Col.  John,  F.S.A.  Bobels- 

berg,  Sandown  Park,  Wavertree,  Liverpool. 
1898.  Feb.    3    *Poole,  Miss  M.  Ellen.    Alsager,  Cheshire. 

191 1.  Jan.   19    *Public  Record  Office,  London.    (Per  Wyman 

and  Sons,  Ltd.,  Fetter  Lane,  London,  E.C) 

1888.  Feb.    9    *Radcliffe,  Frederick  M.    Queen  Insurance 

Buildings,  Liverpool. 
1879.  Jan.     8    *RadclifTe,   Richard    Duncan,   M.A.,  F.S.A. 

26  Derwent  Road,  Liverpool,  E.  Vice- 
President. 

1891.  Jan.  22     Ratcliffe-Ellis,  Sir  Thomas  R.    18  King  Street, 

Wigan. 

1891.  Feb.  5  Reynolds,  Rev.  Charles  L.,  M.A.  Wray 
Vicarage,  Lancaster. 

1 9 10.  Mar.  17    *  Roberts,  Edward  S.    7  Slatey  Road,  Claughton, 

Birkenhead. 

1890.  Nov.    6    *Robinson,  Arthur  Muschamp.    Lome  Road, 

Oxton,  Birkenhead. 
1 90 1.  April  13    *Rochdale  Free  Public  Library.  Rochdale. 

191 1.  Jan.   19    *Roderick,  David.    Produce  Exchange  Build- 

ings, Liverpool. 

1911.  Jan.  19    *Roughsedge,  Miss.  16  Avondale  Rd.,  Hoylake. 
1907.  July  15    *Royal  Museum  and  Libraries.     Peel  Park, 
Salford. 

1903.  Dec.    3    *Royden,  E.  B.    Wood  Hey,  Bromborough. 

1889.  Oct.  31    *Royds,   Col.  Sir  Clement  Molyneux,  C.B. 

Greenhill,  Rochdale. 
1 90 1.  Nov.    7     Rundell,  Towson  W.    3  Fenwick  Street, 
Liverpool. 

1870.  Nov.  3  *Rylands,  John  Paul,  F.S.A.  96  Bidston  Road, 
Birkenhead.  Vice-President. 

1874.  Dec.  10  *Rylands,  William  Harry,  F.S.A.  1  Campden 
Hill  Place,  Notting  Hill,  London,  W. 

1888.  Mar.  22    *St.  Helens  Free  Public  Library.    St.  Helens. 

1888.  Nov.  15  Sandeman,  Lieut-Col.  John  Glas, 
M.V.O.,  Sub-Officer  H.M.  Hon.  Corps  of 
Gentlemen  at  Arms.  Whin-Hurst,  Hayling 
Island,  Havant. 


xxii  List  of  Members 

Date  of  Election. 

1898.  Feb.    3    *Scarisbrick,   Sir   Charles,   Knt  Scarisbrick 

Lodge,  Southport. 
1894.  Nov.    1    *Scott,  David.    10  North  John  Street,  Liverpool. 
1897.  Nov.  18     Smith,  Bernard.    Church  Road,  Rainford. 
1897.  Jan.   28      Southport  (Atkinson)  Free  Public  Library. 

1 9 10.  April  21    *Standring,  Rev.  T.  M.,  M.A.    The  Vicarage, 

Bidston,  Cheshire. 
1 89 1.  Feb*    5    *Stapleton-Bretherton,   Frederick.  Heathfield 
House,  Fareham,  Hants. 

1899.  April  13    *Starkie,    Colonel   Edmund  A.  Le  Gendre. 

Huntroyde,  Burnley. 
1876.  April   6    *Stewart,  Rev.  Canon  Alexander,  M.A.  29 
Sandon  Street,  Liverpool.  Vice-President. 

1905.  Feb.  23    *Stewart-Brown,  R.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  Fairoaks, 

Bromborough,  Cheshire. 

191 1.  Jan.   19    *Stockport  Public  Library.  Stockport. 

1906.  Feb.  15    *Stone,  Park  N.    The  Moorings,  Neston. 

1 89 1.  Nov.  5  *Stonyhurst  College,  Rev.  the  Rector  of,  S.J. 
Blackburn. 

191 2.  Feb.  29    *Strype,    Chas.    F.     46    Greenbank  Road, 

Devonshire  Park,  Birkenhead. 

1907.  Mar.  21    *Tate,  Dr.  George,  F.I.C.,  F.C.S.  Windsor 

Buildings,  George  Street,  Liverpool. 
1889.  April    4      Taylor,  Henry.    Braeside,  Rusthall,  Tunbridge 
Wells,  and  Birklands,  Birkdalc,  Lanes. 

1887.  Feb.  10     Tempest,  Mrs.  Arthur  Cecil.  Broughton 

Hall,  Skipton-in-Craven. 
1903.  Jan.    15    Thicknesse,  Philip  C.    The  Cottage,  Eastham, 
Cheshire. 

1889.  Feb.  21    *Thompson,  Edward  P.    Whitchurch,  Salop. 
1906.  Feb.     1    *Thompson,    J.    T.      9    Chetwynd  Road, 

Oxton. 

191 1.  Jan.  19  *Timbrell,  Rev.  W.  F.  J.,  M.A.  The  Church 
Cottage,  Ha  warden. 

1890.  Nov.    6    *Tonge,  William  Asheton.    Disley,  Stockport, 

Cheshire. 

1908.  Aug.  22    *Toronto  Public   Library,  Toronto,  Canada. 

C/o  C  D.  Cazenove  &  Son,  12  Henrietta 
Street,  Covent  Garden,  London,  W.C. 

1888.  Feb.  23    *Toulmin  &  Sons,  George.    Lancashire  Daily 

Post  Office,  Preston. 

1889.  Oct.  31    *Turton,  Fletcher  Thomas.    Municipal  Build- 

ings, Liverpool. 

1903.  Mar.  12  *  Victoria  and  Albert  Museum  Library.  South 
Kensington,  London,  S.W.  (Per  Board 
of  Education,  Storekeeper's  Department, 
South  Kensington.) 


List  of  Members  xxiii 

Date  of  Election. 

1894.  Nov.  29    *Vyner,  RobertC.de  Grey.  Newby  Hall,  Ripon. 
1889.  Oct.  31    *Wainwright,  Thos.  T.    13  Union  Court,  Liver- 
pool. 

1907.  June    5    *Wallasey  Public  Library.    Liscard,  Cheshire. 
1909.  Oct.    28    *Walmsley,  Mrs.  Ernest.    4  Princes-gate  West, 
Liverpool. 

1894.  April    5    *Warburton,  Rev.  William.    45  Church  Street, 

Egremont. 
1892.  Nov.    3      Warrington  Museum. 

1903.  Feb.  12     Watt,  Miss.    Speke  Hall,  Garston. 

1897.  Nov.  4  Wearing",  J.  W.,  M.A.  Parkfield,  Lan- 
caster. 

1849.  Feb.  1  *  Webster,  George.  Overchurch  Hill,  Upton, 
Birkenhead. 

1888.  Dec.  13     Weldon,  William  Henry,  C.V.O.,  F.S.A., 

Clare?iceux  King  of  Arms.  College  of  Arms, 
London,  E.C. 

1856.  Jan.  3  Welton,  Thomas  A.  Ixworth  Court,  Stan- 
hope Road,  Highgate,  N. 

1 90 1.  Nov.  7  *Whatham,  W.  R.  24  Sir  Thomas  Street, 
Liverpool. 

1 89 1.  Feb.    5      White,  Rev.  W.  Stuart,  M.A.    Healey  Vicarage, 

Rochdale. 

1889.  Jan.   10    *Wigan  Free  Library.  Wigan. 

1906.  Mar.  31    *  Wilkinson,  W.    The  Limes,  Victoria  Park, 

Manchester. 

1907.  Oct.    10    *  Williams,  R.  Warner.     4  Charlesville,  Birken- 

head. 

1892.  Dec.  15      Williams,  Rev.  Canon  J.  Wright,  M.A.  Farn- 

worth  Vicarage,  Widnes. 
1885.  Nov.  26    *Wilson,    W.    Forshaw.      50   Cable  Road, 
Hoylake. 

1905.  Mar.    9    ^Withers,  R.  E.  M.    13  Haymans  Green,  West 

Derby,  Liverpool. 
1907.  Nov.  28    *Wolfgang,    Arthur.      13    Kingsland  Road, 

Birkenhead. 

1904.  Jan.   28    *Wolstenholme,  Chas.  M.  7 1  Park  Road  South, 

Birkenhead. 

1 89 1.  Nov.  19     Woodhouse,  Miss  E.  D.   Burghill  Court, 

Hereford. 

1909.  Feb.  12  *Woods,  E.  C,  L.D.S.  (Eng.).  76  Mount 
Pleasant,  Liverpool. 

1892.  Nov.    3    *Worsley,  Philip  J.    Rodney  Lodge,  Clifton, 

Bristol. 


xxiv 


List  of  Members 


Date  of  Election. 

ASSOCIATE  MEMBERS. 

1905.  May  8  Brownbill,  John,  M.A.  5  Portland  Street, 
Lancaster.    Ho?i.  Editor. 

1893.  Nov.  30      Dolan,  Dom  Gilbert,  O.S.B.     St.  Wulstan's, 

Little  Malvern. 

1888.  Mar.  8  Shaw,  George  Thomas.  Chief  Librarian, 
Liverpool  Free  Public  Library,  Liverpool. 
Hon.  Librarian. 

1894.  Nov.    1      Waite,  James  A.    6  Fairfield  Street,  Fairfield, 

Liverpool.    Hon.  Assistant  Secretary. 


HONORARY  MEMBER. 


1870.  Sept.  13 


Avebury,  Lord,  P.C.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.  High 
Elms,  Farnborough,  Kent. 


XXV 


LIST  OF  SOCIETIES  IN  CORRESPONDENCE  WITH 
THE  HISTORIC  SOCIETY  OF  LANCASHIRE 
AND  CHESHIRE. 


Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London. 
Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland. 

Royal  Historical  and  Archaeological  Society  of  Ireland. 

Royal  Archaeological  Institute,  London. 

Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Kent  Archaeological  Society. 

Somersetshire  Archaeological  Society, 

Sussex  Archaeological  Society. 

Chester  Archaeological  Society. 

Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  Society. 

Leicestershire  Archaeological  Society. 

Yorkshire  Archaeological  Society. 

Shropshire  Archaeological  Society. 

Architectural  and  Archaeological  Society  of  Lincoln  and  Notts. 

Manchester  Literary  Club. 

Suffolk  Archaeological  Institute. 

New  England  Genealogical  Society. 

County  Kildare  Archaeological  Society. 

Thoresby  Society,  Leeds. 


TRANSACTIONS 


THE  EARLY  COFFEE  HOUSES  OF 
LIVERPOOL 

By  A.  H.  Arkle 

Read  21st  November  191 2 


HE  origin  of  coffee  houses  in  this  country  seems 
to  be  rather  obscure. 


One  story  is  that  coffee  was  introduced  into 
London  in  1652,  when  a  Mr.  Edwards,  a  Turkey 
merchant,  on  his  return  from  Smyrna  brought  with 
him  a  Greek  from  Ragusa,  who  used  to  prepare  this 
liquor  for  his  master  every  morning.  The  merchant, 
to  get  rid  of  the  crowd  who  wanted  his  company, 
ordered  him  to  open  a  coffee  house  in  St.  Michael's 
Alley,  Cornhill.  This  was  the  first  opened  in 
London.  But  from  Notes  and  Qtieries,  nth  Ser.,  v. 
369  (nth  May  last),  I  learn  that  the  first  coffee 
house  in  England  was  opened  in  Oxford,  by  Henry 
Jacobs,  at  the  "  Angel."  This,  I  believe,  was  about 
1650. 

In  the  Public  Advertiser  for  I9th-26th  May  1657, 
appeared  the  following  advertisement : 

In  Bartholomew  Lane,  back  side  of  the  Old  Exchange,  the 
drink  called  Coffee,  which  is  a  very  wholsom  and  physical  drink, 
having  many  vertues,  closes  the  orifices  of  the  stomach,  fortifies 
the  heat  within,  helpeth  digestion,  quickneth  the  spirits,  maketh 
the  heart  lightsom,  is  good  against  eye-sores,  coughs,  colds, 
Rhumes,  consumptions,  headach,  dropsie,  gout,  scurvy,  King's 
Evil  and  many  others ;  is  to  be  sold  both  in  the  morning  and 
three  of  the  clock  in  the  afternoon.- 


2        The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool 


A  Liverpool  paper  of  1790  speaks  of  the  great 
influence  exerted  by  these  houses  in  the  following 
terms  : 

The  keepers  of  taverns,  coffee  houses,  &c,  in  Charles  II  reign 
were  of  no  small  consequence  in  the  eyes  of  the  Government. 
For  they  were  not  only  compelled  to  conform  to  the  Established 
Church,  but  were  enjoined  to  prevent  all  scandalous  books, 
papers  and  libels  from  being  read  in  their  houses,  and  to  hinder 
every  person  from  declaring,  uttering,  or  divulging  all  manner 
of  scandalous  reports  against  the  Government  or  the  Ministers 
thereof.  Thus  by  a  refinement  of  policy,  the  simple  manufacturer 
of  a  simple  dish  of  coffee  or  tea  was  constituted  licenser  of  books, 
corrector  of  manners,  and  the  arbiter  of  the  truth  or  falsehood  of 
political  intelligence  over  every  company  he  entertained. 

Here  I  cannot  help  giving  one  or  two  short 
extracts  from  a  little  book  called  A  Cup  of  Coffee, 
published  in  18S3  by  T.  Fisher  Unwin,  London. 
The  first  is  itself  a  quotation  : 

An  old  writer  of  the  seventeenth  century,  quaintly  descanting 
upon  the  various  claims  of  coffee,  says,  11  Surely  it  must  needs  be 
salutiferous,  because  so  many  sagacious  persons  and  the  wittier  sort 
of  nations  use  it  so  much.  But  besides  the  exsiccant  quality,  it 
tends  to  dry  up  the  crudities  of  the  stomach,  as  also  to  comfort 
the  brain,  to  fortifie  the  sight  with  its  steame  and  it  is  found 
already  that  this  Coffee  drink  has  caused  a  greater  sobriety 
among  the  nations ;  In  whereas  formerly  apprentices  and  clerks 
with  others  use  to  take  their  morning  draught  in  ale,  beer  or 
wine,  which  by  the  dizziness  they  cause  in  the  brain  make  many 
unfit  for  businesse,  they  use  now  to  play  the  good  fellowes  in  this 
wakefull  and  civile  drinke." 

Explaining  the  cause  of  the  popularity  of  the  coffee 
houses  we  read  : 

At  the  ordinary  London  coffee  houses  of  the  period,  for  a 
penny  one  could  learn  the  news  of  the  town,  with  the  additional 
comfort  of  being  seated  in  a  cosy  room  by  a  good  fire.  Anyone, 
of  whatever  position,  was  welcome,  and  there  was  no  preference 
of  seat  except  by  universal  suffrage.  No  one  had  to  stand  up 
when  a  finer  person  came  in  after  him  ;  he  who  so  far  forgot 
himself  as  to  curse  or  quarrel  was  mulct  for  a.  first  offence 
twelve  pence ;  if  he  persisted  in  offending,  he  became  liable  to 


The  Early  Coffee  Hojises  of  Liverpool 


a  fine  of  a  cup  of  coffee  for  every  person  present.  One  might 
be  merry  and  converse,  but  not  in  too  loud  a  tone  ;  all  talk  of 
religion  and  politics  was  expressly  forbidden — a  regulation  never 
made,  be  it  remarked,  but  to  be  forgotten.  Cards  and  dice  were 
not  allowed,  and  betting  only  to  the  limited  extent  of  five  shillings. 
Finally,  to  these  regulations,  which  were  posted  in  the  room,  was 
added  the  common  one  of  a  modern  London  tavern-keeper, 
"Guests  will  pay  their  bills  before  leaving." 

The  making  and  selling  of  coffee  evidently  had 
its  difficulties  as  well  as  those  advantages  already 
mentioned,  for  a  certain  James  Farr,  who  held  the 
joint  functions  of  barber  and  proprietor  of  the 
"  Rainbow,"  was  presented  for  making  and  selling 
a  drink  called  coffee,  whereby  he  annoyeth  his 
neighbours  by  evil  smells  ;  and  for  keeping  a  fire, 
for  the  most  part  night  and  day,  whereby  his 
chimney  and  chamber  hath  been  set  on  fire,  to  the 
great  danger  and  affrightment  of  his  neighbours. 

But  to  come  to  Liverpool  coffee  houses.  Wallace, 
the  supposed  author  of  the  History  of  Liverpool 
(first  edition  published  1795),  makes  the  following 
very  contemptuous  reference  : 

In  1760  a  small  dark  room  in  a  court  in  Water  St.  up  a  narrow 
dirty  passage  was  the  Common  Subscription  Coffee  Room,  and 
the  only  one  then  in  the  town. 

Our  available  local  newspapers,  unfortunately,  only 
begin  a  few  years  before  the  date  of  Wallace's  re- 
ference, viz.  in  1756  ;  yet  in  the  years  between  1756 
and  1758  I  find  mention  of  no  less  than  five  coffee 
houses,  some  of  which  at  least  must  have  been  fairly 
respectable  both  inside  and  out — that  is,  Exchange 
and  Pontacks  in  Water  St.,  Bath  in  Old  Church- 
yard, Merchants  in  Dale  St.,  Neptune  in  High  St.  or 
Old  Shambles.  It  is  of  these  five,  together  with  the 
George's  in  Castle  St.,  that  I  wish  to  say  a  few  words 
to-night.  There  were  many  others,  such  as  Dutch, 
near  the  Exchange  ;  Custom  House,  Brook  Square  ; 
Hibernia,  north  side  Old  Dock  and  Pool  Lane. 


4 


The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool 


There  seems  to  be  very  little  information  to  be 
gained  respecting  the  first  establishment  of  coffee 
houses  in  Liverpool,  but  inasmuch  as,  according  to 
Leland,  there  was  "Good  Merchandis  at  Lyrpole 
and  moch  Yrisch  Yarn  that  Manchester  men  do  by 
there,"  it  is  pretty  safe  to  conjecture  that  Liverpool 
merchants,  with  the  enterprise  for  which  they  have 
always  been  famous,  would  not  be  long  in  following 
the  example  of  London  in  this  partic  ular. 

The  very  first  mention,  however,  that  I  have  been 
able  to  discover,  is  in  Blundeir s  Diary.  On  the 
20th  September  1707,  the  writer  went  to  Liverpool, 

calling,  of  course,  at  the  "  Woolpack, "  near  the  Ex- 
change, evidently  his  favourite  inn,  kept  by  a  Robert 
Secomb,  but  on  this  occasion  he  also  visited  the 
Exchange  Coffee  House,  and  bought  a  periwig — 
whether  there  was  some  barber's  shop  in  the  same 
building,  or  whether  the  proprietor  carried  on  both 
businesses  like  our  friend  in  London  quoted  already, 
I  cannot  say,  but  at  any  rate  we  gather  there  was 
even  at  this  early  date  such  an  institution,  and  very 
likely  this  was  the  very  one  mentioned  by  Wallace 
in  such  contemptuous  terms. 

Here  in  November  1756  there  was  an  exhibition 
of  pictures — Mr.  Motel's  "five  paintings  done  by 
the  immortal  Raphael,  and  taken  from  the  French 
in  the  last  war." 

It  was  at  this  coffee  house  that  a  very  curious 
incident  took  place  in  connection  with  the  sale  of  a 
"  Valuable  Collection  of  Books."  On  the  24th 
February  1758,  there  was  advertised  u  To  be  sold  by 
auction  at  a  room  in  the  Exchange  Coffee  House 
Gateway,"  a  collection  of  valuable  modern  books, 
among  which  are  the  works  of  Addison,  Milton, 
Pope,  and  many  more,  with  Family  Bibles,  Mapps, 
Prints,  and  many  curious  pamphlets,  &c,  to  begin 
in  the  evening  exactly  at  6  p.m.  There  was  evi- 
dently a  large  attendance,  since  we  learn  from  the 


The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool  5 


following  week's  paper,  that  as  the  auctioneer  was 
selling  books,  "the  main  beam  under  the  Floor 
being  a  rotten  one,  gave  way  and  almost  his  whole 
audience  sunk  down  at  once  as  it  were  by  inchant- 
ment  into  a  Cellar  below,  and  left  him  in  astonishment 
upon  a  Dresser,  which  was  fixed  to  the  wall,  with 
Sherlock  on  Death  in  his  hands.  Tho'  the  floor 
was  paved  with  Flaggs  and  the  cellar  a  deep  one, 
nobody  was  hurt,  but  we  hear  some  gentlemen  had 
the  misfortune  to  exchange  very  good  Hats  for  bad 
ones,  which  mistake  it  is  hoped  will  be  rectified." 
Not  to  be  daunted,  a  few  days  later  a  notice  was 
put  in  the  paper  to  assure  the  public  that  all  neces- 
sary care  had  been  taken  to  prevent  any  possible 
inconvenience,  and  that  the  auction  would  be  con- 
tinued for  a  week  longer. 

In  1766  there  was  advertised  to  be  sold  here  the 
manor  of  Woodchurch,  near  Birkenhead,  by  order 
of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Crookhall,  who,  together  with  his 
wife,  held  the  patronage  of  the  benefice.  In  Decem- 
ber of  that  year  a  sale  was  effected  for  ^8030. 
From  1766  to  1781  the  building  was  in  the  hands 
of  Mary  and  afterwards  Eliz.  Fleetwood. 

Its  situation  it  is  not  possible  to  state.  From  1 774, 
when  numbering  first  began,  down  to  1780,  it  is 
always  described  as  No.  9  ;  in  the  1781  Directory  it 
is  numbered  39,  which  would  seem  to  have  been  the 
bottom  of  the  street,  at  least  according  to  present- 
day  numbering.  Possibly  there  may  have  been  a 
removal  from  the  top  to  the  bottom  of  the  street 
about  1780. 

Here,  too,  I  find  the  Liverpool  Ugly  Face  Club 
used  to  meet.  From  Mr.  Howell's  recently  pub- 
lished facsimile  of  the  MS.  minutes  of  this  club, 
now  in  the  collection  of  the  late  Joseph  Mayer  at 
Bebington,  I  gather  these  few  particulars.  It  ap- 
pears to  have  started  in  1 743  ;  at  least  the  rules  are 
dated  21st  January  in  that  year.    Appended  thereto 


6        The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool 


are  thirty-seven  names,  from  which  a  committee  of 
seven  was  chosen  to  manage  its  affairs,  which  seem 
to  have  been  generally  eating  and  drinking.  The 
rules  provided  for  a  meeting  once  a  fortnight.  Ac- 
cording to  the  accounts,  the  members  evidently 
dined  together  every  quarter.  The  accounts  cover 
a  period  from  15th  January  1743  to  21st  January 
1754.  The  qualifications  for  membership  as  given 
in  the  list  strike  one  as  all-sufficient. 

St.  George's  Coffee  House — or  rather,  as  I  think 
it  ought  to  be  called,  "  George's,"  after  the  King,  and 
not  after  the  saint — stood  on  the  west  side  of  Castle 
Street,  and  was  numbered  53  and  61. 

I  can  find  no  record  of  it  before  the  year  1766, 
when  it  was  in  the  occupation  of  Ann  Fishwick,  who 
had  previously  held  the  "Angel"  in  Dale  St.  In 
that  year,  among  the  advertisements  for  sale  by 
auction  at  the  George's  Coffee  House,  we  find  : 

A  very  fine  Negro  girl  about  8  years  of  age,  very  healthy  and 
hath  been  some  time  from  the  Coast.  Any  person  willing  to 
purchase  the  above  may  apply  to  Capt.  Robert  Syers  and  Mr. 
Bartley  Hodgetts,  Mercer  and  Draper  near  the  Exchange,  where 
she  may  be  seen  till  the  time  of  sale. 

In  the  Liverpool  Advertiser  of  27th  January  1769 
it  was  announced  as  one  of  the  questions  for  dis- 
cussion by  the  Conversation  Club  at  George's  Coffee 
House,  "  What  are  the  real  causes  of  the  decline  of 
the  Potters'  business  in  this  town,  and  by  what 
means  might  it  be  made  to  flourish  ?  " 

In  1769  Ann  Fishwick,  owing  to  ill-health,  wanted 
to  dispose  of  her  lease,  of  which  ten  years  was  un- 
expired. In  her  advertisement  she  alludes  to  a 
report  that  had  been  propagated,  that  "  in  order  to 
widen  Castle  St.  the  Buildings  on  the  West  side 
thereof  are  to  be  taken  down.  Mrs.  Fishwick  bees 
leave  to  assure  the  public,  with  the  authority  of  the 
Worshipful  the  Mayor,  that  no  such  scheme  is  in 


The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool  7 


agitation,  and  that  if  any  such  scheme  should  take 
place,  George's  Coffee  House  will  be  excepted." 

But  coming  events,  however  slowly  municipalities 
have  to  move,  were  casting  their  shadows  before, 
and  in  1786  the  street  widening  was  effected,  and, 
fortunately,  the  coffee  house  was  not  excepted. 

The  lease  appears  to  have  been  taken  up  by 
Daniel  Dale,  afterwards  famous  as  the  landlord  of 
the  "King's  Arms"  tavern,  to  which  he  added  in 
1790  a  new  department,  which  he  named  the  Ex- 
change Coffee  Room.  According  to  Picton,  he  died 
there  in  1804. 

The  Neptune  Coffee  House  was  one  of  the  oldest 
houses.  It  stood  in  what  was  afterwards  High  St., 
then  called  Old  Shambles.  In  September  1757  we 
find  the  following  letter  in  the  paper,  a  letter  which 
speaks  well  for  the  loyalty,  patriotism,  and  large- 
heartedness  of  Liverpool  merchants,  viz. : 

Liverpool,  23^/  August  1757. 

To  the  Secretary  of  the 
Marine  Society, 
London. 

Sir, 

In  our  Club  (which  is  a  Company  of  Tradesmen  who 
frequently  meet  in  the  evenings  at  the  sign  of  the  Neptune  in 
this  town)  some  time  ago,  the  subject  of  our  conversation  turned 
on  the  great  utility  and  true  patriot  spirit  of  the  design  of  your 
Society,  whereon  it  was  proposed  and  unanimously  agreed  to 
open  a  subscription  amongst  us  for  the  encouragement  of  so 
laudable  an  undertaking,  and  agreeable  to  our  resolution  we  have 
made  up  Twenty  guineas  which  by  Bill  we  have  enclosed  you 
and  which  we  have  no  objection  to  your  publishing  in  such  a 
manner  as  you  think  may  have  the  best  tendency  to  promote  a 
spirit  of  emulation  amongst  the  many  evening  clubs  in  this 
Kingdom  to  express  their  loyalty  to  their  King  and  Zeal  for  the 
service  of  their  Country  in  this  critical  juncture,  and  we  heartily 
wish  success  to  your  valuable  undertaking. 

For  the  Club, 

Thomas  Henley, 
President* 


8 


The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool 


In  1 78 1  the  proprietor  was  James  Parr,  and  the 
situation  of  the  club  was  described  in  the  Directory 
for  that  year  as  in  Woolpack  Entry,  Water  St. 

Picton's  Records  throw  some  light  upon  this 
locality,  for  on  3rd  June  1724  Mr.  Thomas  Moss 
petitions  that  there  may  not  be  any  shops  built  so 
near  as  to  hurt  his  windows  or  darken  the  lights  of 
his  house  in  the  Shambles.  This  was  agreed  to  on 
his  granting  liberty  of  a  passage  through  the  M  Wool- 
pack"  into  Water  St.,  so  apparently  the  Neptune 
Coffee  House  was  in  this  passage.  In  the  1790 
Directory  James  Parr  is  located  in  the  "Neptune" 
at  14  High  St.,  so  I  assume  the  Coffee  House  had 
gone,  during  probably  the  alterations  of  1786,  and 
the  "  Neptune"  became  a  public-house. 

Pontacks  was  a  name  copied,  no  doubt,  from  the 
London  coffee  house,  Pontack's  Head.  This  famous 
London  house  was  opened  soon  after  the  Restora- 
tion by  the  son  of  a  president  of  the  Parliament  of 
Bordeaux,  the  son  assuming  his  father's  portrait  as 
a  sign.  The  Liverpool  Pontacks  stood  for  many 
years  on  the  north  side  of  Water  Street  in  the  name 
of  Thomas  Moncas.  I  first  find  mention  of  it  in 
April  1758.  It  was  largely  used  as  a  meeting-place 
by  officials  and  semi-public  institutions.  The  first 
meeting  of  the  Liverpool  Chamber  of  Commerce 
was  held  here  on  17th  June  1774.  At  a  sale  here 
in  June  1777  there  was  offered  "A  Silver  ticket, 
admitting  to  any  part  of  the  Theatre  Royal  every 
night  (Charity  and  performers'  nights  excepted)  for 
remaining  term  of  Patent,  10  seasons  of  which  are 
unexpired." 

Thomas  Moncas  seems  to  have  died  about  1775 
or  1776;  his  widow,  Hannah,  carried  the  business 
on  for  some  years,  and  then  removed  to  2  White- 
chapel  ;  but  in  September  1792,  in  an  advertisement 
of  sale  of  land,  it  was  stated  that  the  land  would  be 
sold  at  the  house  of  Thomas  Moncas,  known  by  the 


The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool  g 


name  of  Pontacks,  in  Rainford's  Garden.  I  can  only 
suppose  this  Thomas  to  be  a  son,  since  Mrs.  Hannah 
Moncas  lived  on  at  2  Whitechapel  for  many  years 
after  this  date.  This  second  Thomas  was  a  grocer, 
and,  as  many  shops  at  this  time  had  a  name,  what 
more  natural  than  that  he  should  take  on  the  name 
of  the  old  coffee  house  which  his  family  had  carried 
on  in  the  past  ? 

If  numbers  were  anything  to  go  by  in  an  old 
directory,  Pontacks  ought  to  have  been  only  a  few 
doors  from  the  Exchange  Coffee  House,  since  in 
the  1 78 1  Directory  Pontacks  is  numbered  35  and 
the  Exchange  No.  39. 

I  now  come  to  the  two  houses  which  probably 
occupied  the  most  important  position  in  the  town 
of  Liverpool  in  the  earlier  years  of  the  period,  viz. 
that  between  1750  and  1775,  i.e.  the  Bath  Coffee 
House  in  the  Old  Churchyard  and  the  Merchants' 
Coffee  House  in  Dale  St. 

When  the  former  of  these  two  started,  I  am  unable 
to  say,  nor  even  exactly  where  it  stood.  The  first 
information  I  have  is  from  the  Liverpool  Chronicle 
of  June  18,  1756,  when  the  following  advertisement 
appeared : 

The  salt  water  bath  at  the  Bath  Coffee  House  is  now  opened 
for  admission  of  Company.  The  whole  building  by  its  peculiar 
structure,  is  accommodated  with  every  convenience  requisite  in 
this  kind  of  Bath,  so  that  the  advantage  of  Bathing  in  Sea  Water 
may  be  here  participated  in  a  much  more  extensive  and  com- 
modious manner  than  on  an  exposed  open  shore.  This  Bath  is 
an  oblong,  in  length  60  feet,  in  breadth  24  feet,  and  27  feet  high. 
The  floor  is  formed  in  the  natural  Rock.  On  the  N.  side  it  is 
closed,  on  the  West  it  is  opened  by  a  large  Venetian  Window 
and  on  the  S.  by  four  wide  and  lofty  arches,  which  support  the 
superstructure.  By  these  apertures  there  is  a  free  communica- 
tion of  air  and  light  without  exposure  to  inclement  weather  or 
common  observation,  and  the  water  is  conveyed  to  it  in  great 
purity  by  pipes  which  run  a  considerable  way  into  the  river  and 
is  let  out  again  every  tide.  There  are  also  several  apartments 
for  undressing  and  dressing,  with  fireplaces  in  them  and  proper 


io     The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool 


persons  to  attend. — Prices,  Sec. — Contiguous  to  this  building  are 
two  hot  baths  and  a  Bagnio  for  salt  or  fresh  water  as  different 
occasions  require.    Hours,  &c. — Apply  James  Powell. 

N.B. — Coffee  and  tea  6d.  each  person. 

In  the  year  1760,  when  the  place  was  advertised 
for  sale,  it  was  described  as  "in  the  Old  Churchyard 
and  fronting  the  prospect  of  the  River." 

I  suggest  that  possibly  the  building  known  as 
Coulter's  Hotel,  adjoining  the  late  Merchants' 
Coffee  House,  might  be  the  site  of  this  old  house. 
On  the  1 6th  May  1757  a  concert  of  music  was  an- 
nounced to  take  place  here  for  Mr.  Perkins  and  son, 
a  boy  of  twelve  years  of  age,  who  were  "to  en- 
deavour to  please  on  the  hautboy."  There  is  no 
record  whether  they  succeeded  or  not. 

On  the  30th  September,  same  year,  there  was 
advertised  to  be  sold  by  auction  11  Mr.  Bruzet's 
Curious  Collection  of  Capital  Paintings  done  by  the 
greatest  masters  of  the  Italian,  Flemish  and  Dutch 
Schools,  to  begin  at  3  o'clock  every  day  (Sundays 
except)  until  all  are  sold.  Samuel  Street,  Broker." 
However,  times  were  unpropitious  for  pictures,  and 
a  week  later  it  was  announced  that  he  had  removed 
them  from  Bath  Coffee  House  to  Mr.  Peppard's 
warehouse,  adjoining  Mrs.  Clayton's  in  Fenwick 
Street,  "  where  he  will  sell  by  hand  until  4  o'clock 
to-day  and  no  longer." 

Many  notable  auctions  of  ships,  cargoes,  and 
property  of  all  sorts  took  place  here  from  time  to 
time,  but  in  January  1759  Mrs.  Davis  advertised 
that  she  had  taken  the  house  late  the  Bath  Coffee 
House,  which  she  intended  to  fit  up  as  a  "  Private 
House  for  Boarders  and  Lodgers,"  evidently  letting 
off  the  large  room  for  various  purposes.  Thus,  in 
February  1760  a  Mr.  Desauboys  was  using  it  for 
a  dancing-room,  and  in  1761  he  gave  a  grand 
concert  there ;  later  a  teacher  of  French,  music, 
German,  &c,  named  Dassti  used  it  for  his  purpose. 


The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool     1 1 


There  is  one  other  interesting  allusion  to  the  Bath 
Coffee  House  in  the  Cheshire  Sheaf  for  this  year 
(vol.  ix.  No.  1900) — under  the  initials  (well  known 
to  us)  of  F.  C.  B.,  giving  particulars  of  the  will  of 
James  Bromfield,  chirurgeon,  of  Liverpool,  dated 
1 76 1.  Therein  is  mentioned  "a  messuage  near  the 
Old  Church  in  Liverpool  called  the  Bath  Coffee 
House  and  the  Hot  Bath  and  French  Prison  adjoin- 
ing thereto.  Testator  has  converted  the  latter  into 
a  dwelling-house  and  erected  a  warehouse  on  part  of 
the  said  premises  and  made  several  alterations  in 
the  place  lately  made  use  of  as  a  Bath."  After  that 
we  lose  sight  of  it  altogether. 

But  this  building  is  principally  interesting  to  us 
because  it  was  one  of  the  earliest  houses  of  the 
Liverpool  (Lyceum)  Library.  In  order  to  under- 
stand this,  I  must  go  a  little  into  the  early  history 
of  the  institution,  concerning  which  the  accounts  at 
present  extant  seem  to  be  not  quite  accurate. 

On  the  3rd  February  1758  the  Liverpool  Chronicle 
makes  the  first  mention  of  such  a  scheme  as  a  cir- 
culating library  in  the  following  advertisement : 

To  all  Gentlemen  and  Ladies,  who  desire  to  encourage  the 
progress  of  Useful  Knowledge,  to  procure  for  themselves  a 
rational  entertainment  and  to  do  a  great  deal  of  good  at  a  small 
expense,  the  following  Scheme  is  proposed.  The  Two  Reading 
Societies  who  meet  at  the  Merchants  Coffee  House  and  the 
Talbot  being  willing  to  make  their  plans  as  extensively  useful  as 
possible,  and  sensible  how  much  some  public  provision  of  this 
kind  is  wanted  here,  mutually  propose  to  unite  their  present 
Stock  of  Books  into  one  and  thereby  to  lay  the  foundation  of 
a  Public  Library,  the  manner  of  executing  which  will  be  deter- 
mined by  a  Committee  to  be  chosen  out  of  each  Club,  and  the 
following  articles  are  the  outlines  of  that  plan  which  they  intend 
to  fill  up. 

i.  It  is  proposed  that  a  Com:  of  10  or  12  persons  shall  be 
chosen  out  of  both  Clubs,  an  equal  number  from  each.  That 
the  Coffee  House  Club,  i.e.  the  Merchants,  shall  choose  the  Com: 
of  the  Talbot  Club  and  the  Talbot  Club  the  Com:  of  the  Coffee 
House  Club. 

ii.  One  of  the  Com:  shall  at  the  same  time  and  in  the  same 


12      The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool 


manner  be  chosen  President  and  another  Librarian,  who  shall 
each  continue  one  year,  when  there  shall  be  a  general  meeting 
of  all  the  Subscribers  to  choose  another  for  the  year  ensuing,  &c. 

iii.  That  the  Librarian  shall  keep  the  Books  and  have  a  salary, 
and  that  he  shall  find  a  proper  room  and  have  a  reasonable  rent 
for  it. 

iv.  That  all  the  Books  belonging  to  both  Clubs  shall  be  put 
together  in  the  Room ;  that  the  present  value  of  them  shall  be 
taken  and  the  premium  for  the  entrance  of  Subscribers  fixed 
accordingly,  which  it  is  supposed  will  be  about  One  guinea  each, 
which  with  about  5s.  pr.  ann:  more  will  entitle  them  to  a  share 
of  the  Library  and  right  to  read  the  Books  either  in  the  Room 
or  in  their  own  houses,  as  may  be  most  agreeable  to  them,  &c,  &c 

Such  gentlemen  and  ladies  as  chuse  to  contribute  to  the 
execution  of  this  scheme  are  desired  to  put  their  names  down 
this  month,  either  at  Mr.  Ansdell's  shop,  or  Mr.  Fleetwood's 
shop,  where  short  written  proposals  will  be  left  for  that  purpose. 

On  the  3rd  March  following  there  appeared  in 
the  same  paper  the  following  paragraph  : 

Several  Gentlemen  of  the  Talbot  Club  at  their  meeting  on 
Wednesday  evening,  opposed  the  scheme  for  a  general  Circulat- 
ing Library,  and  on  balloting  they  were  found  to  be  the  Majority : 
but  those  who  were  friends  to  the  design,  being  determined  not 
to  desert  a  scheme  which  they  approved  and  had  proposed, 
agreed  to  leave  that  Society  and  go  over  to  the  other  Club,  by 
whom  they  were  respectfully  received,  and  the  United  Society 
have  resolved  to  carry  the  design  into  execution  as  soon  as 
possible,  for  which  purpose  they  have  chosen  a  Committee  of 
twelve  gentlemen  who  are  desired  to  prepare  a  Set  of  Laws  to  be 
ready  by  the  first  Wednesday  in  April,  when  the  Society  are  to 
meet  at  the  Merchants  Coffee  House  to  examine,  correct  and 
confirm  them. 

I  can  find  no  record  of  such  meeting,  though 
doubtless  it  was  held.  At  any  rate,  on  the  2nd  June 
it  was  stated  : 

We  hear  that  Books  will  be  delivered  out  from  the  Public 
Circulating  Library  as  soon  as  the  Subscribers  have  paid  their 
Subscriptions  to  the  Librarian,  Mr.  William  Everard,  in  John  St. 
We  hope  for  the  honour  of  this  town  that  the  number  of  this 
laudable  Association  will  soon  be  increased. 

On  the  23rd  June  Mr.  William  Everard  announces 
by  advertisement  that  he  intends  to  open  his  School 


The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool  13 

on  Monday  next,  26th  June,  at  the  Bath  Coffee 
House,  Old  Churchyard,  where  Youth  will  be  in- 
structed after  the  best  method.  He  no  doubt  took 
the  library  with  him,  because  on  the  8th  September 
the  newspaper  says : 

We  can  with  pleasure  inform  the  Public,  and  particularly  the 
encouragers  of  the  Liverpool  Library,  now  kept  at  the  Bath 
Coffee  House,  that  there  is  a  very  good  collection  of  the  best 
English  Authors  and  Translations  ready  to  be  delivered  out, 
of  which  Catalogues  will  be  printed  for  the  use  of  the  Society  as 
soon  as  all  the  subscriptions  are  paid  to  Mr.  William  Everard, 
Librarian,  and  the  money  is  laid  out  in  the  purchase  of  books. 
A  Catalogue  of  the  present  stock  may  be  seen  in  the  Library 
Room. 

However,  the  library  did  not  make  a  long  stay 
there.  As  already  stated,  the  coffee  house  was  turned 
into  a  boarding  house,  and  on  12th  January  1759 
the  library  was  removed  to  Mr.  Everard's  school  in 
Princes  St.,  and  its  subsequent  history  is  well  known. 
Its  first  annual  meeting  was  called  in  May  1760  at 
the  Merchants'  Coffee  House  in  Dale  St. 

This  brings  me  to  the  last  of  the  old  coffee  houses 
about  which  I  wish  to  trouble  you,  viz.  the  Mer- 
chants' Coffee  House.  Respecting  this  there  has 
been  a  great  deal  of  misunderstanding  through  the 
confusion  of  two  (I  think)  entirely  separate  institu- 
tions of  the  same  name. 

My  reason  for  saying  there  were  two  quite  sepa- 
rate houses  of  this  name  is  that  every  mention  of 
the  locality  of  the  Merchants'  Coffee  House  down 
to  the  year  1767  is  invariably  Dale  St.  After  that 
date  there  is  an  interval  of  about  seven  years,  and 
not  till  September  1774  do  I  find  the  Merchants' 
Coffee  House  located  in  Old  Churchyard  in  the 
place  quite  familiar  to  most  of  us,  in  the  following 
advertisement,  viz. : 

For  Sale. — Two  small  dwellinghouses  in  possession  of  Esther 
Taylor  and  Edward  Massey.    They  lie  contiguous  to  the  Mer- 


14      The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool 

chants  Coffee  House  in  the  Old  Churchyard  and  front  the  steps 
leading  down  out  of  the  said  yard  to  the  gates  at  the  N.  end  of 
St.  George's  Dock. 

Picton,  Gomer  Williams,  and  other  writers  are 
clearly  wrong  in  saying  as  they  do  that  the  Mer- 
chants' Coffee  House  in  Old  Churchyard  was  erected 
about  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and 
nearly  all  the  sales  they  allude  to  in  connection  with 
the  Merchants'  Coffee  House  took  place  in  Dale  St. 
There  is  no  clue  whatever  as  to  its  situation  therein. 

The  first  mention  I  can  find  of  the  older  house  is 
contained  in  a  curious  old  weekly  publication  called 
the  Bee,  or  Universal  Weekly  Pamphlet,  published 
in  London  in  1733.    The  following  is  an  extract : 

Liverpool,  21  March  1732/3. 

Last  night  our  Merchants  met  in  a  body  at  the  Merchants 
Coffee  House,  where  after  drinking  His  Majesty's  and  other 
Loyal  Healths,  they  ordered  the  Daily  Courant  of  the  15th 
instant  to  be  burnt,  which  was  accordingly  done  by  the  Hangman 
that,  in  the  year  17 15,  executed  the  Rebels  who  came  to  invade 
our  Liberties  and  all  that  is  dear  to  us. 

The  occasion  was  the  bringing  forward  of  Sir 
Robert  Walpole's  new  Excise  Bill.  It  passed  in 
spite  of  the  opposition  in  Liverpool  and  elsewhere. 

The  Daily  Courant  alluded  to  is,  of  course,  the 
London  paper  of  that  name,  which  had  just  pub- 
lished a  bitter  attack  on  merchants  generally  for 
their  greed  and  unscrupulousness.  Mr.  Ellison,  in 
his  Reminiscences,  states  that  the  first  sale  of  West 
Indian  cotton  in  Liverpool  was  advertised  at  the 
Merchants'  Coffee  House  in  June  1757,  but  I  find 
there  was  one  at  least  a  good  deal  earlier,  viz.  : 

For  sale  by  the  Candle  on  Tuesday,  7th  September  1756,  at 
Mr.  R.  Williamson's  Shop  near  Exchange,  9  Bags  in  3  "lotts." 
For  view  apply  T.  Farrer  or  R.  Williamson,  Broker. 

On  the  23rd  June  1758  I  find  the  following: 


The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool  15 

To  be  sold  to  the  highest  Bidder  at  the  Merchants  Coffee 
House  in  Liverpool  on  Wednesday  5  day  of  July  next  at  6  o'clock 
in  the  evening. 

All  that  parcel  of  ground  lying  to  the  South  side  of  Dale  St.  and 
extending  round  to  and  fronting  John  St.  on  the  East  side  thereof 
and  adjoining  there  on  the  North  to  the  house  of  Mr.  James 
Almond,  as  particularly  described  in  a  plan  hanging  up  in  the 
Exchange,  lying  very  convenient  for  building  upon,  together  with 
Warehouses  and  other  edifices  thereon  erected ;  being  all  land 
of  inheritance  lately  belonging  to  Mr.  Thomas  Brownbill,  subject 
to  an  agreement  for  a  small  exchange  with  Mr.  Wm.  Plumb  and 
a  yearly  rent  payable  to  him  of  5s.    For  particulars,  &c. 

Fancy  the  site  of  the  Royal  Insurance  Buildings 
bringing  in  5s.  per  annum ! 

There  is  continual  reference  in  many  of  these 
advertisements  to  the  plan  in  the  Exchange.  Would 
this  be  Chadwick's  ? 

At  this  coffee  house  in  April  1759  there  was 
advertised  a  sale  of  Bidstone  Mills,  tide-water  corn 
mills,  situated  on  a  creek  or  pool  leading  from  the 
river  Mersey ;  and  from  the  description  given  they 
must  at  one  time  have  done  a  large  business,  not 
only  in  grinding  corn,  but  also  for  treating  ironwork 
by  a  slitting  mill,  capable  of  slitting  and  rolling  five 
tons  hoops  or  eighteen  tons  bar  iron  in  a  week,  and 
able  to  accommodate  vessels  of  100  tons  burthen. 

At  the  same  time  were  to  be  offered  the  Three 
Islands  of  Helbree,  situate  near  the  Chester  River 
and  Highlake. 

Here  on  Monday,  25th  July  1757,  the  anniversary 
meeting  of  the  Most  Noble  Order  of  British  Bucks 
was  held,  at  which  all  the  Bucks  belonging  to  this 
lodge  were  required  to  attend.  Dinner  to  be  on  the 
table  at  2  o'clock. 

Indeed,  everything  at  some  time  or  other  seems 
to  have  passed  through  this  building,  from  a  ship 
to  a  bag  of  pepper ;  and,  as  already  noted,  it  was 
principally  from  the  Reading  Society  of  this  house 
that  the  Liverpool  Library  originated. 


1 6      The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool 

I  think  I  have  said  enough  to  show  there  is  much 
of  interest  in  connection  with  these  old  establish- 
ments. We  have  in  the  last  thirty  years  revived 
to  some  extent  the  old  idea  underlying  the  estab- 
lishment of  these  places  in  our  modern  cafe\  but 
whether  we  have  improved  upon  it  or  not  is  not  for 
me  to  say.  However,  I  can  congratulate  the  pro- 
prietors of  the  Athenaeum  that  they  at  least  have 
revived  in  the  fuller  sense  the  ancient  coffee  house, 
since  they  have  now  a  Reading  Society,  with  coffee 
room,  &c,  attached,  and  we  can  all  sincerely  hope 
that  its  members  will  long  "  play  the  good  fellowes 
in  this  wakefull  and  civile  drinke." 


i7 


A  CONTEST  FOR  THE  WARDENSHIP 
OF  MANCHESTER 

By  the  Editor 

Read  21st  November  191 2 


THE  Booths  of  Barton  and  of  Dunham  produced 
a  number  of  prominent  ecclesiastics  in  the 
fifteenth  century.  Among  them  was  John  Booth, 
who  was  appointed  Warden  of  Manchester  Collegiate 
Church  in  1459  and  promoted  to  the  bishopric  of 
Exeter  in  1465,  receiving  consecration  on  7th  July. 
By  the  ordinary  law  he  thereupon  vacated  the  war- 
denship,  and  the  patrons  nominated  Ralph  Langley, 
rector  of  Prestwich ;  the  bishop  accepted  him,  and 
he  was  instituted  on  9th  November.  Booth,  how- 
ever, wished  to  retain  this  valuable  benefice,  and  a 
law-suit  began.  He  produced  a  papal  bull  of  dis- 
pensation,1 allowing  him,  as  he  argued,  to  retain  the 
church  of  Manchester  until  the  Pope  made  further 
order  ;  while  Langley,  on  information  procured  from 
Rome,  argued  as  strenuously  that  the  dispensation 
was  invalid.  Friends  of  both  parties  intervened  and 
contrived  to  arrange  a  truce  whereby  the  bishop 
was  to  retain  possession  without  disturbance  until 
he  or  his  rival  could  obtain  more  satisfactory  evi- 
dence, and  show  it  to  the  arbitrators  agreed  upon. 
These  arbitrators  on  their  part  were  bound  to  con- 

1  On  4th  February  1465-6  the  King  granted  a  pardon  to  the  Bishop 
of  Exeter  and  Warden  of  Manchester  for  any  offence  he  might  have 
committed  against  the  Statutes  of  Provisors. — Calendar  of  Patent 
Rolls ;  1 46 1 -7,  p.  484. 

B 


1 8  A  Contest  for  the  Wardenship  of  Manchester 

sider  any  such  evidence,  and  give  a  decision  upon 
it  within  three  months  ;  should  they  shirk  their  duty 
and  keep  silence  the  truce  ended,  and  the  suit  must 
go  before  the  courts. 

The  agreement  was  made  on  16th  April  1466  ; 
but  only  a  few  months  elapsed  before  the  bishop 
complained  that  Langley  had  violated  it  by  gather- 
ing tithes  of  oats,  flax,  and  hemp  at  Crumpsall  in 
August,  oats  and  hay  at  Tetlow,  flax  and  hemp  at 
Newton  and  Moston,  thus  acting  as  if  he,  and  not 
the  bishop,  were  in  possession.  The  complaint 
came  before  the  assize  judges  in  the  following 
Lent.1  Langley  in  reply  acknowledged  the  agree- 
ment and  his  own  obligation  to  observe  its  con- 
ditions, but  denied  that  he  had  broken  it.  He  had 
offered  further  material  evidence  to  one  of  the 
chosen  arbitrators  on  13th  May,  and  no  award  had 
been  made  within  three  months.  Hence  in  August 
he  was  free  to  act  as  he  had  done. 

The  further  evidence  on  which  he  relied  was  a 
decision  of  the  court  called  the  Rota  at  Rome 
against  the  validity  of  the  dispensation  which 
Bishop  Booth  had  procured.  Just  as  our  own 
courts,  though  they  are  "  the  King's  courts,"  will 
hear  arguments  and,  when  just,  give  decisions 
against  the  Crown,  so  the  papal  auditors  had  in 
this  case  decided  against  one  of  the  Pope's  acts. 
The  decree  is  recorded  in  full  on  the  plea  roll  from 
which  this  account  is  derived,  and  the  reasons  for 
it  are  given.  They  amounted  to  this :  that  a  sig- 
nificant fact  had  not  been  noticed  in  the  dispensa- 
tion, viz.  that  the  wardenship  was  in  lay  patronage. 
It  was  not  enough  for  the  Pope  to  allow  the  bishop 
to  retain  this  benefice  after  his  consecration ;  he 
must  say  expressly  that  though  the  patronage  was 
in  lay  hands  he  granted  that  permission.    It  was 

1  Pal.  of  Lancaster  Plea  Roll  31,  m.  11.  There  are  references  in 
later  rolls. 


MEMORIAL  BRASS  OF  BISHOP  BOOTH 
(Add.  MS.  32490,  H.  24,  Brit.  Mus.) 


A  Contest  for  the  Wardenship  of  Manchester   1 9 

so  important,  for  many  reasons,  to  safeguard  the 
right  of  the  lay  patron  that  this  dispensation  could 
not  be  sustained.  It  was  hinted  that  although  the 
Pope  might,  in  the  plenitude  of  his  power,  oust  the 
patron,  he  was  not  likely  to  do  so.  In  the  present 
case  he  had  not  expressly  stated  that  he  wished  to 
exercise  this  extreme  power,  and  therefore  it  must 
be  presumed  he  had  not  exercised  it.  It  was  an 
axiom  that  "Odiosa  sunt  restringenda,"  and  all  dis- 
pensations of  the  kind  being  "  odious,"  this  one 
failed,  because  its  terms,  strictly  interpreted,  did  not 
cover  all  the  requirements  of  the  case. 

The  bishop  in  reply  said  that  in  law  he  was  not 
bound  to  answer  such  a  plea,  which  was  not  a  bar 
to  his  suit,  though  he  did  not  deny  the  importance 
of  the  new  material.  The  judges  at  Lancaster  were 
in  a  difficulty.  They  were  obviously  incompetent 
to  decide  whether  this  decision  of  the  Rota  did  or 
did  not  invalidate  the  dispensation.  So  they  "  took 
time  to  consider"  the  case,  and  put  a  decision  off 
from  one  assize  to  another,  none  being  recorded  on 
the  plea  rolls.  The  victory  rested  with  Langley, 
who  retained  the  wardenship,  the  bishop  apparently 
giving  up  his  case  as  hopeless.  Bishop  Booth  died 
in  1478,  and  was  buried  at  East  Horsley  in  Surrey, 
where  his  memorial  brass  is  extant.  The  accom- 
panying illustration  is  from  a  rubbing  in  the  British 
Museum.  The  coat  of  arms  has  here  been  dis- 
placed in  order  to  make  a  neater  picture ;  in  the 
church  it  is  higher  up,  being,  according  to  the 
rector's  information,  almost  on  a  level  with  the 
bishop's  head.  An  engraving  may  also  be  seen  in 
the  Cambridge  Camden  Society's  volume  of  Brasses, 
p.  85.    The  inscription  may  be  paraphrased  : 

O  passing  stranger,  pause  to  read  and  sigh ; 
Then  pray  for  me,  for  thou  like  me  must  die. 

Here  lies  John  Bowthe  formerly  Bishop  of  Exeter,  who  died 
5th  April  1478. 

{?U*jUJ  I*-  S*  .  (JL.-i-r^rS  °£o-n*l&n. . 


20 


ANCIENT  SCREENS  IN  CHESHIRE 
AND  LANCASHIRE  CHURCHES 

By  A.  Wolfgang 

Read  7th  November  19 12 


THE  object  of  these  notes  is  to  put  on  record  the 
information  I  have  been  able  to  get  together 
about  the  ancient  screens  in  our  two  counties, 
without  giving  measurements,  and  venturing  only 
on  the  very  briefest  architectural  descriptions.  Sir 
Stephen  Glynne  in  his  Notes  on  Cheshire  Churches 
and  the  companion  Notes  on  Lancashire  Churches, 
both  issued  by  the  Chetham  Society,  gives  many 
notices  of  screens  and  even  buildings  that  have 
now  been  destroyed  ;  and  his  editor,  Canon  Atkin- 
son, formerly  vicar  of  Bolton,  added  various  particu- 
lars of  more  recent  conditions.  These  have  been 
used  freely. 

PART  I 

Proceeding  through  Cheshire  in  alphabetical 
order,  we  commence  with 

Acton 

This  church  has  a  low  screen  of  three  panels, 
separated  by  scroll  buttresses,  on  either  side  of  the 
chancel.  The  central  portion  consists  of  diagonal 
piers  with  carved  panels,  from  which  the  chancel 
gates  are  hung;  these  are  panelled  and  carved, 


t 


F.  H.  Grossley 


ASTBURY -  SCREEN. 
Detail  of  Coving  Panel. 


Screens  in  Cheshire  and  Lancashire  Churches   2 1 

the  lower  panels  being  filled  with  the  arch  treat- 
ment of  the  period.  Each  of  the  six  panels  is 
carved  with  a  different  Jacobean  design  and  sur- 
rounded with  mouldings  and  egg  and  tongue 
carvings.  The  Dorfold  chapel  has  a  screen  of 
the  same  date,  consisting  of  a  simple  colonnade 
carrying  an  open  entablature  of  unusual  character. 

It  is  probable  that  these  screens  were  erected  in 
1685,  at  the  same  time  as  the  altar  rails,  which 
bear  that  date.  In  the  restoration  in  1898  the 
chancel  screen  was  refitted  and  raised  upon  the 
present  stone  foundation. 

Astbury 

The  chancel  screen  may  be  dated  about  1500. 
The  coving  panel  and  the  lierne  vaulting  are  some- 
what similar  to  those  of  Mobberley.  The  rib 
mouldings  radiating  from  the  springings  are  carried 
over  the  face  of  the  panel,  forming  designs  similar 
in  all  the  ten  bays,  ornamented  with  cusps,  quatre- 
foils,  and  roses.  The  enrichment  in  the  upper 
band  consists  of  birds,  alternating  with  vine  leaves, 
enclosed  in  undulating  lines  of  flowing  tendrils 
with  smaller  leaves  and  bunches  of  grapes.  In 
the  lower  band  is  a  different  design — roses  enclosed 
in  circles,  separated  by  a  flowing  zigzag  line,  with 
a  larger  unenclosed  rose  as  a  variant ;  the  inter- 
vening spaces  are  filled  with  foliage,  &c.  The 
upper  parts  of  the  bays  have  tracery  of  late 
Decorated  detail. 

The  parclose  screen  has  perforated  tracery  of 
varied  and  unusual  design,  quite  different  in  detail 
from  the  chancel  screen.  The  top  rail  on  the 
north  side  is  carved  with  a  charming  design  of 
reticulated  character,  much  enriched  with  cusps 
and  roses. 


22         Ancient  Screens  in  Cheshire  and 


Barthomley 

This  exquisite  work  is  now  fitted  as  a  parclose 
screen,  and  divides  the  Crewe  chantry  from  the 
chancel.  The  top  beam  is  evidently  modern,  with 
inscription  of  a  different  date  from  that  of  the 
uprights,  tracery  heads,  rail  and  tracery  in  the 
panels,  which  appear  to  be  of  Perpendicular 
design — probably  early  sixteenth  century.  The 
uprights  are  fixed  diagonally,  the  whole  of  the 
surfaces  being  enriched  with  sunk  panels  with 
cusped  heads.  The  rail  is  beautifully  carved.  The 
lower  part  of  the  screen  is  filled  with  panels  of 
open  tracery  of  varied  design. 

Bunbury 

The  stone  screen  which  divides  the  Egerton 
chapel  from  the  chancel  has  the  following  inscrip- 
tion upon  it :  u  This  Chapel  was  made  at  the  Cost 
and  Charg  of  Sir  RaufTe  Egerton,  Knight,  in  the 
yere  of  owre  Lord  God  m.ccccc.xxvii."  The 
arches  of  the  chancel  are  filled  with  a  light  Gothic 
screen,  divided  by  mullions  into  nine  compart- 
ments, terminating  in  cinquefoil  arches,  the  spandrils 
of  which  are  filled  with  small  shields  and  fragments 
of  the  Egerton  arms.  A  four-centred  doorway 
carries  two  panels  of  the  screen  some  feet  higher 
than  the  rail,  the  spandrils  containing  the  Egerton 
arms.  The  upper  panels  of  the  doorway  have 
lattice  work,  under  which  are  two  large  shields 
covered  with  monograms.  The  lower  panels  of 
the  screen  bear  traces  of  former  decoration  which 
has  now  vanished,  but  Sir  Stephen  Glynne  in  1842 
found  "  the  whole  painted  and  gilt."  At  the  west 
side  of  this  chapel  (which  contains  the  organ)  is  an 
iron  grille,  the  uprights  terminating  in  spear  heads 


■ 


BUNBURY. 
Doorway  in  Screen. 


! 


Lancashire  Churches 


23 


and  fleurs-de-lys  alternately.  It  is  probably  of  the 
same  date  as  the  stone  screen. 

Canon  Atkinson  states  that  in  1865  the  wood 
screens  at  the  east  end  of  the  nave  aisles  were 
removed.  On  these  screens  were  the  following 
inscriptions  :  "  Per  Michaelem  Sanctum  :  per  Arch- 
angelum  Gabrielem."  On  the  panels  beneath  were 
the  Annunciation,  and  St.  Michael  scourging  with  a 
birch-rod  the  devil  in  chains.1 

Cheadle 

The  chancel  screen  is  divided  into  five  bays,  one 
forming  the  central  doorway.  The  lower  panel  and 
some  of  the  uprights  and  tracery  are  old,  but  the 
top  beam  and  doorway  are  modern.2  Some  por- 
tions of  the  ancient  screen  are  preserved  over 
the  organ  in  the  chancel. 

The  north  aisle  screen,  which  also  dates  from 
1529,  has  the  following  inscription  upon  it:  "  Orate 
pro  animabus  Johannis  Savage  militis  et  Elizabethan 
uxoris  ejus  suorum  filiorum  et  suarum  filiarum  qui 
istam  capellam  fieri  fecerunt  anno  a  Virginis 
partu  Millesimo  quingentesimo  xxix."  This  screen 
has  been  largely  repaired — the  carving  is  nearly  all 
new,  and  the  lettering  has  been  renewed. 

On  the  enrichment  of  the  south  aisle  screen  is  a 
design  which  contains  a  rebus  on  the  name  Brereton, 
viz.  a  briar  and  a  tun,  flowing  lines  of  briar,  and 
tuns  which  alternate  with  the  initials  U  and  B  (for 
Urian  Brereton).  This  is  repeated  again  and  again 
along  the  screen. 

1  Note  in  Glynne's  Cheshire  Churches.  Lysons  gives  the  old  in- 
scriptions more  intelligibly,  as — "  Salutatio  Sancte  Marie  per  Gab- 
rielem archangelum,"  "Sancta  Jubana"  (?  Juliana),  &c. 

2  This  screen  has  been  very  badly  used.  On  the  restoration  of  the 
church  in  1876  an  organ  loft  was  built  on  top  of  the  screen  to  carry 
the  organ,  Sir  George  Street  being  the  designer.  Somewhere  about 
1884  the  loft  and  organ  were  taken  down,  and  a  badly  fitted  and  un- 
suitably carved  beam  placed  on  the  ancient  screen. 


24         Ancient  Screens  in  Cheshire  and 


Chester  Cathedral 

On  Randle  Holme's  plan  made  about  1650,  as 
on  Ormerod's  made  about  181 5,  a  screen  across 
the  eastern  pillars  of  the  tower  is  shown.  This 
stone  screen  was  moved  in  1844  to  the  western 
side  of  the  tower  crossing.  Sir  Gilbert  Scott  on 
the  restoration  removed  it  entirely  and  the  stalls 
were  moved  back,  so  that  the  return  stalls  are 
at  the  eastern  side  of  the  tower  crossing.  The 
stone  screen  was  rebuilt,  it  is  understood,  to  form 
the  vestries  for  minor  canons  and  choirmen  in  the 
north  choir  aisle.  The  present  screen  had  a  new 
facing  put  to  it  on  the  western  side  when  the 
stone  screen  was  taken  away  and  the  stalls  put  in 
their  present  position. 

Daresbury 

There  are  now  thirty  panels,  15  by  1 5  inches,  sur- 
rounding the  sanctuary  and  formed  into  a  low 
screen.  These  panels  were  once  the  coving  under 
the  rood  loft,  similar  to  those  at  Brancepeth  in 
Durham  and  Llananno  in  Wales.  The  former 
screen,  supposed  to  have  been  brought  from  Norton 
Priory  at  the  Dissolutiun,  is  believed  to  have  been 
broken  up  at  the  rebuilding  of  the  church. 

The  thirty  panels  contain  differing  designs  :  some 
geometrical,  some  with  flamboyant  feeling,  and  one 
with  a  grotesque  face  holding  in  its  mouth  vine 
branches  on  which  are  leaves  and  bunches  of 
grapes,  somewhat  similar  to  faces  in  the  chapter- 
house of  Southwell. 

Disley 

The  wooden  screen  was  removed  before  1893, 
according  to  an  editorial  note  in  Glynne's  Cheshire 
Churches. 


P.  H.  Crossley. 

DARESBURY. 
Panels  of  Screen. 


Lancashire  Churches 


25 


DlJKINFIELD 

Sir  Stephen  Glynne,  referring  to  this  chapel,  says 
that  some  portions  of  a  wood  screen  remained  in 
1864. 

Harthill 

This  screen  bears  the  following  inscription  : 

THIS  :  CHVRCH  •  WAS  •  BVILDED  •  VPON  •  THE  DEVOC'ON  I 
OF  •  THE  :  CVNTRYE  :  BY  •  THE  I  LABOR  •  AND  •  TRAVELL  : 

OF  :  ED.  TANAT  1  io     dod:  tho:  bvlckley.  &  ra: 

WESTON.  P.  A°  1609. 

It  consists  of  seven  bays,  the  upper  parts  of 
which  are  filled  with  a  bold  and  simple  tracery  of 
geometrical  character,  and  is  very  interesting  from 
the  fact  of  the  clear  survival  of  Gothic  thought  and 
the  total  absence  of  Gothic  detail. 

A  former  rector,  about  1862,  had  several  coats  of 
arms  painted  upon  it,  from  Thomas  de  Tattenhall, 
1346,  to  the  nineteenth  century,  including  Sir  Hugh 
Calveley,  knight,  1558,  and  John  Crewe,  esquire, 
1775- 

Malpas 

The  screen  on  the  south  side  of  the  nave  encloses 
the  Brereton  chapel,  and  has  the  following  on  the 
top  beam,  with  a  rude  hand  pointing  to  the  in- 
scription :  "  Pray  good  people  for  the  prosperous 
estate  of  Sir  Rondulph  Brereton  of  thys  werke 
edificatour  wyth  his  wyfe  dame  Helenour  and 
after  thys  lyfe  transytorie  to  obteyne  eternal  felicitie. 
Amen.  Amen."  The  bays  are  crossed  by  a  thin 
transome,  supported  by  tracery  heads  of  a  curious 
character.  The  tracery  of  the  upper  portion  of  the 
bays  is  very  rich  and  delicate. 

The  Cholmondeleigh  chapel  is  separated  from 
the  nave  by  a  screen,  on  which  is  the  following 
inscription  :  u  Orate  pro  bono  statu  Richardi  Choi- 


26         Ancient  Screens  in  Cheshire  and 


mondeleigh  et  Elizabeth  uxoris  ejus  hujus  sacelli 
factores  anno  Domini  Millesimo  quingentesimo 
quartodecimo."  The  construction  is  simple  in 
character,  consisting  of  uprights  and  beams,  the 
bays  being  filled  with  tracery  consisting  of  broad 
ogee  arch ;  the  spandrils  are  filled  in  with  circles 
containing  tracery. 

Middlewich 

These  fine  specimens  of  Jacobean  design1  in 
screen-work  formerly  surrounded  the  Venables 
chapel  at  the  east  end  of  the  north  aisle.  They 
are  now  placed  against  the  north  and  south  sides 
of  the  tower,  which  is  used  as  a  baptistery.  Both  of 
the  shields  set  up  by  peeter  venables,  ano  :  dni 
1632,  display,  above  the  canopy,  the  curious  crest 
of  the  Venables  family,  a  dragon  devouring  a 
child  ; 2  and  each  of  them  commemorates  a  wife  of 
Peter's  father,  Thomas  Venables,  esquire,  Baron 
of  Kinderton,  who  died  in  the  year  1606,  as  do  the 
two  smaller  shields  on  independent  ornaments  at 
the  sides  of  the  larger  one,  which  has  the  date  1632 
upon  its  canopy. 

The  first  wife  was  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Sir 
William  Brereton,  of  Brereton,  knight ;  she  was 
Peter's  mother,  and  she  died  in  1591.3  The  quarter- 
ings  on  this  shield  are:  1.  Venables,  2.  Eccleston, 
3.  .  .  .,4  4.  Golborne,  5.  Moston,  6.  Cotton 
(ancient),  and  7.  Cotton;  impaling:  1.  Brereton,  2. 
Malpas  alias  Egerton,  3.  Malpas,  4.  Egerton,5  5. 
Corbet,  6.  Orreby,  and  7.  Strange. 

1  Reminiscent  of  the  famous  screen  at  Croscombe,  Somerset ;  also 
of  one  at  Trentham,  Staffordshire. 

%  See  Trans.  Hist.  Soc.  Lanes,  and  Chesh.^  Ix.  161,  164,  and  Ixi.  215. 
8  Ormerod's  Hist,  of  Chesk.,  iii.  200. 

*  It  is  difficult  to  say  what  the  three  objects  in  this  quartering  are. 

6  This  quartering  should  be  Argent,  a  lion  rampant  Gules  between 
three  pheons  Sable ;  the  painter  has  mistaken  the  pheons  for  ermine 
spots  and  powdered  the  field  with  them. 


H.  Crossley 


MIDDLEWICH. 


Lancashire  Churches  27 


The  second  wife  of  Thomas  Venables  was  Anne, 
daughter  of  Sir  Cotton  Gargrave,  of  Nostell,  co. 
York;  she  died  in  1634,  having  been  remarried 
to  Sir  Edward  Bushell,  knight.1  In  the  shield 
recording  her  marriage  to  Thomas  Venables  we 
have  the  same  seven  quarterings  for  Venables, 
impaling:  1.  Gargrave,  2.  Otterburn,  3.  Sutton,2 
4.  Nesfield,  5.  Browne,3  and  6.  Welles. 

The  two  small  shields  which  accompany  the  first- 
mentioned  larger  shield  bear  the  plain  coats  of 
(1)  Venables  impaling  Brereton,  and  (2)  Venables 
impaling  Gargrave. 

MOBBERLEY 

On  the  rail  of  this  screen  is  the  following  in- 
scription :  "  In  our  beginning  Gode  us  spede  in 
grace  &  goodnesse.  mccccc  octavo  viginti  die 
Maij  Mayde  by  Mr  Peter  Acton  orate  pro 
anibus  istius  parochise." 

As  at  Astbury,  the  rib  moulding  radiating  from 
the  springing  is  carried  over  the  face  of  the  coving 
panel,  forming  a  similar  design  in  each  of  the  eight 
bays.  In  the  centre  of  each  bay  of  the  coving 
are  four  panels,  each  containing  heraldic  shields  or 
designs,  some  showing  various  coats  of  arms  of  the 
local  families.  The  whole  of  the  rib  mouldings  are 
profusely  ornamented  with  bosses.  The  beam  or 
breastsummer  .unning  along  the  top  of  the  cov- 
ing panel  is  ornamented  with  seventeen  corbels, 
of  which  the  three  centre  ones  are  joined  together 
by  a  narrow  band  enriched  with  quatrefoils  which 
also  runs  round  each  of  the  corbels  and  between 

1  See  Visitation  of  Cheshire,  1613  (Harleian  Society),  p.  241. 
*  In  the  Sutton  quartering  the  crane  should  be  standing  on  a 
tower. 

8  In  the  Browne  quartering  there  should  be  three  lions  passant  in 
bend  between  the  two  engrailed  bendlets. 


28         Ancient  Screens  in  Cheshire  and 


them.  There  is  no  tracery  in  the  upper  part  of 
the  bays  of  the  screen  below  the  coving. 

The  panels  on  the  lower  part  of  the  screen  are 
ornamented  with  an  arcading,  the  upper  part  of 
which  is  very  richly  carved  tracery  work.  The 
mullions  are  well  moulded,  and  on  their  sides  is 
a  running  pattern  of  sunk  tracery-work  which  is 
also  carried  round  the  soffit  of  the  arches.  On 
four  of  the  mullions  are  carved  faces.  On  the 
north  end  of  the  eastward  beam  of  this  loft  is  the 
commencement  of  a  band  of  carving ;  the  design  is 
similar  to  the  running  tracery  on  the  mullions. 

The  details  of  the  designs  in  the  central  panels 
of  the  bays  of  the  coving  are  as  follows  : 

1.  The  four  panels  are  filled  with  tracery  of  varied  design  in 
circles. 

2.  Similar  to  the  first. 

3.  Two  panels  tracery,  and  two  with  monograms  of  Jesus  and 
Mary. 

4.  One  panel  is  filled  with  the  arms  of  Brereton  (two  bars), 
surrounded  by  branches  of  briar  springing  out  of  a  tun;  two 
panels  having  the  monograms  of  Jesus  and  Mary,  and  the  fourth 
being  filled  with  tracery. 

N  A 

5.  One  panel  has  the  initials  I  j  R,  another  M  j  R,  a  third  bears 

a  shield  of  the  arms  of  Ashton  (a  mullet)  surrounded  by  five 
letters  A,  while  the  fourth  is  filled  with  tracery. 

The  design  of  bays  6  to  8  is  slightly  different 
from  the  preceding,  the  subjects  being  enclosed  in 
ovals  instead  of  circles. 

6.  One  panel  has  the  sacred  monogram  IHS ;  another  has 
the  arms  of  Troutbeck  (a  fleur-de-lys  between  three  negroes' 
heads) ;  a  third,  those  of  Leycester  (a  fesse  between  three  fleurs- 
de-lys) ;  the  fourth  contains  a  shield  of  two  chevronels  with  a 
canton  charged  with  three  objects  that  may  be  escallops,  but 
look  like  garbs  reversed.1 


1  It  is  difficult  to  identify  this  curious  coat.  It  may  perhaps  be  a 
variant  of  Mobberley.  The  Mobberleys  varied  the  charge  on  their 
canton  ;  it  was  sometimes  a  cross-crosslet-fitchy,  sometimes  a  cross- 
patonce,  and  sometimes  a  mullet. 


MOBBERLEY. 
Detail  of  Coving  Panel  (First  Bay). 


MOBBERLEY  SCREEN. 
Detail  of  Coving  Panel  (Fourth  Bay). 


Lancashire  Churches 


29 


7.  The  panels  are  filled  with  oak  leaves  in  three  rows,  vine 
and  grapes,  acorns,  and  the  initial  M  surrounded  with  trefoils. 

8.  One  panel  contains  the  arms  of  Massey  of  Dunham 
(quarterly,  in  the  first  quarter  a  lion  passant) ;  the  second  shows 
England  and  France  modern  quarterly ; 1  a  third  has  the  arms  of 
Massey  as  above,  with  the  addition  of  an  estoile  of  six  rays  in 
the  fourth  quarter ; 2  the  fourth  panel,  from  which  all  tracery  has 
gone,  seems  to  have  had  an  ornamental  M  on  it. 

The  roof  immediately  above  the  screen  has  been 
enriched  with  a  little  more  elaborate  bosses  and 
carvings;3  these  enrichments  are  comparatively  rare. 

The  tower  screen,  of  Jacobean  design,  has  the 
following  inscription  :  "  John  Bageley  and  Henery 
Burges,  church- wardens,  1683." 

The  following  appeared  in  the  Manchester 
Guardian  of  8th  June  1889  : 

"  Mobberley  church,  which  has  been  closed  for  nearly  a  year, 
was  reopened  by  the  Bishop  of  Chester  yesterday.  The  work  of 
restoration  has  been  confined  entirely  to  the  chancel,  funds  not 
admitting  of  the  restoration  of  the  entire  edifice.  The  cost  of 
the  work  has  been  some  ^2000,  of  which  the  Mallory  family 
(of  whom  Rev.  H.  Leigh  Mallory  is  the  present  rector)  con- 
tributed 1000  guineas.  One  satisfactory  feature  of  the  restora- 
tion is  that  all  the  features  of  the  ancient  building  are  retained, 
including  the  elaborately  carved  oak  screen  at  the  entrance  to  the 
chancel.    Mr.  J.  S.  Crowther  was  the  architect." 

Moreton  Old  Hall 

The  oratory  chapel  adjoins  the  gate-house  on  the 
left  side.  It  occupies  a  portion  of  the  eastern  side 
of  the  quadrangle,  and  is  said  to  be  the  oldest  part 
of  the  building.  It  stands  east  and  west  and  is  of 
one  story  only,  and  measures  16  feet  either  way. 

1  It  is  very  unusual  to  find  France  in  the  second  and  third  quarters. 
There  were  the  Royal  Arms  (but  with  France  in  the  first  and  fourth, 
and  England  in  the  second  and  third  quarters)  from  1405  to  1603. 

2  "Massy  de  Ellerborowe"  in  Bucklow  Hundred  is  said  to  have 
borne  :  Quarterly,  Gules  and  Or,  in  the  first  a  lion  passant  Argent,  and 
in  the  second  a  mullet  Sable  (Heraldic  MS.,  temp.  Eliz.). 

3  Other  examples  are  at  Swimbridge,  Lapford,  and  Hennock, 
Devonshire;  Pulham  St.  Mary,  Norfolk;  and  Sherborne  Minster. 


30         Ancient  Screens  in  Cheshire  and 

The  chancel  is  12  feet  long  and  9  feet  wide.  The 
screen,  which  is  of  a  very  simple  character,  consist- 
ing of  substantial  moulded  uprights  and  top  beam, 
goes  up  to  the  ceiling,  and  through  it  may  be  seen 
on  the  chancel  walls  very  old  texts  in  black  letter, 
which  are  now  almost  illegible.  The  gate  in  this 
screen  is  modern,  and  some  of  the  moulded  uprights 
have  been  renewed. 

Nantwich 

The  parish  church  has  a  low  stone  screen  of 
Perpendicular  design,  which  is  joined  to  the  stone 
pulpit  of  the  same  date.  Mr.  Bligh  Bond,  in  his 
work  on  Screens  with  Dom  Bede  Camm,  says  in  the 
chapter  on  the  Ambo  in  connection  with  Screens  : 
"This  early  form,  in  which  the  ambo  or  tribune  is 
seen  upon  a  low  screen,  is  very  rare  in  later  times, 
but  is  not  altogether  unknown  even  in  this  country: 
witness  the  instance  surviving  at  Nantwich." 

NORTHENDEN 

The  screen-work  consists  of  north  and  south 
parclose  screens.  These  were  taken  out  of  the 
old  church,  and  date  from  1527.  The  first  and 
tenth  verses  of  the  fifty-first  Psalm  (in  Latin)  are 
inscribed  on  them.  The  screens  contain  a  number 
of  fret  panels  which  are  quite  out  of  harmony 
with  the  older  work. 

Plemstall 

Sir  Stephen  Glynne  says  that  "  a  rectilinear  wood 
screen  is  placed  between  the  nave  and  chancel." 
His  editor  notes  that  it  is  continued  across  this  north 
aisle  and  encloses  the  Trafford  chapel.  This  oak 
screen,  which  is  rather  in  want  of  cleaning  and 


« 


( 


Lancashire  Churches 


3i 


repair,  is  thought  to  date  about  1500.  The  con- 
struction is  very  simple — of  moulded  uprights  carry- 
ing a  moulded  beam  without  enrichment.  The 
heads  of  the  bays  are  enriched  with  some  carved 
tracery,  the  lower  panels  being  filled  solid  and 
relieved  with  cusped  perforations  and  raised  orna- 
ment. 

Lower  Peover 

This  church  contains,  on  the  south  side  of  the 
chancel,  a  screen  of  the  Jacobean  period.  It  con- 
sists of  four  bays,  of  which  the  two  centre  ones 
open  as  folding-doors.  Each  bay  is  divided  by  a 
centre  rail  into  two  panels ;  these  are  filled  with 
turned  and  moulded  balusters.  The  screen  is  sur- 
mounted by  large  ball  ornaments. 

Prestbury 

There  is  here  a  unique  example  of  a  Georgian 
screen,  erected  originally  by  the  Leghs  of  Adlington 
in  1740  to  enclose  their  chapel.  Sir  Gilbert  Scott 
in  his  restoration  of  Prestbury  church  refitted  it  as 
a  chancel  screen.  It  bears  carved  on  it  the  crest 
of  the  Leghs  and  the  coat  of  arms  of  Venables. 
This  coat  (Azure  two  bars  Argent)  was  sometimes 
used  by  the  Leghs  of  Adlington. 

The  screen  is  a  simple  open  one,  formed  by  two 
square  fluted  columns  carrying  a  cornice  and  pedi- 
ment. The  facia  of  the  cornice  is  relieved  by 
festooned  ornament  and  the  pediment  surmounted 
by  three  cinerary  urns. 

Runcorn 

Sir  Stephen  Glynne  mentions  in  this  church, 
between  the  nave  and  the  chancel,  "a  fine  wood 
screen,  with  tracery  and  niches,  and  bands  of  vine 
leaves  and  flowers."  It  disappeared  when  the 
church  was  rebuilt  in  1849. 


32  Ancient  Screens  in  Cheshii'e  and 


SlDDINGTON 

In  the  first  edition  of  Ormerod's  Cheshire  (1819) 
Siddington  church  screen  is  described  as  "  formerly 
painted  and  gilt,"  and  "carved  in  a  style  of  rich- 
ness which  greatly  exceeds  what  would  be  expected 
from  the  exterior  of  the  building."  In  the  later 
edition  we  read  :  "If  the  same  screen,  it  is  now 
reduced  by  the  carpenter's  adze  to  a  plainness 
which  leaves  no  trace  of  its  former  beauty."  There 
is  some  error  in  this  remark.1 

The  screen  remains  one  of  great  beauty.  There 
is  a  wide  central  bay,  with  three  smaller  bays  on 
either  side  and  end  bays  of  slightly  varying  character. 
The  heads  are  filled  with  perforated  tracery  of 
refined  and  delicate  character.  The  lower  part  of 
the  screen,  below  a  heavy  rail,  is  formed  of  a  number 
of  panels  each  pierced  with  three  cusped  openings. 

The  screen  is  returned  at  each  end,  and  exami- 
nation leads  one  to  think  that  it  may  have  been 
originally  in  some  other  church,  for  it  seems  older 
than  the  present  building. 

Stoak 

Ormerod's  Cheshire  (18 19)  says  that  the  chancel 
of  this  church  was  divided  from  the  nave  by  a 
mutilated  oaken  screen,  over  which  there  had  been 
a  rood-loft,  decorated  with  lines  of  running  foliage 
and  Gothic  ornaments  well  executed  in  oak.  All 
seems  to  have  been  taken  out  of  the  church  at  the 
restoration  and  part  rebuilding  of  the  church  in 
1827. 

Tarporley 

There  is  a  modern  wrought-iron  screen  here, 
erected  in  1890,  from  which  hang  a  very  fine  pair 

1  The  editor  may  have  referred  to  the  upper  part  of  the  screen. 
The  upper  part  of  the  present  beam  is  apparently  modern. 


Lancashire  Churches 


33 


of  sixteenth  century  iron- work  gates,  brought 
from  Sienna  in  Italy  by  the  late  Countess  of 
Haddington  in  1889.  Why  the  old  screen  was 
removed  about  1750  by  a  rector  who  was  "a  good 
antiquary,"  with  the  approbation  of  another  zealous 
antiquary,  the  Rev.  William  Cole,  may  be  found 
in  a  later  part  of  the  present  volume. 

Weaverham 

All  that  remains  of  the  screen  here  are  a  few 
fragments,  some  of  which  form  the  back  of  a 
settle.  One  fragment  contains  the  portraits  of 
a  man  and  woman  of  the  time  of  Henry  VIII, 
enclosed  in  sunk  tracery-work. 

WlLMSLOW 

A  little  of  the  chancel  screen  is  original,  viz. 
the  uprights  and  fenestrations,  but  the  vaulting  and 
rood-loft  are  from  the  designs  of  the  late  G.  F. 
Bodley,  R.A.  Extensive  alteration  and  repairs 
were  made  in  the  screens  of  the  north  and  south 
aisles  during  the  third  and  last  restoration.  There 
is  an  interesting  carved  vine  enrichment  along  the 
beam  of  the  north  aisle  screen. 

Witton 

The  notes  to  Sir  Stephen  Glynne  mention  that 
"the  wood  screen  in  the  south  aisle  was  taken 
down  in  1890." 

PART  II 

The  more  important  Lancashire  screens  have 
been  well  described  and  illustrated  by  Mr.  Aymer 
Vallance  in  his  chapter  on  the  subject  in  Memorials 

c 


34 


Ancient  Screens  in  Cheshire  and 


of  Old  Lancashire.  Hence  there  is  less  need  to 
give  lengthy  descriptions  here. 

Bolton 

Sir  Stephen  Glynne,  in  his  Notes  on  Lancashire 
Churches,  says  Bolton-le- Moors  church  had  pos- 
sessed a  rood-loft  screen  and  parcloses.  The  latter 
in  his  time  (1843)  existed,  but  were  considerably 
mutilated.  These  all  disappeared  when  the  church 
was  rebuilt  in  1866. 

Cartmel 

The  beautiful  screen-work  of  Renaissance  design, 
erected  in  the  old  priory  church  at  the  cost  of 
George  Preston  of  Holker  in  1618,  has  been  very 
fully  described  by  Canon  Cooper  in  the  Society's 
Transactions  for  1899.  Mr.  Vallance  has  described 
it  in  the  work  named  above,  and  Mr.  F.  Bond  in 
Screens  and  Galleries  also  mentions  it.  It  is  said 
to  have  been  the  work  of  foreign  carvers. 

Cartmel  Fell 

Mr.  Vallance  says  this  remote  parish  has  the  dis- 
tinction of  possessing  the  sole  remaining  mediaeval 
crucifix  figure  in  Lancashire  and,  with  one  excep- 
tion, in  all  England.    The  arms  are  missing. 

Claughton  in  Lonsdale 

The  late  Canon  Grenside  said  that  this  church 
possessed  a  pre- Reformation  screen  which  dis- 
appeared when  the  church  was  rebuilt.1 

1  Whitaker  in  his  History  of  Richmondshire,  ii.  244,  refers  to  the 
rood-loft. 


H.  E.  Illingworth. 


CARTMEL. 
Screen  and  detail. 


Lancashire  Churches 


35 


COLNE 

In  15 1 5  this  church  was  partly  rebuilt,  and  it  is 
probable  that  the  screen  was  built  then.  At  present 
the  old  screen  is  in  two  parts,  forming  north  and 
south  chapels.  The  old  work  is  considerably  patched 
up,  but  a  good  many  of  the  uprights,  most  of  the 
enrichment,  and  the  rail  of  the  lower  panels  are 
original,  as  is  most  of  the  tracery.  The  carving  of 
the  enrichment  is  of  wavy  lines  of  the  vine,  and  the 
design  of  the  tracery  is  choice  and  varied  ;  on  the 
rail  are  bunches  of  grapes  and  leaves  of  the  vine. 
This  work  was  restored  in  1891,  when  the  chancel 
screen  was  built. 

Croston 

Sir  Stephen  Glynne  in  1859  noticed  a  Jacobean 
screen  in  place  of  the  rood  screen.  The  church 
was  restored  in  1866-7,  an^  tne  screen  has  now 
disappeared. 

Farnworth  in  Widnes 

There  is  a  seventeenth-century  screen  here  under 
the  tower,  which  until  a  few  years  back  was  boarded 
up  and  covered  with  plaster.  In  the  south  tran- 
sept (or  Cuerdley  chapel),  up  to  the  restoration  of 
1894,  stood  the  base  of  a  screen  with  linen  pattern 
panels.  These  are  now  inserted  in  the  front  of  the 
altar.  The  Bold  chapel  had  originally  an  oaken 
screen,  which  was  turned  out  at  some  restoration 
and  replaced  by  one  of  pitch-pine. 

Goosnargh 

Colonel  Fish  wick  in  his  History  of  Goosnargh 
says  : 

"  The  Middleton  chapel  is  separated  from  the  nave  by  an  oak 
screen.  .  .  .  On  the  screen  is  carved  A.  R.  1622,  on  the  south 


36         Ancient  Screens  in  Cheshire  and 


side,  evidently  Alexander  Rigby  the  Parliamentarian,  who  lived  at 
Middleton  Hall;  and  on  the  west  side,  T.  R.  1 721,  no  doubt 
another  member  of  the  Rigby  family." 

The  oak  screen  under  the  belfry  room  has 
carved  upon  it  R.  C,  J.  L.,  J.  J.,  J.  W.,  with  the 
date  1678.  These  initials  commemorate  Rd. 
Charnock,  John  Lancaster,  James  Johnson,  and 
John  Wareing,  churchwardens. 

Both  screens  are  typical  designs  of  their  period. 
The  former  consists  of  an  open  balustrade  carrying 
a  top  rail,  on  which  is  carved  a  scroll  ornamenta- 
tion, surmounted  by  turned  knobs.  The  belfry 
screen  is  a  glazed  enclosure  having  detail  of 
similar  character. 

Halsall 

The  old  rood-staircase  entered  from  the  door  in 
the  south  aisle  is  interesting.  The  deep  responds 
indicate  a  wide  rood-loft. 

Huyton 

In  the  Transactions  of  this  Society  for  1882  there 
are  some  notes  on  the  history  of  Huyton  by  F.  T. 
Turton,  who,  referring  to  the  church  screen,  corrects 
RAckmaris  Perpendicular  English  Niches  and  Screens 
as  follows : 

"  Rickman  .  .  .  evidently  has  not  read  the  inscription  in  its 
entirety.  It  says  :  '  pvld  downe  in  time  of  rebellion  J*  set 

UP  AND  REPARED   BY  JOHN  HARRINGTON,  ESQUIRE,  ^  FECIT 

richard  halsall.'  All  the  work  was  done  area  1460-1470,  and 
was  merely,  as  the  inscription  says,  repaired  in  1663.  I  am  sorry 
to  say  the  work  is  not  now  in  the  church,  having  been  taken 
down  during  the  recent  alterations." 

This  last  sentence  refers  to  the  inscription. 
This  beautiful  screen  is  fully  described  by  Mr. 
Vallance.  The  arms  over  the  doorway  are  those 
of  the  Harrington  and  Ireland  families,  who  inter- 
married. 


Lancashire  Churches 


37 


Lancaster 

In  Bai&es's  Lancashire 1  is  the  following  :  "The 
screen  anciently  placed  before  the  large  and  light 
east  window  is  now  at  Capernwray  Hall." 

Manchester 

It  would  be  impossible  to  find  anything  finer  in 
the  way  of  description  of  the  screens  here  than 
what  Mr.  Aymer  Vallance  has  written  in  his  article 
in  the  work  already  cited,  but  the  following  brief 
extract  must  suffice : 

"  The  present  great  screen  or  pulpitum  itself  was,  it  is  practically 
certain,  the  work  of  James  Stanley,  warden  from  1485  to  1509. 
There  being  no  other  screen  to  westwards  of  it  across  the  nave, 
the  pulpitum  fulfilled  a  double  office,  its  own  and  that  of  rood 
screen  as  well.  It  is  highly  probable  if  not  absolutely  cer- 
tain that,  being  constructed  of  timber,  as  is  the  case  of  the 
more  famous  pulpitum  in  Hexham  Abbey,  like  the  latter  its 
parallel  walls  were  as  solid  to  look  at  as  any  stone  pulpitum. 
The  passage  through  them  from  west  to  east  was  walled  (as  at 
Hexham)  with  wooden  partitions  having  a  doorway  right  and 
left  in  the  middle  of  each  side  of  the  passage,  an  arrangement 
that  lasted  until  18 15,  after  which  it  was  abolished.  The  floor 
of  the  loft  above,  carried  over  the  space  between  the  two  support- 
ing walls,  overhung  on  groined  vaulting  beyond  the  face  of  the 
western  screen  wall.  The  arched  forms  in  the  latter  and  its  solid 
spandrils  prove  that  this  must  have  been  so.  Contrariwise  on  the 
eastern  or  quire  side  there  is  no  room  to  allow  it  to  project 
(except  possibly  in  the  middle),  because  of  the  return  stalls  with 
their  lofty  canopies  backing  close  up  against  it.  These  provided 
the  requisite  protection  at  the  top  towards  the  quire,  but  towards 
the  nave  a  parapet  would  be  required,  where  is  now  a  modern 
one  for  which  Sir  Gilbert  Scott  is  responsible.  .  .  . 

M  The  pulpitum  was  taken  down  in  1858  and  deposited  in  the 
south  quire  ambulatory  against  the  back  of  the  stalls,  where 
it  remained  a  period  of  eight  years.  Sir  Gilbert  Scott  was 
chosen  by  the  authorities  in  1864  to  conduct  the  second  restora- 
tion (the  first  had  taken  place  in  1815),  and  in  1872  John  Owen 
records  in  his  diary :  ' Excavation  made  on  the  south  side  of 


1  Ed.  Jesse  Lee,  p.  520. 


38         Ancient  Screens  in  Cheshire  and 

the  north  turret  to  form  foundation  for  the  old  rood  screen  and 
organ ;  the  rood  screen,  having  been  knocking  about  for  some 
years,  has  been  partly  renewed,  and  is  now  being  reinstated  in 
its  old  position,  but  I  think  slightly  in  advance  of  its  former  site.' 
The  pulpitum  now  set  up  was  in  many  respects  not  the  same  as 
that  which  had  been  taken  down  in  1864.  For  in  the  meantime 
the  mediaeval  joinery  work  was  taken  to  pieces,  not  solely  that 
defects  might  be  made  good  with  fresh  material,  but  that  the 
structure  might  be  modelled  under  the  architect's  direction.  Sir 
Gilbert  Scott's  scheme  included  the  reinstallation  of  the  great 
organ  conjointly  with  the  pulpitum  (this  organ  had  been  in  the 
western  end  of  the  nave  since  1828).  The  grievous  pity  is  that 
in  carrying  it  into  effect  he  could  not  refrain  from  tampering 
with  the  design  of  the  screen  itself." 

The  Lady  chapel  screen  is  certainly  the  most 
interesting  piece  of  screen-work  in  the  cathedral 
except  perhaps  the  choir  screen.  It  has  a  canopied 
top  with  an  enriched  cove  and  several  statues  on 
the  mullions.  This  screen  is  illustrated  and  de- 
scribed by  Mr.  Vallance,  and  the  design  is  unique 
in  our  district.  There  are  other  screens  at  the 
chapel  of  St.  John  Baptist  (or  Derby  chapel)  and 
the  Jesus  chapel. 

Melling  in  Lonsdale 

Half  of  the  panelled  division  of  the  door  of  the 
ancient  screen  is  preserved  in  the  church. 

MlDDLETON 

The  screen  is  divided  into  ten  bays.  In  the 
lower  part  of  each  is  a  panel,  about  24  inches  square, 
covered  with  coats  of  arms,  the  doorway  in  the 
centre  being  two  of  the  bays.  The  groining  and 
top  of  the  screen  are  modern.  On  the  north  side 
of  the  choir  is  a  little  ancient  screen-work  of  con- 
ventional design.  The  choir  screen  and  its  heraldry 
have  been  very  fully  described  by  Mr.  Vallance. 

The  late  Rev.  E.  F.  Letts,  a  well-known  Man- 


Lancashire  Churches 


39 


chester  antiquary,  made  a  thorough  examination 
of  the  panels,  and  reported  :  "  On  the  whole  the 
screen  seems  to  me  the  work  of  artists  of  the 
fifteenth  century,  and  that  some  of  the  original 
panels  represented  the  alliances  of  the  Asshetons 
with  neighbouring  families ;  that  these  panels,  from 
their  large  surfaces,  warped,  cracked,  got  worm- 
eaten  and  rotten,  and  that  probably  about  1820- 
1840  a  carver  was  called  in  to  replace  the  old 
work  who  was  profoundly  ignorant  of  heraldry. 
He  copied  the  decayed  panels  as  he  saw  them. 
When  they  were  clear  he  copied  them  well ;  when 
they  were  gone  altogether  he  invented  charges."  1 

Ormskirk 

A  Jacobean  screen  surrounds  the  Derby  chapel. 
Prestwich 

Sir  Stephen  Glynne  mentions  "  a  little  wood 
screen-work,  but  poor."    This  has  disappeared. 

Rochester 

There  is  a  little  very  much  patched  screen-work 
round  the  Hoghton  chapel  in  the  south  aisle. 
Mr.  Waddington  in  his  Sketches  on  Calder  and 
Ribble  says  that  an  oaken  screen  once  occupied  the 
chancel  archway.  He  adds  that  the  tympanum  of 
the  arch  was  fitted  with  a  painting  of  the  royal 
arms,  which  painting  was  still  in  the  church  in 
1869.  The  tympanum  disappeared  in  the  restora- 
tion of  the  church  about  1870. 

1  Quoted  by  the  late  John  Dean  in  Historic  Middle  ton. 


40         Ancient  Screens  in  Cheshire  and 


Rochdale 

Sir  Stephen  Glynne  mentions  a  late  Perpendicular 
screen  between  the  nave  and  chancel ;  also  parclose 
screens  on  the  north  and  south  sides.  Mr.  Vallance 
says  the  rood  screen  vanished  in  1854-55  at  the 
hands  of  a  pretended  restoring  architect. 

The  Victoria  History  of  Lancashire  says  that 
the  screen  at  the  east  end  of  the  north  aisle  and 
that  at  the  north  end  of  the  Trinity  chapel  are  old, 
and  perhaps  belong  to  the  restoration  of  1558. 

Sefton 

A  very  good  account  of  this  screen  appeared  in 
the  Society's  Transactions  some  years  back  by  the 
late  Rev.  G.  W.  Wall ;  then  Mr.  Vallance  has  also 
a  fine  description,  and  there  is  another  in  Mr. 
Caroe  and  Miss  Gordon's  Sefton. 

Stidd 

In  this  ancient  chapel  there  is  a  beam  across  the 
eastern  end  of  the  nave  with  the  sacred  monogram 
on  it,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  this  was  the 
rood  beam  which  either  carried  the  rood  or  sup- 
ported it  in  some  way.  Such  a  beam  is  unique  in 
this  district. 

A  rather  curious  low  screen  of  a  simple  colonnade 
type,  which  probably  dates  from  the  seventeenth 
century,  divides  the  sanctuary  from  the  rest  of  the 
church. 

Upholland 

Sir  Stephen  Glynne  mentions  the  trace  of  a  stone 
screen  in  the  first  bay  of  the  nave  from  the  east. 
This  was  merely  a  low  wall  dividing  the  sanctuary 
from  the  side  chapels.    The  traces  are  there  still. 


Lancashire  Churches 


4* 


WlGAN 

The  rood-loft,  Bridgeman  states,1  was  removed 
by  the  Elizabethan  rector,  Fleetwood.  The  rood- 
stairs  still  remain.  A  fine  screen  has  just  been 
erected. 

Whalley 

The  chancel  screen  here  dates  from  the  fifteenth 
century,  and  was  repaired  in  1864.  Above  it  and 
upon  it  was  the  rood-loft,  which  was  broad  enough 
to  carry  an  altar.  The  uprights,  rail,  and  lower 
panels  seem  to  be  the  only  ancient  parts  of  this 
screen.  The  rail  is  enriched  with  flowing  orna- 
ment, and  the  lower  panels  are  decorated  with 
cusped  traceried  heads. 

The  south  aisle  screen  is  of  an  open  character  of 
Perpendicular  design,  the  upper  portion  being  filled 
with  tracery,  and  the  lower  portion  panelled  with 
traceried  heads  ;  the  rail  is  moulded  and  decorated 
with  a  carved  cresting.  The  main  piers  are  em- 
phasized with  buttresses,  finishing  with  carved 
finials.2 

Another  screen,  forming  the  enclosure  called 
u  St.  Anton's  Cage,"  is  an  elaborate  piece  of  work, 
the  upper  part  consisting  of  a  number  of  carved 
uprights  carrying  a  cornice  of  a  carved  and  perfo- 
rated facia.  The  lower  part  is  formed  of  moulded 
framing  with  raised  panels.  The  uprights  and 
some  of  the  lower  panels  are  very  richly  carved. 

Winwick 

In  the  vestry,  Mr.  Vallance  says  that,  attached 
to  the  wall,  like  a  frieze,  is  preserved  a  valuable 

1  In  his  Church  and  Manor  of  Wigan  (Chetham  Society). 

2  This  south  aisle  screen,  also  called  the  "  Mediaeval  Pew,"  has  a 
very  interesting  history,  as  has  St.  Anton's  Cage  ;  both  stories  are 
given  in  the  Rev.  S.  T.  Taylor  Taswell's  book  on  Whalley  Church 
and  Abbey. 


42    Screens  in  Cheshire  and  Lancashire  Churches 

relic  of  the  ancient  rood-loft,  being  a  large  section 
of  the  breastsummer  or  beam  that  formed  the  lowest 
member  of  the  projecting  front.1  There  is  nothing 
else  like  this  in  Lancashire,  but  another  example 
in  situ  at  Mobberley  bears  some  similarity,  and  the 
design  of  both  may  possibly  have  been  the  outcome 
of  some  local  school  or  tradition. 

I  have  to  thank  many  members  of  this  Society 
for  their  very  kind  help.  I  am  especially  indebted 
to  Mr.  F.  H.  Crossley  of  Knutsford  for  the  great 
amount  of  trouble  he  has  taken  on  my  behalf,  and 
for  his  kindness  in  permitting  the  use  of  his  fine 
photographs ;  to  the  Rev.  W.  A.  Wickham  and 
Mr.  E.  Percy  Hinde,  A.R.I. B. A.,  for  their  assist- 
ance generally;  also  to  Mr.  H.  E.  Illingworth, 
A.R.I. B. A.,  Mr.  Rowbotham,  Mr.  Aymer  Val- 
lance,  the  Ven.  Archdeacon  Barber,  and  Mr.  S.  L. 
Coulthurst  for  photographs  and  notes,  and  to  Mr. 
J.  Paul  Rylands,  F.S.A.,  for  his  help  with  the 
heraldry. 


1  Its  preservation  is  due  to  the  late  James  E.  Worsley,  F.S.A. 


CHURCH  DISCIPLINE  AFTER  THE 
RESTORATION 


By  W.  Fergus  son  Irvine,  M.A.y  F.S.A 

Read  7th  December  191 1. 


THE  series  of  volumes  somewhat  loosely  called 
Bishops'  Visitation  Books,  the  contents  of 
three  of  which  we  are  considering  to-night,  are,  to 
be  exact,  the  court  books  kept  by  the  registrar  of 
the  diocese  of  Chester,  in  which  were  entered  the 
charges  and  sentences  in  the  voluntary  suits  before 
the  chancellor  in  the  Consistory  Court,  arising  out 
of  the  bishop's  triennial  visitations. 

The  extent  of  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Consistory 
Court  until  the  beginning  of  the  last  century  was 
very  wide.  The  chancellor  united  in  himself  two 
offices :  first  that  of  vicar-general,  secondly  that 
of  official  principal.  The  duty  of  the  chancellor  as 
official  was  to  hear  so-called  contentious  cases — dis- 
putes concerning  wills,  legacies,  marriages,  slander, 
&c.  As  vicar-general  he  exercised  a  purely  spiritual 
jurisdiction  by  the  authority  and  under  the  direction 
of  the  bishop,  in  what  were  called  voluntary,  as 
opposed  to  contentious  cases  :  such  as  granting  of 
institutions,  licenses  to  medical  practitioners  and 
schoolmasters,  probates  of  wills,  letters  of  adminis- 
tration, sequestration  of  vacant  benefices,  visitation, 
correction  of  manners,  with  a  general  inspection  of 
men  and  things  in  order  to  the  preserving  of 
discipline  and  good  government  in  the  Church. 
And  it  is  with  these  that  we  have  to  do  to-night. 


44     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 

The  duties  of  the  chancellor  in  this  capacity 
resembled  in  theory  those  of  the  censores  morum 
under  the  Roman  Republic.  The  spiritual  arm 
strove  to  deal  with  sins  as  the  secular  did  with 
crimes,  and  penalties  were  meted  out  to  offenders 
guilty  of  a  breach  of  the  moral  law  in  the  same 
way  that  punishment  overtook  those  who  brought 
themselves  under  the  hands  of  the  king's  justices. 
Most  of  the  cases  which  came  before  the  chancellor 
were  the  result  of  the  visitation  of  the  diocese ; 
but  the  court  was  open  throughout  the  year,  and 
those  on  whom  the  duty  devolved  could,  and  did, 
bring  to  the  notice  of  the  chancellor  at  any  time 
acts  of  moral  delinquency,  whether  a  visitation  were 
in  progress  or  not. 

The  method  of  procedure  was  as  follows.  At 
the  commencement  of  the  year  in  which  the  general 
visitation  was  to  take  place  the  bishop  issued  a 
charge  to  all  the  clergy  of  the  diocese,  church- 
wardens, and  swornmen  or  sidesmen,  together  with 
a  series  of  questions.  These  inquiries  touched  on 
all  points  over  which  the  spiritual  courts  had  juris- 
diction, and  were  intended  to  serve  as  guides  to 
the  clergy  and  churchwardens  in  their  duty  of  pre- 
senting offenders  to  the  bishop.  The  first  half  of 
the  articles  dealt  mainly  with  the  clergy  and  their 
behaviour  and  opinions,  and  to  these  the  church- 
wardens replied.  After  these  came  the  questions 
which  referred  to  matters  over  which  the  church- 
wardens had  control,  and  it  may  be  presumed  that 
the  incumbent  here  had  the  chief  word.  Then  fol- 
lowed the  questions  relating  to  the  general  behaviour 
and  character  of  the  parishioners ;  to  these  the 
incumbent  and  churchwardens  replied,  and  woeful 
was  the  list  of  offenders  usually  sent  in.  Lest  there 
should  be  any  supineness  in  making  presentments, 
there  was  always  the  rural  dean  to  keep  them  up 
to  the  mark  ;  and  perhaps  with  still  greater  effective- 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  45 

ness  the  public  somner  or  summoner,  who,  like  the 
common  informer  of  a  hundred  years  ago,  spent  his 
time  spying  into  other  men's  lives,  and  watching 
for  any  signs  of  moral  weakness. 

The  replies  having  been  sent  in,  the  chancellor 
cited  or  summoned  to  appear  before  him  in  the 
Consistory  Court  on  a  given  day  those  whose 
names  were  mentioned  in  the  presentments,  and 
proceeded  against  them  in  a  way  that  in  some 
respects  outrages  our  sense  of  justice.  The  unfor- 
tunate person  charged  with  a  misdemeanour  was 
liable  to  be  examined  on  the  notorious  "  ex-officio 
oath,"  by  which  he  was  practically  made  to  give 
evidence  against  himself.  This  oath  was  partially 
rendered  illegal  by  an  Act  of  Parliament  dated 
1 66 1.  Whether  it  was  that  those  presented  felt 
it  to  be  of  little  use  to  fight  the  charges,  or  that 
only  those  who  were  unquestionably  guilty  were 
presented,  it  is  difficult  to  say ;  but  it  is  a  curious 
fact  that  in  something  like  ninety  per  cent,  of  the 
cases  where  an  appearance  was  entered  the  defend- 
ants pleaded  guilty. 

The  cases  that  came  up  as  a  result  of  the  visita- 
tion may  be  put  into  three  classes.  First,  charges 
against  rectors  and  churchwardens  for  some  negli- 
gence or  insufficiency,  such  as  the  omission  of 
catechising,  the  lack  of  a  volume  of  Homilies  or 
a  register  book,  or  the  dilapidation  of  some  build- 
ing. This  class  was  merely  visited  with  a  command 
to  repair  the  omission  in  future,  and  was,  as  a  rule, 
not  a  very  serious  affair.  Secondly,  charges  against 
the  moral  character,  such  as  sins  of  drunkenness 
and  acts  of  unchasteness ;  these  formed  the  bulk 
of  the  cases,  and  in  every  instance  where  a  con- 
viction was  obtained  were  visited  with  severe 
sentences  of  penance.  Thirdly,  charges  of  recus- 
ancy or  wilful  absence  from  Holy  Communion. 

As  an  example  of  the  first  class  may  be  given 


46      Chtirch  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 

from  the  Visitation  which  took  place  in  1665  : 
"  Broniborough :  against  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of 
Chester  for  suffering  the  Chancell  to  be  out  of 
repair  and  like  to  fall  downe  and  ruine  the  rest  of 
the  Church,  and  for  not  providing  a  Minister." 
Or  during  the  same  visitation,  the  charge  brought 
against  "  James  Bryne  and  Hugh  Worrall,  wardens  " 
[of  Shotwick],  "for  want  of  a  Carpett  for  the  Com- 
munion table,  alsoe  a  Cup,  Chalice,  and  Flagon  for 
the  Sacrament  which  were  lost  in  the  late  Warrs, 
alsoe  a  book  of  Homilies,  a  booke  of  Canons,  a 
table  of  Degrees,  a  blacke  herse  cloth  and  lockes 
to  the  Chest."  They  appeared,  and  were  ordered 
to  provide  the  aforesaid  and  to  certify  on  the  27th 
March  next  at  Chester. 

Cases  of  the  second  class — offences  against 
morality — met  with  a  sterner  treatment.  Some- 
thing like  fifty  per  cent,  of  those  who  were  pre- 
sented did  not  appear  when  cited ;  these  were 
excommunicated  for  contumacy.  Out  of  the 
remaining  fifty  per  cent.,  nearly  all  at  once 
acknowledged  guilt  and  were  assigned  penances, 
all  of  the  one  type,  ranging  in  severity  from 
merely  confessing  their  fault  in  the  presence  of 
the  incumbent  and  churchwardens  of  their  parish, 
to  doing  the  same,  clothed  in  a  white  linen  sheet 
and  holding  a  lighted  taper,  in  the  presence  of  the 
whole  congregation,  after  the  reading  of  the  gospel, 
on  four  Sundays  consecutively,  in  four  different  but 
contiguous  parish  churches,  usually  beginning  in  the 
parish  church  of  the  penitent. 

The  lightest  penance  was  not  often  given,  and 
was  usually  kept  for  such  comparatively  trivial  faults 
as  speaking  disrespectfully  to  the  churchwardens  or 
vicar.  In  by  far  the  largest  proportion  of  the  cases, 
the  punishments  were  only  differentiated  by  being 
for  one,  two,  three,  or  four  Sundays.  These 
penances  appear  to  us  intolerable,  and  it  is  no 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  47 

matter  of  surprise  that  a  system  of  commuting  the 
penance  into  a  money  fine  was  in  vogue ;  so  that 
if  a  man  were  of  any  position  and  property,  he 
could  by  paying  a  sum  of  money  escape  the  dis- 
comforts of  public  confession.  The  money  thus 
obtained  was  paid  to  the  incumbent  and  church- 
wardens of  the  delinquent's  parish  for  the  purpose 
of  being  distributed  amongst  the  poor;  though 
sometimes  the  objects  varied,  the  money  being 
occasionally  applied  to  the  mending  of  a  highway 
or  bridge.  Thus  at  Thurstaston  on  the  27th 
February  1665,  Robert  Wilson  and  Margaret 
Young  were  charged,  and  Wilson  appeared  and 
confessed  his  sin — whereupon  the  Bishop  ac- 
cepted the  confession  and  enjoined  penance. 
Afterwards  on  the  humble  petition  of  the  said 
Robert,  the  penance  for  himself  and  the  said 
Margaret  was  commuted  into  a  money  payment, 
viz.  £\  to  pious  uses,  &c. 

One  naturally  wonders  how  it  was  possible  to 
induce  people  to  go  through  penances,  and  in  what 
way  refractory  sinners  could  be  dealt  with.  The 
process,  in  theory,  was  simplicity  itself.  If  the 
certificate  that  the  penance  had  been  done  was  not 
forthcoming  at  the  required  date,  the  defendant 
was  promptly  excommunicated.  Excommunication, 
to  our  mind,  is  merely  represented  by  loss  of  the 
means  of  grace  and  the  Church's  favour,  a  loss 
which  would  not  appear  serious  to  a  hardened 
sinner.  At  the  time  which  we  are  considering, 
however,  the  unpleasant  consequences  did  not  by 
any  means  cease  here.  Excommunication  was  no 
light  thing  when  it  was  equivalent  to  outlawry.  It 
meant  not  only  to  be  cut  off  from  all  holy  offices, 
but  that  no  one  might  speak  to  the  excommunicated 
person,  trade  with  him,  or  show  him  the  barest 
courtesy  ;  and  if  his  friends  dared  to  assist  him  in 
any  way,  they  risked  coming  under  the  same  ban. 


48     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 

Nor  was  this  all ;  should  these  things  not  move 
him,  and  if  after  forty  days  he  still  refused  to 
submit  himself  to  the  bishop,  the  secular  arm  was 
called  in,  and  a  writ  of  de  excommunicato  capiendo 
might  be  sued  out  in  the  Court  of  Chancery,  and 
the  person  of  the  delinquent  seized,  and  he  might 
be  thrown  into  prison  until  he  did  submit. 

Such  being  in  theory  the  fate  of  any  excom- 
municated person,  the  long  list  of  excommunications 
in  the  Court  Book  is  noteworthy  ;  all  non-appear- 
ance upon  citation — and,  as  just  stated,  this  took 
place  in  something  like  half  of  the  cases — was  at 
once  met  with  this  sentence.  We  learn,  however, 
from  the  Report  of  the  Lancashire  Preachers  in 
1590,  printed  in  vol.  xcvi.  of  the  Chetham  Society's 
Publications,  that  the  expense  of  calling  in  the 
secular  arm  was  so  great,  the  process  so  tedious, 
and  the  number  of  excommunicated  so  large,  that 
the  law  was  practically  inoperative.  The  result 
was  that  the  only  effect  of  the  sentence,  in  the 
majority  of  cases,  was  to  deprive  the  offender  of 
the  use  of  the  sacraments  and  divine  worship. 
This,  however,  until  the  passing  of  the  Act  of 
Indulgence  would  entail  further  serious  practical 
inconveniences ;  absence  from  divine  worship  was 
itself  punished  by  a  fine  of  is.  for  each  offence; 
and  in  the  Act  of  Uniformity  (1  Eliz.,  cap.  2)  no 
exception  was  made  for  persons  unable  to  be  present 
owing  to  excommunication. 

The  visitations  which  have  been  selected  for  con- 
sideration to-night,  viz.  those  for  1665,  1668,  and 
1 67 1,  are  of  special  interest,  owing  to  the  fact  that 
during  the  decade  immediately  following  the  Re- 
storation, the  Church  of  England  was  making  great 
efforts  to  put  her  affairs  in  order,  after  the  chaotic 
period  of  1644  to  1660.  In  the  Act  of  Uniformity 
of  1662  a  great  step  was  taken  in  the  direction 
of  regularising  the  matter  of  orders,  and  one  of  its 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  49 

effects  was  to  render  It  impossible  for  any  of  the 
clergy  to  hold  benefices  unless  they  had  been 
episcopally  ordained.  Throughout  these  visitations 
provision  is  made  for  the  exhibition  of  letters  of 
ordination  by  the  incumbents  of  the  various  parishes, 
and  it  will  be  noticed  that  even  in  1668  there  were 
still  a  few  clergy,  chiefly  curates  in  outlying 
chapelries,  about  whose  orders  doubt  seems  to  have 
existed.  A  further  feature  of  interest  in  these 
documents  is  the  stress  which  is  laid  on  the  pre- 
senting of  all  parishioners  guilty  of  attending  con- 
venticles, and  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  point  out 
of  what  importance  these  volumes  are  to  all 
students  of  the  early  history  of  Nonconformity. 
They  contain  long  lists  of  Nonconformists,  includ- 
ing many  Quakers,  Anabaptists,  and  "Papists"  as 
they  were  called,  and  a  large  number  of  others 
who  are  simply  grouped  under  the  name  of  Dis- 
senters. It  is  sometimes  difficult  to  disentangle 
the  various  lists,  but  in  the  main  the  religious 
persuasion  is  clear.  There  is  another  class  of  case 
which  bears  on  the  same  point,  and  that  is  of  those 
who  refused  to  pay  their  church  lays  or  taxes ; 
these  lists  no  doubt  include  a  number  of  Quakers, 
a  body  who  for  centuries  stubbornly  refused  to  pay 
the  church  rate.  It  is  interesting  to  notice  that  the 
largest  proportion  of  those  who  were  presented  for 
not  attending  their  parish  churches  were  Roman 
Catholics,  and,  as  one  would  naturally  expect,  these 
were  to  be  found  mostly  in  South-west  Lancashire. 

A  number  of  references  are  also  made  to  those 
whom  the  documents  describe  as  "silenced  ministers," 
i.e.  those  who  were  ejected  from  their  benefices 
under  the  Act  of  Uniformity,  and  it  is  possible 
from  these  volumes  to  add  considerably  to  the 
biographical  details  contained  in  Calamy  of  the 
various  early  Nonconformist  ministers  in  Lanca- 
shire and  Cheshire. 

D 


50    Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 


TYPICAL  SELECTIONS. 

Note. — The  following  extracts  from  the  various  Visitation  Books  are 
given  as  specimens  of  its  records,  being  complete  so  far  as  each  deanery  is 
concerned.  The  first  page  or  two  of  the  1 671  record  is  copied  exactly  from 
the  original ;  in  other  cases  a  translation  of  the  Latin  fragments  is  printed. 

1665. — Deanery  of  WorralL 

In  the  Consistory  Court,  within  the  Cathedral  Church  of 
Chester,  on  Friday,  22nd  December  1665,  between  the  hours 
of  9  a.m.  and  11  a.m.,  before  John  Dwight  and  Philip  Flanner, 
Bachelors  of  Laws,  in  the  Primary  Visitation  of  George,  Bishop 
of  Chester,  &c. 

Burton. — Against  Ralph  Lightfoot  and  William  Barrowe, 
wardens,  for  want  of  poor  man's  box  and  blacke  hearse  cloth. 
Dismissed,  &c.  Against  Edward  Massey  of  Puddington,  Esquire, 
and  his  wife  for  Recusants,  and  haveing  a  Scholemaster  in  his 
house  who  comes  not  to  Church.  Against  Edward  Steel,  school- 
master, for  non-appearance.  He  appeared  and  produced  his 
licence  and  was  dismissed.  Against  Margaret  Hamond,  mid- 
wife, for  the  same. 

Bebbington. — Against  William  Chantrell  and  his  wife,  Robert 
Knowles  of  Bebbington  Superior  and  his  wife  for  Recusants, 
the  said  Knowles  haueinge  a  childe  of  above  a  yeare  old  un- 
christened.  Against  Margaret  Hoole  and  Thomas  Currey, 
fornicators;  formerly  presented  to  the  Dean  Rurall,  but  never 
punished.    James  Hughson,  schoolmester  there. 

Backford. — Against  Robert  Southorne  of  Backford  for  not 
receivinge  the  Communion.  Against  Ellis  Hayes  for  the  same 
and  for  not  coming  to  Church.  Against  Mary  Ashton  and 
Elizabeth  Glasier  for  Recusants. 

Bidston. — Against  John  Rathbone  and  William  Bennett  for 
not  paying  their  Easter  dues.  Against  William  Kempe  and 
Richard  Harrison  for  the  same.  Against  Robert  Wilson, 
William  Lea,  Richard  Harrison,  and  Richard  Pemberton  for 
absenting  themselves  from  Divine  service.  On  which  day 
Robert  Wilson  appeared  and  was  warned  to  attend  Church  and 
hear  Divine  Service,  and  so  to  certify  27th  March  next. 

Brombrough. — Against  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Chester 
for  suffering  the  Chancell  to  be  out  of  repair  and  like  to  fall 
downe  and  mine  the  rest  of  the  Church ;  and  not  providing  a 
Minister. 

Eastham. — Against  Alexander  Grimshall,  Alice  Lerpoole, 
popish  recusants.  [Later  note :  "  The  Minister  is  dead,  and  the 
Citation  was  not  executed."]  Against  [blank]  Poole  of  Poole, 
Esquire,  and  his  wife,  Thomas  Palliser  and  Richard  Greenhalgh, 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  51 

William  Shurlicar  and  his  wife,  for  not  coming  to  Church. 
Against  John  Dutton,  schoolmaster,  not  licenced  nor  appeared. 
Heswell. — Deest. 

Neston. — Against  Thomas  More,  one  of  the  wardens,  because 
he  did  not  appear  at  the  Visitation.  [Side  note :  "  This  Cita- 
tion was  not  executed  in  regarde  of  the  plague  being  there, 
though  all  except  those  in  the  towne  had  notice  of  it."]  He 
appeared  and  submitted,  &c,  and  is  to  exhibit  presentment 
within  15  days.  is.  Later,  on  the  17th  January  i665[-6],  he 
gave  in  the  presentment  and  was  dismissed.  Against  Darcy 
Savage,  Esquire,  Thomas  Naylor,  James  Green,  William  Cleaton 
and  his  wife,  for  papists.  Against  William  Taylor,  John  Robin- 
son, and  Daniel  Hill  for  plowing  upon  Holy  Thursday.  On 
which  day  they  appeared  and  put  in  certificates  from  the  Vicar 
and  one  of  the  Wardens  of  their  conformity  and  promise  of  refor- 
mation, &c. ;  whereupon  they  were  warned.  All  three  dismissed. 
8s.  Against  Thomas  Axon  and  John  Madocke  for  hireing 
horses  on  the  Lord's  day.  Against  Jane  Dowker  and  Agnes 
Yates,  midwives,  not  licenced. 

Overchurch. — Against  Arthur  Lowe,  warden,  for  that  there 
is  noe  blacke  herse  cloth,  but  they  are  put  to  borrow  upon 
occasions.  He  appeared  and  was  ordered  to  provide  a  cloth 
[pannus],  and  to  certify  by  the  27th  March  next.  2s.  6d.  On 
wh:  day  he  appeared  and  certified,  and  is  dismissed.  4d. 
Against  Sir  William  Stanley,  Baronett,  for  that  there  is  noe 
Minister  there,  in  regard  he  keepeth  the  means  in  his  hands 
that  the  Minister  should  have. 

Stoke. — Against  Thomas  Meacocke  [erased],  Peter  Lightfoot 
and  John  Lightfoot,  assistant  wardens,  for  non-appearance. 
Appeared,  &c.  Against  Catherine  Wright,  of  Stoke,  for  not 
coming  to  Church.  She  appeared  and  produced  a  certificate  from 
the  warden  to  show  that  she  attends  Church  diligently  when  able  : 
therefore  dismissed.  2s.  6d.  Against  John  Williams  and  Sarah 
Dalamore,  alias  Williams,  his  pretended  wife,  whoe  were  unlaw- 
fully marryed.  On  which  day  a  certificate  was  put  in  of  banns 
publication  in  Burton  Church  on  3  days,  &c,  where  they  used 
to  live,  and  that  they  were  lawfully  married ;  therefore  dismissed. 
Poor. 

Shotwicke. — Against  James  Bryne  and  Hugh  Worrall, 
wardens,  for  want  of  a  Carpett  for  the  Communion  table,  alsoe 
a  Cup  Cilice  [sic],  and  Flagon  for  the  Sacrament,  which  were 
lost  in  the  late  Warrs;  alsoe  a  booke  of  homilies,  booke  of 
Canons,  table  of  degrees,  a  blacke  herse  cloth,  and  lockes  to 
the  chests.  Appeared,  and  are  to  provide  the  aforesaid  and  to 
certify  27  March  next  at  Chester.  2s.  6d.  Against  Robert 
Chamberlaine  for  a  common  fame  of  living  in  Adultery  with 
Elizabeth  Johnson.    On  which  day  Chamberlaine  appeared  and 


52     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 

denied  the  said  crime,  nevertheless  he  offered  to  submit  himself 
to  his  purgation,  wherefore  the  Bishop  enjoined  him,  &c.,  and 
warned  him  to  produce  [?]  a  schedule  certifying  same,  27  March 
next.  Nil.  Against  William  Cotton,  chirurgun,  for  non-appear- 
ance. Appeared  and  produced  same  [i.e.  his  licence],  and  dis- 
missed. Against  Mary  Hickocke  and  Mary  Davies,  midwives, 
for  the  same.  They  appeared  and  produced  same,  &c.  Against 
the  old  wardens,  for  not  giveing  in  their  accompts.  Against  John 
Robinson  for  not  paying  the  clerk's  wages.  Appeared,  and  was 
warned  to  certify  as  to  the  payment  &c.  27  March  next.  Nothing. 
And  James  Bruen,  one  of  the  wardens,  offered  to  pay  the  said 
fees  to  the  Parish  Clerk,  and  so  dismissed.  Poor. 

Thurstaston. — Against  Robert  Wilson  and  Margaret  Young, 
fornicators.  On  27th  Feb.  1665 [-6],  in  the  room  of  Mr.  Flanner 
in  Le  Abbey  Court  before  the  same  Mr.  Flanner  and  Mr.  Dwight, 
commissaries  of  the  Lord  Bishop,  the  said  Wilson  appeared  for 
himself  and  the  woman  and  confessed  the  sin,  &c.  Wherefore 
the  Bishop  accepted  the  confession,  &c,  and  enjoined  them 
condign  penance,  &c.  Afterwards  on  the  humble  petition  of  the 
said  Robert,  being  vehemently  penitent,  the  penance  for  himself 
and  the  said  Margaret  was  commuted  into  a  sum  of  money 
(viz.  £4)  to  pious  use,  &c.    Money  paid  to  Mr.  Dwight,  &c. 

1  os.  Against  Robert  Filpott  and  Mary  his  wife  for  not  being 
at  Divine  service  these  three  months.  They  appeared  by  Alex- 
ander Boniman,  and  are  to  attend  Church,  &c,  and  to  certify  at 
Chester  27  March  next.    5s.  4d. 

Wallasey. — Against  George  Pemberton  and  John  Bayley, 
wardens,  for  want  of  a  table  of  degrees,  &c,  and  a  Terrier. 
Appeared,  warned  to  certify,  &c.  2s.  6d.  Against  Alexander 
Fetherston,  clerk,  Rector  there,  for  that  upon  the  informacion 
to  the  Churchw.  of  Mr.  Edwd.  Lyderland,  Ambrose  Sharpies, 
and  Tho.  Griffeth,  he  is  a  person  of  a  scandalous  life  and  con- 
versation since  he  made  his  purgacion.  He  appeared  and  is 
respited  until  6th  Feb.  next.  2s.  8d.  He  appeared  on  the 
6th  Feb.  and  denied  the  presentment,  and  at  the  order  of  the 
Bishop  upon  satisfaction  given  (as  the  said  Fetherston  asserts 
on  the  word  of  a  priest),  he  was  dismissed  by  Mr.  Flanner. 

2  s.  8d.  Against  Catherine,  the  wife  of  Robert  Stanney,  for  a 
suspected  recusant.  Against  Henry  Robinson,  schoolmaster, 
not  licenced.  On  which  day  he  appeared  and  produced  his 
licence,  dated  28  Aug.  last,  and  so  was  dismissed.  Against  John 
ap  Shone  for  the  commonly  reputed  father  of  a  bastard  child 
begotten  upon  the  body  of  Ellen  Jones,  now  or  late  of  West 
Kirby  parish,  which  she  confest  before  Justice  Glegg.  On  which 
day  the  said  Shone  appeared  and  confessed  his  sin,  and  the 
Bishop  enjoined  his  penance,  &c,  and  to  certify  27  March  next 
at  Chester.    2Sr   Later,  on  5th  April  1666,  the  Schedule  with 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  53 


certificate  was  put  in,  &c,  from  Robt.  Hill,  &c,  and  dismissed. 
2s.  6d.  Against  Anne  Wilson  and  Joan  Young,  midwives,  for 
non-appearance.    They  appeared  by  their  husbands. 

Woodchurch. — Against  Samuel  Pemberton  and  George  Cot- 
tingham  for  that  the  Church  is  not  perfectly  repaired.  They 
want  a  Cover  for  the  font,  a  herse  cloth,  and  Terrier  of  the 
Glebe.  They  appeared  and  are  to  certify  as  to  the  provision  of 
a  presentment,  27  March  next.  2s.  8d.  [Attached  is  a  slip  of 
paper :  "  Here  is  a  true  count  of  leaue  [glebe]  land  belonging  to 
Woodchurch.  Three-quarters  of  one  acre  of  land  lying  one  the 
east  side  of  the  Church  and  hafe  of  one  acre  lying  one  the  west, 
and  this  is  all  we  know  of  in  the  parish."]  [Note  in  another 
hand  :  "  Woodchurch.  This  was  left  with  Christ:  for  me,  March 
26th  1666."]  Against  Thomas  Ireland  for  a  negligent  comer  to 
Church  both  Sundays  and  holydays.  He  appeared  and  stated 
that  he  was  indebted,  and  therefore  durst  not  come  to  Church 
for  fear  of  arrest.  Warned  to  attend  in  future.  2s.  6d.  Against 
Robert  Chantrill  and  his  wife,  and  David  [blank]  and  their 
families  for  Recusants.  Against  the  Executors  of  the  will  or 
occupiers  of  the  goods  of  Thomas  Dalamore,  late  of  Thingwall, 
decd.,  for  administering  without  authority.  Against  Robert 
Hickocke  for  detaining  4s.  a  yeare  in  his  hands  due  to  the 
poore  for  many  yeares  past.  Against  Thomas  Leen,  Thomas 
Goldson  [later,  "dead"],  and  Margaret  Moseley,  for  teaching 
petty  schooles,  and  have  no  licence. 

West  Kirby. — Against  Robert  Ensdall,  one  of  the  wardens' 
assistants,  for  non-appearance.  Warned  first,  second,  and  third 
time  to  take  the  oath  of  office,  &c.  ...[?]  Against  Henry  Linaker 
of  Great  Meolse,  for  a  notorious  blasphemer  and  swearer,  and 
never  comes  to  Church.  Against  Anne,  wife  of  Edward  Glegg, 
Esq.,  and  Margery  Whitley,  widow,  for  that  since  Easter  last 
they  have  not  been  present  at  any  part  of  divine  service,  though 
they  come  to  sermons.  Whitley  appeared  and  confessed,  and 
was  warned  to  attend  Church  and  to  certify  by  6  Feb.  next 
at  Chester.  Nil.  6th  Feb.  no  sort  of  appearance ;  excom- 
municated. Anne  Glegg  appeared  by  Alexander  Boniman.  She 
is  to  attend  Church  during  the  time  of  Divine  Service  and  to 
listen  to  the  public  preaching,  and  to  certify  27  March  next. 
2S.  6d.  Against  Dorcas,  wife  of  Robert  White,  and  John  Rad- 
cliffe  and  Mary  his  wife,  for  the  same.  Neither  hath  she  been 
at  Church  these  3  yeares,  and  her  youngest  child  is  unbaptized, 
nor  did  she  come  to  returne  publique  thankes,  &c.  Dorcas 
White  and  John  Radcliffe  appeared,  and  John  confessed  that 
his  childe  is  aboute  a  twelve  month  old  and  not  yet  christened, 
whereupon  he  is  warned  to  cause  his  child  to  be  christened 
according  to  the  Liturgie,  and  also  the  said  Dorcas  is  to  attend 
Church  and  to  certify  by  the  6th  Feb.  next  at  Chester.  Nil. 


54     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 


[Later:  "6th  Feb.  1665-6,  for  contempt  [?],  &c,  the  said 
Radcliffe  is  declared  excommunicate.  Nevertheless  the  said 
Dorcas  is  to  certify  by  the  27th  March  next.  2s.  8d."]  Against 
John  Hogg  and  John  Harrison,  wardens,  for  that  the  bells  want 
wheeles  and  ropes.  Against  John  ap  Shone  and  Ellen  Jones, 
fornicators. 

1670. — Deanery  of  WirralL 

On  Friday,  26th  August  1670,  in  the  Parish  Church  of  Eastham, 
&c,  before  William  Bispham,  clerk,  M.A.  and  Canon  of  the 
Cathedral  Church  of  Chester,  as  surrogate  for  the  Ven.  John 
Wainwright,  clerk,  Doctor  of  Laws,  Official  Principal  of  the 
Consistory  Court  of  Chester,  also  Rural  Dean  of  the  Rural 
Deanery  of  Wirrall,  judicially  seated  between  the  hours  of  9  and 
11  a.m.,  in  the  presence  of  me  Wm.  Willson,  Notary  Public,  &c. 

On  the  29th  Oct.  1670,  the  Chancellor  decreed  excom- 
municate all  who  did  not  appear. 

At  which  hour,  day,  and  place,  Peter  Dawson,  apparitor,  put 
in  all  citations,  &c.  duly  served,  &c. 

Backford. — Against  Mris.  Joan  Birkenhed  of  Backford,  Mris. 
Mary  Ashton,  Mris.  Elizabeth  Glazieur,  Papists. 

Bebbington. — Against  William  Chantrill  and  Alice  his  wife, 
Robert  Knowles  and  Anne  his  wife,  Papists. 

Bidston. — All  well. 

Burton. — Against  Edward  Massey  of  Puddington,  Esq., 
Richard  Massey,  gent.,  William  Pallister  and  his  wife,  Papist 
Recusants. 

Bromeorough. — Against  [blank]  for  that  the  Chancell  is  in 
decay. 

Eastham. — Against  James  Poole,  Esq.  [later:  "dead"],  and 
Mary  his  wife,  Thomas  Moores,  Anne  Lucas,  Thomas  Pallister, 
Ellen  Bostocke,  Elizabeth  Chester,  Ellen  Shurleker,  Alexander 
Grimshall,  Ellen  Dean,  Papist  recusants. 

Heswall. — All  well. 

Neston. — Against  Darcye  Sauage,  Esq.  [later :  "  dead "], 
[blank]  Cleaton,  gent.,  and  James  Green,  all  of  Leighton,  and 
Thomas  Morgan  of  Gt.  Neston,  Recusants. 

Overchurch. — All  well. 

Shotwicke. — Against  [blank]  that  the  Chancell  windows  is 
oute  of  repaire. 
Stoake. — Deest. 
Thurstington. — Omnia  bene. 
Wallazey. — Omnia  bene. 

Woodchurch. — Against  Robert  Chantrell  and  Mary  his  wife, 
and  Anne,  wife  of  Thomas  Sherlocke,  Papist  recusants. 
West  Kirkbye. — Deest. 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  55 


1 6  7 1 . — Ces trice  Decanaf. 1 

Eccl'ia  Sc/e  Brigett^e. — Officium  d'ni  merum  con.  Joh'em 
Plumb  et  Joh'em  Pary  for  standing  excommunicate.  Con. 
Magrm.  Joh'em  Brett  for  not  paying  his  Churchlay  being  2s.  6d. 
Dimiss'  prout  in  Act'  E.  73. 

Sci.  Johannis. — Con.  Guil'mum  Wilson,  jun.  et  Joh'em 
Mottershed,  gard',  for  that  both  the  steeple  and  church  porch 
are  in  decay.  Alsoe  for  that  there's  noe  Rayles  before  the  Com- 
munion table,  nor  linen  cloth,  &c,  and  Carpett,  &c.  Quo  die 
comparuerunt  et  moniti,  &c.  [Later:  23  Nov.  1672,  gard'  cer- 
tified de  omnibus  peract'  [?] ;  unde  dimiss'  2s.  6d.]  Con. 
Magram.  [blank]  Wirden,  [blank]  ux'  Thomae  Ashton,  Annam 
uxorem  Dcoris.  Burlace,  Jacobum  Lune  [?  Lucie],  et  [blank] 
eius  ux',  Rich  :  Smith  et  eius  ux',  Noncommunicantes,  28  Jan'rii 
167 1.  Compar'  dca.  Magra.  Anna  Burlace  per  Thomam 
Bramall  eius  servum,  qui  produxit  Instr'm.  sub  sigillo  manueli 
Henrici  Vicecomitis  Cornbury,  Camerarii  Reginae  Ma'tis  families, 
geren'  dat'  180  Jan'rii  1669,  quod  dca.  Anna  jurata  et  admissa 
fuit  in  numerum  feminarum  siue  servan'  dcae.  Reginae  Ma'tis 
et  hend'  et  gaudend'  omnia  Previlegia  eid'  omc'  [in  margin] 
Spectan' ;  unde  ex  directione  D'ni  Episcopi  dimittitur.  2s.  6d. 
Con.  Guil'mum  Bathoe  et  eius  ux',  Rich:  Humpston  et'  eius  ux', 
Thomam  Mason  et  eius  ux',  pro  consimili.  Con.  Thomam 
Orange,  ludim'rum  non  licentiatum.  Con.  Rich'um  Smith  for 
practiseinge  Phisicke  and  chirurgery  without  licence. 

Beat/e  Marine. — Con.  Praenobilem  Dm.  Comitem  Salopiae  for 
not  repairing  Troutbeckes  Chappell.  [Side  note  :  "  Rich.  Taylor 
nunc  hujus  parociae  et  nuper  de  Wellington  parociae  de  Hanmer 
v:  ib'm."]  Con.  Nich'um  Stevenson,  CI',  Rectorem  ib'm,  for  not 
repairing  the  chancell,  2s.  6d.  Quo  die  comparuit.  Con. 
Edwd'm  Starkey  et  Guil'm  Lloyd,  gard',  for  that  St.  Katherines 
Isle  is  out  of  repaire.  2s.  6d.  Quo  die  comparuerunt.  Con. 
Guil'm  Spann  et  eius  ux',  Ellenam  Vnderwood,  Nathanum  Mad- 
docke  et  eius  ux',  et  Sara  Gorse  for  not  coming  to  church. 

Sci.  Martini. — Con.  Aliciam  Oliver  for  bearing  a  bastard 
childe,  and  Mr.  Starkey,  a  prisioner  in  the  Castle,  is  the  reputed 
father  of  it.  Con.  Thomam  Clarke,  CI',  Minister  ib'm,  non 
licentiatum.  Dimiss'.  Con.  Rad'um  Houlbrooke  for  not 
coming  to  devine  service.  Con.  Edwardum  Ellis  and  Joh'em 
Halwood,  pro  consimili.  Quo  die  comparuit  dcus.  Halwood  et 
cum  monicione  dimiss'.  Nil. 

Sci.  Michaelis. — Con.  Hen'um  Williams  nuper  gard'  ib'm  in 
non  comparend'  in  visitatione.  Con.  Magram.  Hesteram  Price, 
a  strainger  in  this  parish  and  confesseth  she  is  a  papist. 


1  Visitacio  tenta  fuit  tertio  Junii,  1671. 


56     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 


Sci.  Oliwe. — Con.  Thomam  Coe  unum  Assistan'  veterum  in 
non  comparend'  in  Vis'ne.  Quo  die  comparuit  jurat'  est  et  sub- 
scripsit  p'n'tant.  [?]  et  dimiss'.  is. 

Sci.  Oswaldi. — Con.  Decanum  et  Cap'lum  Cestr'  for  not 
repairing  the  Leads  soe  that  the  parishioners  cannot  sitt  drye. 
And  for  not  repairing  the  south  window.  Con.  Magram.  Mariam 
Fitzwilliams,  Rad'um  Hulton  eius  famulum  Seth  Mort  gen.  et 
[blank]  eius  uxor',  Papistes  Recusan'.  Con.  Joh'en  Carden  et 
eius  ux',  Rich'um  Cookes  et  eius  ux',  et  Joh'em  Prichard  for  not 
coming  to  Church.  Con.  [blank]  uxorem  Hen'ci  Gowens  et 
[blank]  Davenport  pro  consimili  et  Quakers  and  the  said  Daven- 
port for  not  bringing  his  childe  to  be  christened. 

Sci.  Petri. — Con.  Edwardum  Morgan  et  [eius  ux'.  erased] 
Franciscam  Worth ington  alias  Morgan  eius  ux'  pretensam  for 
living  together  as  man  and  wife,  and  are  either  unmarryed  or  not 
lawfully  marryed,  and  for  Quakers,  and  not  christening  his 
children.  Con.  Rich'um  Adams  (qui  fuit  in  Hibernia),  gard' 
vet',  et  Thomam  Minshall,  in  non  comparendo  in  Vis'ne,  &c. 

Sacrae  Trinitatis. — Con.  Thomam  Denson  for  a  common 
swearer.  Con.  Rich'um  Harpur  for  calling  the  Churchwardens 
Rogues,  because  they  presented  him  formerly.  Con.  D'num 
Petrum  Pindar,  Baronettum,  for  refuseing  to  pay  his  Churchlay, 
being  8s.  [Blank]  die  Junii  1671,  comparuit  d'ctus  D'nus  Petrus 
Pindar  ac  obtulit  et  penes  Reg'rum  dimisit  summam  4s.  pro 
assessamento  p'd'  ad  usum  pred'  ultra  quam  summam  all't  q'd  de 
Jure  non  tenetur  solvere ;  unde  ad  eius  peticionem  d'nus  se  juri 
dimisit,  &c.  2s.  6d.  [Note  in  Sir  Peter's  own  hand  in  visi- 
tation :  "  This  4s.  I  have  rec'd  back  again,  150  Junii  1672,  having 
otherwise  satisfied  the  churchwardens.    Pe.  Pyndar."] 

Barrowe. — Against  William  Hankinson  and  Mary  his  wife, 
Geo.  Edge  and  Jone  his  wife,  Elleanor  Cotgreaue,  widow,  Jane 
Ethill,  spinster,  Margery,  wife  of  John  Sellar,  Henry  Stockton 
and  Mary  Barnet,  for  Quakers  and  excommunicated  persons. 
Against  Rowland  Batteridge  and  his  wife  for  not  coming  to 
church. 

Bruera  Chapel  alias  Churchenheath. — Against  William 
Bordman,  clerk,  Vicar  there,  for  not  coming  every  Sunday  to 
preach  nor  sending  a  Curate.  Against  John  Gough  for  putting 
his  swine  into  the  churchyard,  which  are  very  noysom. 

Christleton. — Against  Geo.  Buckley,  a  churchwarden,  for 
not  appearing  at  the  Visitation,  &c.  Excused.  Against  the 
same  and  Randle  Pulford,  the  other  warden,  for  that  they  want 
three  locks  and  keys  on  the  Chist  for  keeping  Ornaments  of 
the  Church  in,  and  a  blacke  hierse  cloth.  On  which  day  they 
appeared  and  were  admonished,  &c.  2s.  6d.  [Later :  "  7  Sept. 
They  certified  concerning  the  above  and  were  dismissed."] 
Against  Thomas  Weston,  clerk,  Rector  there,  for  that  the  par- 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  57 


sonage  house  is  out  of  repaire.  On  which  day  he  appeared  and 
asserted  that  he  hath  made  provision  for  some  Materialls  for 
repairinge  of  the  Parsonage  House  and  outhouseinge,  which  were 
burnt  in  the  late  warrs  by  Order  from  Prince  Morrice  and  doth 
intends  [sic]  to  proceede  therein.  Whereupon  he  was  ad- 
monished to  repaire  the  premises  and  to  certify,  &c.  2s.  6d. 
Against  William  Hill  and  William  Carter  for  reputed  Quakers 
and  not  coming  to  Church. 

Doddleston. — Against  Mris.  Suzan  Cowley  of  Dodleston 
and  John  Layfield  of  Higher  Kinnerton  for  standing  excom- 
municated. Against  Richard  Wright  and  William  Lache,  sides- 
man, for  not  appearing,  &c.  Appeared  and  took  the  oath, 
is.,  and  Lache  2s.  6d. 

Eccleston. — Against  William  Bispham,  clerk,  Rector,  for  that 
the  parsonage  is  not  in  repaire.  Against  Kenricke  Jones,  clerk, 
Curate,  for  not  exhibiting  his  letters  of  admission  [?].  Against 
Henry  Gardner,  warden,  for  not  appearing,  &c. 

Farndon. — Against  [blank]  Kinaston,  schoolmaster,  for  not 
appearing,  &c.    [Later  :  "  Gone  away."] 

Guilden  Sutton. — Nil. 

Hargreatje  Chapel. — Against  William  Eccles,  warden,  for 
that  the  Chappell  is  out  of  repaire;  they  want  a  cover  for  the 
Font,  a  Carpet  Cloth  and  severall  other  thinges,  a  booke  of 
Canons  and  table  of  degrees,  &c.  [Later  note:  "Mr.  Tho : 
Aldersey  of  Spurstow  in  Bunbury  Parish  is  the  feoffee  to  see 
this  done."  "  190  Dec.  1672.  It  appears  by  the  deed  of 
feoffment  that  the  overplus,  &c,  is  to  goe  only  about  repairs 
and  to  the  poore,  but  there  is  not  soe  much  in  his  hands  as 
to  pay  the  minister  and  schoolmaster;  wherefore  dismissed. 
2s.  6d."] 

Holt. — Against  Thomas  Crew,  gent.,  William  Hughes,  gent., 
and  Anne  his  wife,  Thomas  Ridgeway  and  Martha  his  wife, 
Anne,  wife  of  John  Crew,  Jane  Crew,  Robt.  Dod,  Papists,  &c. 
Against  Roger  Andrews  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  Thomas  Boul- 
ton  and  his  wife,  and  Roger  Jones  for  Quakers.  Against 
Joseph  Powell,  Tho.  Gollinge,  John  Nicholls,  Alexander  Powell 
and  Mary  his  wife,  and  Urian  Weaver  for  not  coming  to  Church 
nor  Sacraments,  &c.  Against  William  Jeffreys,  clerk,  curate,  for 
not  exhibiting  his  admission,  &c.  Against  Charles  Bradshaw 
(8d.),  John  Gibbons  (8d.),  and  Thomas  Lloyd  (iod.),  for  not 
paying  their  Easter  dues  aforesaid.  The  Parish  Clerk  notifies 
receipt  from  Gibbons,  who  is  dismissed  (2s.),  and  also  Bradshaw, 
the  same,  2s.  6d.  Against  John  Edmund  (iod.),  Thomas  Ap 
Robert  (iod.),  and  John  ap  John  Gatlin  (iod.),  for  the  same. 
Edmund  produced  evidence  of  payment,  and  was  dismissed, 
is.  6d.  Against  Thomas  Williams,  warden,  old  sidesman,  for  non- 
appearance.   28  March  1672.    He  was  ill,  and  so  is  dismissed. 


58     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 


Ince. — Nil.  Against  [blank]  Burch,  schoolmaster  there,  for 
non-appearance. 

Plemstall. — Against  Geoffrey  Cheares  and  Robert  Meacocke, 
wardens,  for  that  their  Chist  hath  not  3  lockes  an  wan  [sic]  a 
faire  surplice.  Appeared,  admonished  to  provide  and  to  certify 
before  next  time.    2s.  6d.    Duly  certified,  &c. 

Pulford. — Nil. 

Tarpurley. — Nil.  Against  Michael  Briscall,  schoolmaster  of 
the  Free  School,  for  non-appearance.  [Later:  "  Mr.  Briscall 
certified  as  to  his  licence,  &c."] 

Tarvin. — Against  John  Hignet  and  Anne  his  wife,  and  Anne, 
wife  of  John  Cawley.  Papists,  &c.  Against  John  Waine  and 
Mary  his  wife,  Roger  Rowe,  William  Dentith,  Alice  Walker, 
Ellen  William,  and  John  Clotton,  for  Quakers.  Against  William 
Hewett  and  Richard  Hewett  for  not  coming  to  Church,  being 
excommunicated.  Against  Henry  Brodhurst  of  Kelsall  for  not 
living  with  Isabell  his  wife. 

Thornton. — Against  Richard  Sarrett  of  Elton  and  Elizabeth 
his  wife,  and  Mary  Stevenson  of  Hapsford,  for  reputed  Quakers. 
Against  Thomas  Brereton,  of  Wimbolds  Trafford,  schoolmaster, 
not  licenced. 

Wauerton. — Against  William  Clayton  and  Mary  his  wife, 
Popish  Recusants. 

167 1. — Deanery  of  Worrall. 

Backford. — The  Bishop  against  Mris.  Joan  Birkenhed,  widow, 
Mris.  Elizabeth  Glaziour,  Mris.  Ashton,  widow,  and  George 
Hatch,  Popish  Recusants.  Against  Ellis  Hayes,  webster,  Robert 
Sotherne,  webster,  and  John  Barnes,  wright,  all  of  Backford, 
for  standing  excommunicate.  Against  Hugh  Key  [later:  Abiit\ 
schoolmaster  at  Chorlton,  not  licenced  and  non-communicant. 
Against  Mris.  Mary  Poole  of  Poole  Hall,  widow,  for  that  she 
hath  the  tyeths  of  this  parish  and  allowes  nothing  to  the 
Minister. 

Bebbington. — Against  John  Lunt  and  William  Chantrell 
[later :  Mor?~]  and  his  wife,  excommunicated. 

Bidston. — Against  Jane  Pemberton  of  Moreton,  Popish 
Recusant.  Against  William  Lay  and  Thomas  Lay  of  Moreton, 
and  John  Pemberton  of  the  same,  for  not  coming  to  Church. 
Against  [blank]  Burches,  clerk,  curate  there,  for  not  appearing 
at  the  Visitation.  Exhibited  and  was  dismissed.  Against 
Thomas  Lay  of  Moreton,  schoolmaster,  not  licenced. 

Bromborough. — Nil. 

Burton. — Against  Edward  Massey  of  Puddington,  Esquire, 
and  [blank],  his  wife,  Richard  Massey,  gentleman,  WTilliam 
Lathom,  gentleman,  John  Plaseington,  William  Palliser,  John 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  59 


Gregson,  Richard  Jones,  Anne  Mason,  William  Kelley  and 
Bridget  his  wife,  and  Alice  Parker,  Popish  Recusants.  Against 
the  abovesaid  Edward  Massey,  Esquire,  for  keeping  the  above- 
said  Mr.  John  Plaseington  in  house  to  teach  his  children. 

Eastham. — Against  John  Totty,  old  sidesman,  for  not  appear- 
ing at  the  Visitation.  Afterwards  he  took  the  oath  and  was 
dismissed.  Against  Thomas  Leadbetter  [later:  Abiit\  school- 
master, for  not  entering  at  Visitation.  Against  Thomas  Chol- 
mondeley  of  Vale  Royall,  Esquire,  for  that  the  chancell  is  not 
in  good  repair.  Against  Mris.  Mary  Poole,  widow,  Thomas 
More,  Ellen  Marsh,  Robert  Watt,  [blank]  Shurlaker,  widow, 
John  Shaw  and  his  wife,  John  Orrett,  Richard  Greenough,  Anne 
Lucas,  Richard  Hill  and  his  wife,  Ellen  Bostock,  Elizabeth 
Chester,  Alexander  Grimshall,  Robert  Adams,  Anne  Davies, 
Henry  Stanley  and  his  wife,  Papists.  Adams  appeared  by  John 
Whitehead,  and  is  to  attend  Church  and  to  certify  by  next 
Visitation.  2s.  6d.  17  January  1671-2:  The  same  as  to  the 
said  Stanley  and  his  wife.  2s.  6d.  Against  Rowland  Hunting- 
ton, for  working  upon  Sundays  and  hollidayes.  Appeared  and 
promised  reformation ;  admonished  and  dismissed.  2s.  6d. 
Against  Thomas  Hallwood  and  Joan  Dickenson,  widow,  for  not 
paying  the  Church  lays  of  2s.  gd.  betwixt  them.  2s.  6d.  Both 
dismissed  by  the  Bishop. 

Attached  to  the  page  is  a  letter  addressed,  "  For  his  loveing 
friend,  Mr.  Will:  Wilson,  Register,  present,"  as  follows : 

"  Sr, — Wee  presented  Thomas  Hallwood  and  Widd.  Diccason 
jointly,  and  it  seemes  Thomas  Hallwood  hath  for  some  small 
fees  gott  himselfe  off,  and  this  poor  Widdow  must  lye  altogether 
under  the  lashes  of  your  Cort.  Wee  had  well  considered  with 
our  selves  before  the  presentment  was  drawen,  and  therefore 
thought  it  necessarye  to  present  them  both,  and  if  the  Court 
knew  better  whether  is  in  the  right  before  the  cause  bee  heard, 
it  is  better  that  noe  presentment  shall  be  drawen  than  to  have 
such  irregular  proceedings  which  her  friends  are  resolved  to 
petition  against. — Yors  to  serve  you,  Geo.  Beckett. 

"  Eastham,  March  2,  70." 

A  second  letter  is  as  follows : 

"Wee,  the  Churchwardens  of  Eastham,  doe  hereby  certifie 
under  our  hands  that  the  Presentment  made  against  Richard 
Yates  of  Eastham,  for  working  upon  a  Holy  daye  is  not  true ; 
for  being  at  a  distance  wee  were  mistaken  in  the  person,  neither 
did  wee  see  him  worke  upon  any  such  day  or  any  person  by 
his  command  and  authoritye,  and  therefore  doe  desire  that  the 
Citation  may  bee  of  noe  force  against  him.  Given  under  our 
hands,  this  second  day  of  March,  Annoque  domini  1670. 


"  Eastham. 


(C 


(  £ 


John 
John 


60     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 

Heswall. — Against  William  Robinson  and  Robert  Tottie, 
wardens,  for  that  they  want  a  booke  of  Canons  and  a  booke 
of  Homilies,  and  a  blacke  Heirse  cloth.  They  appeared,  and 
were  admonished  to  provide  them  before  the  Feast  of  St.  Michael 
next.    2s.  6d.  1672. 

Neston. — Against  Mris.  Anne  Savage,  widow  [later :  Morf\ 
Mris.  Jane  Savage,  Robert  Knowles  and  Anne  his  wife,  and 
James  Green,  Papists.  Against  Anne  Knowles  of  Neston  for 
profaning  of  the  Lord's  Day  by  carrying  water  and  doing  other 
worke.  Against  Randle  Mayson,  Moses  [?]  Denson,  and 
Edward  Dean,  sidesmen,  for  not  appearing  at  the  Visitation. 
Appeared  and  took  oath,  &c.  2s. 

Overchurch. — Against  Peter  Bennett,  one  of  the  wardens, 
for  not  appearing  at  the  Visitation.  Excused. 

Shotwicke. — Against  Thomas  Turner,  popish  Recusant. 
Against  Robert  Ball  and  George  Webster,  old  sidesmen  [gard* 
veterum  assista?ites\  non-appearance.    Appeared,  &c. 

Stoke. — Against  John  Janion,  the  same.  Excom.  Against 
Hugh  Brownett  and  George  Woodhead  of  Stoke,  and  Margaret 
Low  of  Widby,  for  new  Recusants.  Against  Roger  Stodard 
[later:  Abiit\  clerk,  Minister  there.  The  Lord  Bishop  on  the 
day  of  Visitation  inhibited  the  said  Stodard  on  account  of  his 
contempt  and  contumacy  in  not  submitting  to  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  Lord  Bishop  and  attending  the  Visitation,  &c. 

Thurstaston. — Against  John  Groome,  clerk,  minister  there, 
for  that  the  Chancell  is  not  in  good  repaire  and  for  keepinge  the 
Register  booke  and  not  suffering  the  Churchwardens  to  have 
a  transcript  to  returne  into  the  Bishop's  Registry.  And  some 
buildings  belonging  to  the  Parsonage  House  is  out  of  repaire. 
He  preacheth  at  Brombrough  one  Sunday  in  a  moneth,  and 
then  neglects  his  own  Church. 

Attached  is  a  letter,  as  follows : 

"Jan.  the  26th,  1671. — These  are  to  certifye  all  persons 
whom  it  may  concerne  (especially  the  R'd.  Father  in  God,  John, 
by  Divine  Providence  Lord  Bishop  in  Chester)  That  our 
Minister,  Mr.  John  Groom's,  hath  repayred  the  Chancell  belong- 
ing to  our  Church  of  Thurstington,  together  with  all  his  other 
Buildings  belonging  to  his  Parsonage ;  and  wee  alsoe  have  the 
Parish  Register  together  with  the  plate  and  the  Church-cloth's 
at  our  disposing  when  necessary;  and  as  for  the  goeinge  to 
Bromborough  onct  a  month  to  the  number  of  six  Sabboth-days, 
and  noe  more,  according  to  the  best  of  our  knowledge,  it  was 
by  the  Consent  of  his  Parishioners  as  wee  by  these  lines  under 
our  Hands  doe  testifye.  "  Thomas  Younge,  his  marke. 

"John  Johnson,  his  mark. 

"This  is  a  true  certificate,  given  under  our  hands  by  us  the 
Church- wardens  of  Thurstington." 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  61 

Against  Lidia  Warton  for  fornication  with  a  certain  Thomas 
Jenkinson,  7  Sept.  1672.  The  said  Thomas  appeared  by  Robt. 
Dawson,  apparitor,  and  confessed,  &c. ;  to  do  penance  in  Thurs- 
taston  and  Neston,  and  to  certify  beffore  next  Court,  &c.  5s. 
23  Nov.  1672  :  They  said  he  was  prest  to  serve  in  the  navye  at 
the  sea.  Against  Robert  Filpott  and  Mary  his  wife  for  standing 
excommunicate.  Against  Peter  Bennett  of  Greasby  for  not  paying 
his  Churchlay  these  two  years,  being  6d.  per  annum.  Dismissed. 

Wallasey. — Nil.  Against  Henry  Robinson,  schoolmaster, 
for  non-appearance. 

West  Kirkby. — Against  John  Litler,  one  of  the  old  wardens, 
and  Robert  Maddock  and  William  Coventrye,  old  sidesmen, 
for  non-appearance.  Appeared,  and  dismissed,  &c.  Against 
John  Chamberlaine,  schoolmaster,  for  not  exhibiting  his  licence. 
13  January  1672-3  :  Because  it  appeared  by  the  cession  [?]  of 
the  said  Chamberlaine  and  the  admission  of  the  last  school- 
master in  this  school,  &c,  so  dismissed. 

Against  John  Litler  and  John  Mollineux,  the  new  wardens, 
for  that  the  bells  were  out  of  order,  and  they  want  a  biere  and 
a  blacke  heirse  cloth.  Appeared,  and  were  admonished,  &c. 
2s.  6d. 

Woodchurch. — Against  William  Anderton,  clerk,  rector  there, 
for  pulling  down  the  fence  betwixt  the  Churchyarde  and  his 
Gleab,  soe  that  his  swine  get  in  and  roote  up  the  graves,  &c. 
And  for  not  paying  his  bordland  tyeths  to  the  Dean  and 
Chapter,  being  xx  li.  per  annum,  and  been  always  paid.  Let  the 
Minister  and  Churchwardens  appear  before  the  Bishop.  Against 
Robert  Chantrell  and  Mary,  his  wife,  Papists. 

1 67 1. — Deanery  of  Warrington. 

Alkar. — Vacat  ecclesia.  Against  Lawrence  Massam,  John 
Sutton,  William  Wright  and  his  wife,  Ellen  Linicar,  widow, 
Thomas  Reynolds  and  his  wife,  Thomas  Wilson,  Elleanor 
Goore,  widow,  Margery  Tickle,  and  Thomas  Tickle,  Popish 
Recusants.  Against  [blank]  Crichley,  clerk,  curate  there,  for 
non-appearance.  Against  Samuel  Rydings,  parish  clerk,  for  the 
same,  but  later  he  exhibited.  Against  Ellen  Speakman,  widow, 
Margaret  Livesay,  widow,  Ellen  Livesey,  widow  [Later :  Morf], 
Alice  Livesey,  Wm.  Prescott  and  Margaret  his  wife,  John  Arnold, 
senior,  John  Tatlock  and  Margaret  his  wife,  Elizabeth  Tatlock, 
widow,  John  Harvey,  William  Brainson,  Margaret  Brainson, 
John  Speakman  and  Dorothy  his  wife,  Anthony  Wetherby  and 
Elizabeth  his  wife,  for  the  same  [Papists].  Against  Richard 
Lovelady  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  Wm.  Warton  and  Elizabeth 
his  wife,  Richard  Formby  and  Anne  his  wife,  Thomas  Formby 
and  [blank]  his  wife,  for  the  same. 


62     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 


Aughton. — Against  Bartholomew  Hesketh,  Esquire,  and  Alice 
his  wife,  Gabriel  Hesketh,  gentleman,  and  Alice  his  wife,  and 
Jane  Reece  of  their  family  [?],  the  same.  Against  Peter  Stanley, 
gentleman,  Edward  Stanley,  gent.,  and  Margaret  his  wife, 
Thomas  Stanley,  gent.,  son  of  the  said  Peter,  William  Tyrer, 
Thomas  Walsh  and  Jane  his  wife,  Richard  Molineux  and  Anne 
his  wife,  Lionel  Buchard  and  Ellen  his  wife,  Thomas  Bowker 
and  Alice  his  wife,  Edward  Williams  and  Jane  his  wife,  for  the 
same.  Against  Thomas  Archer,  Henry  Hesketh,  tailor,  Ellen 
Marter,  widow,  Gauther  Barton  and  Ellenor  his  wife,  Robert 
Guy  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  Anne  Tickle,  widow,  Humphrey 
Morecroft  and  Margaret  his  wife,  Anne  Wheasted,  widow,  Eliza- 
beth, wife  of  William  Hartley,  Jane,  wife  of  William  Harker, 
Anne,  wife  of  John  Horrocks,  for  the  same.  Against  Thomas 
Peet  and  Emlin  his  wife,  Richard  Almond  and  Mary  his  wife, 
Richard  Morecroft,  dyer,  and  Ellen  his  wife,  Alice  Letherbar- 
row,  widow,  Wm.  Parr  and  Jane  his  wife,  for  same.  Against 
Catherine  Molineux,  wife  of  Edward,  Esquire,  Elizabeth,  wife  of 
Robert  Kerfoot,  miller,  for  the  same.  Against  Peter  Westhead 
and  Anne  Bastwell,  widow,  for  Quakers.  Against  John  Dickon- 
son  (8d.),  Henry  Morecroft  (is.  2d.),  Hugh  Prescott  (id.),  for 
not  paying  their  Church  dues  aforesaid.  Against  Nicholas 
Charles  (50!.),  Henry  Lathom  (7d.),  and  Anne  Bastwell  (is.), 
for  the  same.  Against  George  Pye  (3d.),  and  Roger  Letherbar- 
row  (iod.),  for  the  same. 

Astley  Chapel  (Parish  of  Leigh). — Tho.  Crompton,  clerk, 
curate,  did  not  appear.  Against  William  Bradshaw  and  Alice 
his  wife,  Joan  Hindley,  John  Scott,  Ellenor  Holcroft,  Wm. 
Hope  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  Robert  Lithgoe,  William  Lithgoe, 
Ellen  Lithgoe,  Richard  Smith  and  Mary  his  wife,  Papist  Re- 
cusants. 

Billinge  (Par.  of  Wigan). — Deest. 
Burtonwood  (in  Warrington). — Presentment. 
Darbye  Chapel  (Par.  of  Walton). 

Childwall. — Against  William  Challinor  and  William  Whit- 
field, wardens  there,  for  that  they  want  a  Table  of  the  degrees 
of  marriage.  Alsoe  a  booke  of  Homilies.  Appeared,  and  are 
to  provide  and  certify.  2s.  6d.  [later:  "Certified"].  Against 
William  Griffith  for  a  reputed  Quaker,  and  refusing  Communion 
with  the  Church.  Against  William  Lathom,  Richard  Lathom 
and  his  wife,  [blank]  Fazakerley,  widow,  Philip  Parr,  Margaret 
Millar,  James  Challiner  and  his  wife,  Frances,  wife  of  Henry 
Orme,  Samuel  Wright  and  his  wife,  John  Hoole  and  his  wife, 
and  John  Goodall,  Popish  Recusants.  Against  Robert  Wilding 
and  his  wife,  William  Barnes  and  his  wife,  William  Hunt,  John 
Cooke,  gentleman,  and  his  wife,  Elizabeth  Millar,  Roger  Tyrer 
and  his  wife,  William  Pendleton  and  his  wife,  Elizabeth,  wife 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  63 

of  Thomas  Bushell,  for  the  same.  Against  Robert  Quirke  and 
his  wife,  Richard  Quirke,  Margery  Quirke,  James  Allenson  and 
his  wife,  Thomas  Harknes,  Thomas  Stevenson  and  his  wife, 
George  Hulme  and  his  wife,  for  the  same.  Against  George 
Bridge  and  his  wife,  William  Goodall  and  his  wife,  William 
Hulgreave  and  his  wife,  Ellen  Hulgreave,  Ellen  Wainewright, 
Henry  Moonesse  [?]  and  his  wife,  Thomas  Harrison  and  his  wife, 
William  Roughstich  and  his  wife,  John  Cooke  and  his  wife, 
Edward  Almond  and  his  wife,  for  the  same.  Against  Thomas 
Brookes,  Alice  Edwardson,  Thomas  Ryse,  John  Ryse,  Margaret 
Ryse,  Edward  Harrison  and  his  wife,  Hugh  Pilkington  and  his 
wife,  Jane  Challiner,  James  Pilkington,  James  Arrowsmith  and 
his  wife,  and  James  Lawrenson,  for  the  same.  Against  Peter 
Plumpton  and  his  wife,  John  Hey  and  his  wife,  [blank]  Wain- 
wright,  widow,  Thomas  Fisher  and  his  wife,  Henry  Dwarihouse 
and  his  wife,  Margaret  Plumb,  Jane  Haward,  and  Thomas  Lake. 
Against  William  Allenson  and  his  wife,  William  Plumb  and  his 
wife,  John  Dwarihouse  and  his  wife,  William  Dwarihouse  and 
his  wife,  Thomas  Fisher,  senior,  Thomas  Williamson,  Thomas 
Fazakerley,  Edward  Fazakerley  and  his  wife,  Popish  Recusants. 
Against  Isabella  Smith,  Thomas  Hitchmough  and  his  wife,  Henry 
Hale  and  his  wife,  Thomas  Tatlocke  and  his  wife,  Alice  Whit- 
field, Edward  Woolley,  Ellen  Taylor,  Edward  Ballard,  Anne 
Miller,  John  Whitfield  and  his  wife,  Ralph  Plumb,  Richard  Hey 
and  his  wife,  for  the  same.  Against  John  Smolt  and  his  wife, 
Thomas  Hale  and  his  wife,  John  Ridgate,  William  Wetherby 
and  his  wife,  Robert  Mercer,  Anne,  wife  of  Edward  Cooke,  Alice 
Wiswall,  John  Linaker  and  his  wife,  for  the  same.  Against 
Mary  Gerard,  midwife,  for  non-appearance.  Against  William 
Griffiths,  for  not  paying  his  Churchlay,  being  is.  3  Jd. 
Darby  Chapel,  vide  postea. 

Farn worth  Chapel  (Par.  of  Prescot). — Against  [blank] 
Gregg,  pretended  clerk,  for  keeping  Conventicles.  Against  John 
Tarbocke  and  John  Edgerley  for  frequenting  Conventicles  with 
him.  Against  Richard  Hoult,  Suzan  Marsh,  and  Ellen  Burkill, 
for  the  same.  Against  Thomas  Patten,  Henry  Patten,  Edward 
Kenright  [and]  his  wife,  of  Bold,  Papists.  Against  James  Forster 
and  his  wife,  John  Valentine,  junior,  and  his  wife,  John  Val- 
entine, senior,  Thomas  Hoult  and  his  wife,  Henry  Wakefield, 
James  Cowley  and  his  wife,  Miles  Scot  and  his  wife,  Richard 
Cowley  and  his  wife,  the  wife  of  Robert  Roughstich,  senior,  all 
of  Bold  aforesaid,  for  the  same.  Against  [blank]  Howerden, 
gentlewoman,  senior,  Mris.  [blank]  Howerden,  junior,  Edward 
Howarden,  gent.,  and  his  wife,  John  Wright,  senior,  and  his 
wife,  Matilda  Horland,  Ralph  Barton,  George  Wainwright, 
Robert  Hill,  and  Timothy  Harrison,  all  of  Roughstich,  for  the 
same.    Against  the  wife  of  Thomas  Heath,  Margaret  Hitch- 


64     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 

mough,  Thomas  Gooden,  Edward  Gooden,  Ellen  Gooden, 
Thomas  Leadbetter  and  his  wife,  the  wife  of  John  Caddocke, 
all  of  Roughstich  aforesaid,  for  the  same.  Against  [blank] 
Penkith,  gent.,  and  his  wife,  of  Kuerdley,  Ellenor  Grace,  senior, 
of  Cronton,  Richard  Grace,  Robert  Burges,  the  wife  of  Henry 
Grice,  and  Jane  Windle,  all  of  Cronton  aforesaid,  for  the  same. 
Against  Geo.  Houghton,  gent.,  and  his  wife,  Hester  Entwisley, 
Richard  Rowson  and  his  wife,  John  Wainwright  and  his  wife, 
Ellen  Rowson,  Tho.  Hitchmough,  Hugh  Rowson  and  his  wife, 
Henry  Rowson,  Peter  Heward  and  his  wife,  and  James  Cowley, 
all  of  Ditton,  for  the  same.  Against  Thomas  Dunstar  and  his 
wife,  Richard  Penketh  and  his  wife,  and  Peter  Dichneld,  for  the 
same.  Against  Edward  Appleton,  parish  clerk,  for  non-appear- 
ance. 20  Aug.  1672  :  Appeared  by  Wra.  Gandy,  one  of  the 
wardens,  and  exhibited  his  licence.  2s.  6d.  Against  Robert 
Barton  and  his  wife,  Henry  Barton  and  his  wife,  Richard  Goose, 
William  Gill,  James  Barton  and  his  wife,  William  Sixsmith, 
James  Penketh,  William  Barnes,  Geo.  Birch,  Thomas  Kequid 
and  his  wife,  for  Quakers.  Against  Richard  Hankinson,  Richard 
Houlden  and  his  wife,  Richard  Lancaster,  senior,  Thomas 
Barnes,  Peter  Barnes,  John  Barnes,  Ellen  Chorley,  Sauage 
Mayson,  Henry  Mayson,  Alice  Birch,  and  Elizabeth  Rathbone, 
for  the  same.  Against  William  Penketh  of  Kuerdley,  gentleman, 
for  a  noted  adultery  with  his  late  Maid-servant,  who  is  since 
gone.  Against  Thomas  Marsh,  John  Hall,  and  Henry  Apleton, 
for  loyterers  and  abusers  of  hollydays.  Against  John  Parr  and 
his  wife,  Richard  Robinson,  and  John  Apleton,  senior,  of  Pen- 
keth, for  the  same.  Against  Henry  Mosse,  John  Wainwright, 
senior,  Thomas  Wainwright,  Tho.  Darbishire,  Henry  Guest,  for 
not  frequenting  the  Sacrament.  Against  Thomas  Coppocke, 
Roger  Crosby  and  his  wife,  Henry  Smith,  and  John  Dunbaben, 
for  the  same.  Against  John  Charley  and  his  pretended  wife, 
Quakers,  for  an  unlawfull  marriage.  Against  Henry  Patten  and 
his  pretended  wife,  Papists,  for  the  same.  Against  the  wife  of 
John  Edgerley  for  not  giveing  publique  thankes  after  child- 
birth. 

Formby  Chapel  (Par.  of  Walton). — Against  Henry  Blundell 
of  Ince  Blundell,  in  the  Parish  of  Sefton,  Esquire,  for  that  he  by 
his  tenant  hath  part  of  the  Glebe  belonging  to  this  Chappell 
which  formerly  paid  6  li.  per  annum.  Appeared  by  John  Laith- 
wait,  his  servant,  and  objected  that  he  ought  not  to  pay  it  by 
right.    Therefore  dismissed.    2s.  6d. 

Hale  Chapel  (Par.  of  Childwall). — Against  Robert  Randle, 
for  that  the  Chappell  is  in  some  decay  by  reason  of  the  late 
windes.  Appeared  and  asserted  that  the  Chappell  is  lately 
repaired  ;  therefore  dismissed.  2s.  6d.  Against  [blank]  Crosse, 
widow,  and  Thomas  Crosse,  her  son,  John  Withington,  Henry 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  65 

Arrowsmith,  William  Chaddocke,  Robert  Frith,  and  Henry 
Holgreaue,  for  standing  excommunicate.  Against  John  Nick- 
son,  clerk,  curate  there,  for  non-appearance,  and  Henry  Hill, 
parish  clerk,  for  not  exhibiting  his  licence.  [Later  :  Hill  ap- 
peared and  exhibited  his  licence.] 

Halsall. — Against  Alice  Shorlikar,  widow,  Margaret  wife  of 
James  Shorlikar,  Richard  Kenion  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  and 
Margaret  Kenion,  Popish  Recusants.  Against  Joan  Plumm  and 
Anne  Plumm  his  daughter,  Richard  Simkin  and  Mary  his  wife, 
Edward  Simkin  [and]  John  Simkins  their  sons,  Ellen  Marcer  and 
Margaret  Marcer  her  daughter,  Thomas  Harrison,  Margery  wife 
of  William  Norris,  and  Margery  wife  of  Cuthbert  Whitehead, 
for  the  same.  Against  Elizabeth  Sephton,  widow,  Ralph  For- 
stard  and  Margaret  his  wife,  Ellen  wife  of  Richard  Holland, 
Catherine  Heskeyn  and  Jane  Heskeyn  her  daughter,  and  Henry 
Heskeyn  and  Mary  his  wife,  all  of  Halsall,  for  the  same.  Against 
Anne  Fazakerley,  John  Aspinwall  and  Katherine  his  wife, 
Thomas  Aspinall  and  Anne  his  wife,  John  Hatley  and  Eliza- 
beth his  wife,  Anne  Rimer  and  Jane  Rimer  her  daughter,  all 
of  Downholland,  for  the  same.  Against  Margaret  Holland, 
William  Rowley  and  Ellen  his  wife,  Margaret  the  wife  of 
Henry  Heay,  Ellen  Wacke,  Robert  Wacke,  Henry  Wacke,  Eliza- 
beth Holme,  widow,  Elizabeth  Massam,  John  Farrer  and  Eliza- 
beth his  wife,  Anne  Farrer,  widow,  Robert  Blundell,  Lawrence 
Massie,  James  Farrer,  and  Mris.  Ireland,  widow,  all  of  the  same, 
for  the  same.  Against  Tho:  Lidget  and  Margaret  his  wife,  Ellen 
Lidget,  James  Lidget,  James  Fletcher  and  Ciceley  his  wife, 
Elizabeth  Fazakerley,  Margaret  Cleppon,  Catherine  Spencer, 
Mary  wife  of  James  Golburne,  Bartholomew  Hulme  and  Janet 
his  wife,  William  Rigbye  and  Cicely  his  wife,  Alice  Otty, 
Anthony  Underwood  and  Anne  wife  of  Robert  Worrall,  all 
of  Lidget,  for  the  same.  Against  Elizabeth  Lunt,  Henry  Otty 
and  Catherine  his  wife,  Edmund  Hulme  and  Jane  his  wife, 
Janet  wife  of  Richard  Shaw,  Janet  wife  of  Henry  Wakefield, 
and  Richard  Pye,  all  of  Lidget,  for  the  same.  Against  Thomas 
Barrow,  Roger  Letherbarowe  and  Jane  his  wife,  George  Pye  and 
Margaret  his  wife,  Margaret  Underwood,  widow,  and  John 
Underwood,  all  of  Lidget,  for  Quakers. 

Up  Holland  (Par.  of  Wigan). — Against  Hugh  Worthington  of 
Holland,  Inkeeper,  for  suffering  company  to  drinke  in  his  house 
in  time  of  Divine  Service.  22  Aug.  1672  :  Appeared  and  sub- 
mitted. Dismissed  after  admonition.  2s.  6d.  Against  William 
Nayler,  Thomas  Nayler  and  Peter  Nayler  his  sons,  for  hindering 
Tho.  Aspinall  from  coming  into  his  seat  to  the  disturbance  of  the 
Minister  and  Congregation,  he  having  a  Confirmation  thereof 
from  the  Lord  Bishop  or  his  Chancellor.  Appeared,  but  as  they 
are  all  reconciled  they  are  dismissed.    2s.  6d. 


66     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 

Hollinfaire  (in  Warrington). — Presentment. 

Huyton. — Against  John  Carter  and  Catherine  his  wife,  Cicelly 
Holme,  widow,  Edmund  Holme,  John  Lawrenson  and  Elizabeth 
his  wife,  and  Richard  Carter,  Papists.  Against  Peter  Laith- 
waite,  James  Laithwaite,  Wm.  Bootle,  Wm.  Hatton  and  Eliza- 
beth his  wife,  James  Fletcher  and  Mary  his  wife,  and  John 
Hodgkinson,  for  Quakers.  Against  Richard  Hawksey,  old 
warden,  for  non-appearance.  Afterwards  sworn  and  subscribed. 
Against  Thomas  Webster,  Richard  Burkill,  Mary  Dey,  and 
James  Valentine,  for  loytering  about  the  Church  in  Service 
time.  Against  John  Lowe,  clerk,  Vicar  there,  for  not  exhibiting. 
ii  April  1672:  Appeared  and  exhibited  letters  of  Ordination 
and  Institution,  Induction  and  subscription;  therefore  dismissed. 

Kirkby  (Par.  of  Walton). — Against  Mary  wife  of  John  Tat- 
locke,  Richard  Linford  and  Margery  his  wife,  Margaret  Stane- 
naught  and  Jane,  her  daughter,  Thomas  Tatlocke,  and  Anne,  wife 
of  Robert  Norres,  Dorothy  wife  of  John  Burton,  and  William  Lee, 
for  Quakers  or  Papists.  Will.  Rylance  of  Hill  (vide  Ormskirk), 
for  a  Church  lay,  2jd.  Against  Henry  Mercer  for  standing 
excommunicate.  Against  Thomas  Parke,  Parish  clerk,  for  not 
exhibiting. 

Leigh. — Against  William  Urmston  and  Grace  his  wife,  George 
Smith,  senior,  Henry  Houghton  and  Alice  his  wife,  Mary 
Houghton,  Richard  Smethurst  and  Anne  his  wife  and  Richard 
their  son,  Elizabeth  Holcroft,  Henry  Thomason  and  his  wife, 
Papists.  Against  Margaret  Urmston,  widow,  John  Midlehurst 
and  Jane  his  wife,  Lambert  Berrie,  William  Berrie  and  Elizabeth 
his  wife,  Richard  Hope  and  his  wife,  John  Houlcroft,  James 
Houlcroft  and  his  wife,  Roger  Hilton  and  Elizabeth  his  wife, 
for  the  same.  Against  Catherine  Hayhurst,  Mary  Hulton, 
William  Hope  and  his  wife,  Richard  Hope  and  his  wife,  Richard 
Smith  and  his  wife,  Robert  Lithgoe,  William  Lithgoe,  Ellen 
Lithgoe,  widow,  for  the  same.  Against  Ellen,  wife  of  Roger 
Browne,  for  a  common  drunkard  and  loyterer  about  the  Church 
in  service  time.  Against  William  Bradshaw  and  Alice  his  wife, 
Jenet  Hindley,  Ellen  Houlcroft  [Richard  Sale  and  Philippa  his 
wife,  Gilbert  Sale,  Anna  Sale,  not  in  the  parish],  Mris.  Frances 
Bradshawe,  Richard  Shuttleworth,  gent.,  Geoffrey  Lithgoe  and 
Anne  his  wife,  Christopher  Bradshew  and  Jane  his  wife,  Peter 
Urmeston  and  Jane  his  wife,  Hugh  Yate  and  Jane  his  wife, 
Papists.  Against  William  Smethurst  and  Catherine  his  wife, 
Thomas  Mossocke,  gent.,  and  Ellenor  his  wife,  Robert  Eaton, 
gent.,  Thomas  Dichfield,  gent.,  John  Yate,  Elizabeth  Yate, 
Margaret  Yate,  Henry  Kirsley  and  Margaret  his  wife,  for  the 
same.  Against  Jonathan  Gellibrand,  clerk,  Vicar  there,  and 
Thomas  Unsworth,  Parish  Clerk,  for  non-appearance.  20  Aug. 
1672  :  Unsworth  appeared  and  obtained  a  licence,  and  so  was 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  67 

dismissed.  Nil.  Against  Ralph  Haseldine,  for  drinking  in  time 
of  divine  service.  Against  Nicholas  Ranikars  and  Judeth  his 
wife,  Alekeepers,  for  keeping  uncivill  company  drinking  in  their 
house,  and  at  unlawful  times. 

Leuerpoole. — Against  Lawrence  Breres,  gent.,  [blank]  the 
wife  of  George  Brether,  Jane  Heskine,  [blank]  the  wife  of 
Henry  Cocke,  and  Thomas  Ackers,  for  Papists.  Against  [blank] 
wife  of  Mr.  Nee,  William  Fazakerley,  gent.,  and  his  wife,  Peter 
Martin,  and  James  Rothwell,  for  the  same.  Against  William 
Dwarrishouse  [later:  "Excused"],  old  sidesman,  for  non-appear- 
ance. Against  Arthur  Hatton,  gent.,  and  his  wife,  Thomas 
Williamson  and  his  wife,  [blank]  Cleaveland,  gent.,  and  his  wife, 
the  wife  of  John  Tempest,  Evan  Swift  and  his  wife,  for  reputed 
Anabaptists.  Against  Cuthbert  Kilshaw,  Richard  Widdowes, 
Richard  Lunt,  and  [blank]  Chorley,  widow,  for  tipling  on  the 
Saboth  day  in  time  of  devine  service.  Against  Henry  Mayson 
and  his  wife,  Anne  Broome,  John  Bankes  and  his  wife,  and 
John  Marsh  and  his  wife,  for  the  same.  Against  Richard 
Williamson,  chirurgen,  and  Alice  Harper,  midwife,  for  non- 
appearance [later :  "  Williamson  exhibited,  &c."]. 

Maghull  Chapel  (Par.  of  Halsall). — Against  Thomas  Hes- 
keth  and  Mary  his  wife,  Francis  Cartwright  and  Bridget  his 
wife,  Margaret  Brownbill,  Margaret  Medowe,  Margaret  Boyer, 
Anne  Lunt,  Catherine  Medow,  and  Henry  Parre,  Popish  Recus- 
ants. Against  Zachariah  Leech,  clerk,  curate  there,  and  John 
Lowe,  Parish  Clerk,  for  non-appearance.  Later  he  [or  they] 
appeared  and  exhibited  Orders  and  Licence,  is.  6d.  "Thers 
nothing  belonging  to  the  Clerkship,"  therefore  dismissed. 

Mellinge  Chapel  (Par.  of  Hallsall). — Against  Richard 
Barnes  and  John  Cooke  for  that  they  want  a  blacke  Herse 
cloth.  Appeared,  and  admonished  to  provide  it,  &c.  2s. 
[Later :  "  Certified,  &c."]  Against  John  Lowe,  clerk,  curate, 
for  non-appearance.  Inhibited.  Against  Thomas  Filcocke  for 
a  Quaker.  Against  Robert  Mollineux,  Esquire,  and  Frances 
his  wife,  Mris.  Mary  Breres,  Thomas  Molyneux,  gent.,  Thomas 
Clapham,  and  Ellen  Holland,  Popish  Recusants.  Against  Anne 
Halsall,  Henry  Dame  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  Elizabeth  their 
daughter,  John  Dame,  Anne  Price,  John  Melling  and  Alice  his 
wife,  Margaret  wife  of  Thomas  More,  Anne  Sephton,  Jane  wife 
of  Henry  Martin,  Suzan  wife  of  Thomas  More,  Mris.  Francis 
Crosse,  James  Hunter  and  Jane  his  wife,  and  Catherine  Hunt, 
for  the  same.  Tho.  Hilcocke  [?  Filcock],  schoolmaster,  a  Quaker. 
Against  John  Lowe,  clerk,  curate,  for  not  exhibiting  letters  of 
Ordination  and  admission,  &c. 

North  Meales. — Against  Elizabeth  Jump,  widow,  Elizabeth 
Johnson,  spinster,  Alice  Bate,  Ralph  Ainsworth  and  his  wife, 
John  Aughton,  junior,  [blank]  Dobson,  widow,  Catherine  wife 


68     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 

of  Robt.  Jumpe,  Elizabeth  wife  of  James  Gill,  and  Ellen  Rymer, 
Papists. 

Ormskirke. — Against  Holcroft  Howett,  widow,  Anne  Garner, 
John  Bastwell  and  his  wife,  Margaret  Morecroft,  John  Martin- 
dale  and  his  wife,  all  of  Ormskirk,  Popish  Recusants.  [Side- 
note:  "James  Rothstorme  was  sworn  warden,  20  Nov:  1671, 
in  the  place  of  Cuthbert  Kewquicke,  who  was  very  ill."]  Against 
Robert  Wilson,  Thomas  Crosby  and  Anne  his  wife,  Joshua 
Crosby,  and  Lawrence  Underwood,  all  of  Ormskirk,  Quakers. 
Against  John  Breres,  gent.,  Rich.  Mosse  [later :  Morf],  Rich. 
Wainwright,  Richard  Worthington,  Henry  Haskin,  Thomas 
Boscow,  William  Cowper,  Geo.  Rigmadon,  William  Rigmadon, 
Ralph  Forshaw,  Thos.  Asken.  William  Holme,  Peter  Rainford, 
Margery  Worthington,  widow,  and  Margaret  Cooper,  widow, 
all  of  Lathom,  Papists.  Against  Richard  Webster  of  Lathom 
for  a  Quaker.  Against  James  Scaresbrick,  Esq.,  William  Main- 
waring,  gent.,  Margaret  South,  widow,  Elizabeth  Blundell,  widow, 
Thomas  Fletcher,  Jenet  Hill,  Henry  Gobin,  William  South,  and 
Hugh  Worthington,  all  of  Ormskirk,  Papists.  Against  Henry 
Foster,  of  the  same,  a  Quaker.  Against  Richard  Mosse,  Henry 
Mosse  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  William  Mosse,  senior,  and 
Elizabeth  his  wife,  Edward  Mosse  and  Margaret  his  wife, 
Mich.  Charnocke  and  Anne  his  wife,  and  Anne  Mosse,  widow, 
all  of  Skelmersdale,  Papists.  Against  Isaac  Ashton,  of  the  same, 
for  a  Quaker.  Against  Henry  Mawdesley,  Ellen  Culshow,  Eliza- 
beth Langley,  Catherine  Jumpe,  Elizabeth  Vose,  Catherine  Vose, 
and  Mary  Spence,  all  of  Burscough,  Papists.  Against  William 
Marcer  and  his  wife,  John  Hale  and  Margery  his  wife,  Edward 
Hale  and  Alice  his  wife,  Thomas  Aspinall  and  Margaret  his 
wife,  Elizabeth  Tarleton,  widow,  Alice  Westhead,  widow,  Jenet 
Taylor,  widow,  James  Smith  and  Jane  his  wife,  all  of  Bicur- 
steth,  for  the  same.  Against  Richard  Cubon  and  Anne  his  wife, 
Edward  Lyon  and  Alice  his  wife,  Anne  Atherton,  Godfrey 
Atherton,  John  Dicke  and  Jane  his  wife,  Richard  Johnson  and 
Elizabeth  his  wife,  George  Barrow  and  Dorothy  his  wife,  all  of 
the  same,  Quakers.  Against  Ellis  Rycroft,  schoolmaster,  for  not 
exhibiting  his  licence.  Appeared,  and  is  to  exhibit  it  before 
Michaelmas,  &c.  2s.  6d.  Against  [blank]  Jones  and  [blank], 
his  pretended  wife,  who  are  suspected  to  be  maryed,  and  she  is 
his  brother's  widow.  .  .  .  Against  Emlin  Ashurst  of  Skelmersdale, 
widow,  for  a  common  prophaner  of  the  Lord's  Day.  Against 
William  Rylance  of  Hill  within  Kirkby,  in  the  Parish  of  Walton, 
for  not  paying  his  Church  Layes  due  for  an  estate  that  he  hath 
in  Lathom,  2jd.  20  Aug.  1672  :  he  appeared  and  paid  the 
money,  &c.  Dismissed.  2s.  3d.  Against  Mr.  John  Cooper 
[later  :  "  Exhibited  and  dismissed  "],  and  Daniel  Ambrose  [later : 
"  Licenced  "],  for  practiseing  Phisicke  and  Surgery,  but  whether 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  69 

licenced  is  not  knowne.  Against  Mris.  [blank]  Gerard,  midwife, 
for  the  same. 

Prescott. — Against  Richard  Bordman,  Richard  Sadler,  John 
Plombe,  and  John  Knowles,  wardens,  for  that  swine  come  into 
the  churchyarde,  through  severall  back  dores,  which  is  very 
noysome.  Appeared  and  are  admonished  to  give  warning  to  the 
persons  that  are  concerned  either  to  shutt  up  their  dores  or  to 
keep  out  their  swine,  and  to  certify,  &c.  2s.  6d.  Against  Ralph 
Howard,  senior,  Henry  Foster,  John  Stephenson,  John  Tunstall, 
Richard  Elton,  gent.,  Ralph  Egen'  [?],  gent.,  Thomas  Barton, 
Brian  Byrom,  Margaret  Bolland,  spinster,  and  John  Arrowsmith, 
Papists.  Against  Henry  Sephton,  old  warden,  for  non-appear- 
ance. Excused  because  he  was  ill.  Against  Mris.  Tyrer  and 
Mris.  [blank]  Carter,  schoolmistrisses  in  Prescot,  for  not  coming 
to  Church. 

Sefton. — Against  Robert  Sheppard  and  Alice  his  wife,  Ellen 
Norres,  widow,  Ellen  Pennington,  Mris.  Margery  Mollyneux, 
widow,  Elizabeth  Coney,  Geo.  Wakefield,  Robert  Melling,  John 
Fletcher  and  Mary  his  wife,  all  of  Sefton,  Popish  Recusants. 
Against  Anne  Abraham,  widow,  Alice  Abram,  Anne  Hurdes, 
widow,  Jane  Hurdes,  Alice  Hurdes,  Robert  Fleetwood  and 
Margery  his  wife,  all  of  Netherton,  for  same.  Against  Jane 
Fleetwood,  Margery  wife  of  William  Copple,  Nicholas  Aughton 
and  Anne  his  wife,  Ellen  wife  of  Silvester  Bootle,  Ellen  Stocke, 
widow,  and  Alice  Stocke,  all  of  the  same,  for  the  same.  Against 
Mris.  Jane  Johnson,  widow,  Margaret  Newhouse,  widow,  Robert 
Gorton  and  Alice  his  wife,  Lawrence  Tharpe,  Ralph  Poole  and 
Ellen  his  wife,  Thos.  Lurting  and  Jane  his  wife,  John  Lunt  and 
Grace  his  wife,  John  Hatton  and  Alice  his  wife,  all  of  Great 
Crosby,  for  the  same.  Against  Henry  Aspinall,  William  Johnson 
and  Margaret  his  wife,  William  Hunt  and  Margaret  his  wife, 
John  Lurting  and  Margaret  his  wife,  of  the  same,  for  the  same. 
Against  George  Marcer,  Jane  Marcer,  widow,  George  Marcer, 
junior,  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  Richard  Hatton  and  Margery  his 
wife,  Richard  Arnold,  Thomas  Thellowe  and  Mary  his  wife, 
Richard  Sheppard  and  Anne  his  wife,  Alice  Hill,  widow,  Catherine 
Standish,  widow,  Catherine  wife  of  Philip  Syer,  Richard  Poole, 
Thos.  Rothwell  and  Mary  his  wife,  all  of  Great  Crosby,  for  the 
same.  Against  William  Bootle  and  Ellen  his  wife,  Margaret 
Bolton,  Ellenor  Hunt,  Margaret  Garret,  widow,  Margery  Lunt, 
James  Naylor,  Elizabeth  Bridge,  widow,  Robert  Mollyneux, 
Richard  Aughton  and  Ellen  his  wife,  Alice  Tarlton,  widow, 
Edmund  Booth  and  Alice  his  wife,  all  in  Thornton,  for  the 
same.  Against  Thomas  Newhouse  and  Emlin  his  wife,  Anne 
Abram,  widow,  Ellen  Abram,  Anne  wife  of  Thomas  Green,  all 
of  the  same,  for  the  same.  Against  Nicholas  Stevenson, 
Margaret  Stevenson,  Margery  Stevenson,  John  Stevenson  and 


yo     Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration 

his  wife,  Thomas  Tyrer,  Thomas  Gorsick,  Margaret  Johnson, 
Elizabeth  wife  of  Thomas  Shawe,  all  of  the  same,  for  the  same. 
Against  Henry  Blundell,  Esquire,  and  Bridget  his  wife,  John 
Laithwaite  and,  Ellen  his  wife,  Mris.  Jane  Formby,  Robert 
Abram,  Nicholas  Reynold  and  Anne  his  wife,  Catherine  Mol- 
lineux,  widow,  John  Couldocke,  senior,  John  Coldocke,  junior, 
Ellen  Colducke,  widow,  John  Melling  and  Margaret  his  wife, 
Alice  Melling,  all  of  Ince  Blundell,  for  the  same.  Against 
Laurence  Blundell  and  Ellen  his  wife,  Robert  Fleetwood,  Eliza- 
beth Darwen,  widow,  Robert  Darwen,  John  Lunt  and  his  wife, 
Elizabeth  Hill,  widow,  Alice  Hill,  and  Margaret  Hill,  all  of  the 
same,  for  the  same.  Against  John  Ireland  and  Mary  his  wife, 
Tho.  Harvey  and  Anne  his  wife,  Robt.  Thompson  and  Margery 
his  wife,  Henry  Formby  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  Henry  Livesey, 
Mris.  Margaret  Mollineux,  widow,  Mris.  Margery  Mollineux,  and 
Robt.  Edwardson,  all  of  Ince  Blundell,  for  the  same.  Against 
William  Blundell,  senior,  Esquire,  and  Anne  his  wife,  William 
Blundell,  junior,  and  his  wife,  John  Andsworth,  William  Harrison, 
Richard  Harrison,  John  Gorsich  and  Anne  his  wife,  John  Mar- 
row and  Cicilly  his  wife,  Robert  Morecroft  and  Catherine  his 
wife,  all  of  Little  Crosby,  for  the  same.  Against  Ralph  Barton 
and  Catherine  his  wife,  Margaret  Rothwell,  widow,  Ellen  Dauie, 
widow,  Elizabeth  Rice,  widow,  Margaret  Sefton,  widow,  John 
Starkey  and  Jane  his  wife,  of  the  same,  for  the  same.  Against 
John  Haward  and  Anne  his  wife,  Hugh  Reynolds,  Thomas 
Marrowe  and  Anne  his  wife,  William  Stocke,  Richard  Arnold 
and  Anne  his  wife,  William  Arnold,  John  Farrer,  Thomas  Arnold 
and  his  wife,  Thos.  Rothwell  and  Ellen  his  wife,  Ellen  Werrall, 
widow,  all  of  Little  Crosby,  for  the  same.  Against  Alice 
Weedow,  widow,  Thomas  Tickle  and  Ellen  his  wife,  John  John- 
son and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  Richard  Johnson  and  Mary  his  wife, 
Robert  Ryding  and  Anne  his  wife,  Nicholas  Blundell  and 
Margery  his  wife,  Peter  Ryding  and  Anne  his  wife,  John 
Rogerson  and  his  wife,  all  of  the  same,  for  the  same.  Against 
Brian  Richardson,  John  Fisher  and  Margaret  his  wife,  Elizabeth 
Tyrer,  widow,  Robert  Thompson  and  Anne  his  wife,  John 
Blanchard,  Thos.  Blanchard,  George  Ryding  and  Margery  his 
wife,  Richard  Marrowe  and  Ellen  his  wife,  Thomas  Marcer  and 
Elizabeth  his  wife,  of  the  same,  for  the  same.  Against  Tho. 
Tyrer,  John  Tyrer  and  Margaret,  Anthony  Marcer  and  Jane  his 
wife,  John  Marcer,  Matthew  Traves  and  Jane  his  wife,  Henry 
Tristram  and  Anne  his  wife,  William  Lidgate,  Jane  Bootle,  Jenet 
Bootle,  William  Tarleton  and  Margaret  his  wife,  Anne  Hurdes, 
widow,  Dowse  Bootle,  widow,  Alexander  Tarleton  and  Anne 
his  wife,  Jane  Worrall,  widow,  Ellen  wife  of  Richard  Worrall, 
John  Harrison  and  Alice  his  wife,  Richard  Lathom,  gent.,  and 
his  wife,  William  Bore,  gent.,  and  Mary  his  wife,  and  Robert 


Church  Discipline  after  the  Restoration  71 


Wignell,  of  the  Parish  aforesaid,  Popish  Recusants.  Against 
Anthony  Wetherby  and  Edeth  his  wife,  John  Hilton,  John 
Smallshawe  and  Ellen  his  wife,  for  New  Recusants  or  absence 
from  Church. 

Warrington. — Against  Sir  Gilbert  Ireland,  Proprietor,  &c, 
for  that  the  Chancell  both  in  the  Roofe  and  windowes  is  in 
decay.  Against  Thomas  Postlethwaite,  Robt.  Blimston,  and 
John  Wilme,  wardens  there,  for  that  they  want  a  booke  of 
Homilies  and  booke  of  Canons  and  a  booke  for  the  names 
of  strange  Preachers,  alsoe  a  hearse  cloth.  Appeared  and 
warned.  29  Aug.  1672  :  appeared  and  certified.  A  question 
was  raised  about  a  legacy  left  to  the  poore  by  Mr.  Allen. 

"  gainst  Joseph  Warde,  clerk,  Vicar,  for  that  the  vicarage  house 

s  out  of  repaire. 

Wigan. — Against    Thomas    Leigh,   esquire,   and  Thomas 
ldersey,  esquire,  executors  of  the  will  of  Sir  Amos  Meridith, 
eceased,  who  was  executor  of  the  will  of  Gertrude  Hall,  relict 
nd  executrix  of  the  will  of  George  Hall,  late  bishop  of  Chester 
id  last  rector  and  incumbent  of  Wigan,  for  that  the  flore  of  the 
Chancell  is  broken  and  out  of  order.    Against  Edward  Rigby 
and  Rebecca  his  wife,  Ellen  wife  of  Thomas  Ireland,  Margaret 
Rylands,  James  Anderton,  esquire,  and  his  wife,  Richard  Rylands 
and  his  wife,  Ellen  Atherton,  Humphrey  Atherton  and  his  wife, 
Thomas  Glasebrooke  and  his  wife,  Alice  Molyneux,  widow, 
Roger  Culcheth  and  Margaret  his  wife,  Jane  Talbot,  widow, 
Thomas  Pennington  and  his  wife  [and  others],  Popish  recusants. 
Against  James  Gregory  and  Alice  his  wife,  Mary  Bradley,  Henry 
Winstanley,  and  George  Bradshaw,  Quakers.    Against  William 
Vaux,  schoolmaster  at  Haigh,  for  not  showing  his  licence. 

Winwicke. — Against  Geoffrey  Flitcroft  of  Culcheth,  for  a 
Quaker.  Against  James  Bate  and  Thomas  Bate  of  Culcheth, 
Popish  recusants. 


72 


CANTING  ARMS  IN  CHESHIRE 
By  the  Rev.  E.  E.  Dorling,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

Read  15th  February  191 2. 


AMONG  the  many  attractive  byways  of  heraldry 
l  there  are  few  more  delightful  and  instructive 
than  that  which  we  must  needs  follow  in  our  search 
for  coats  of  arms  that  contain  puns  upon  the  name 
of  their  bearers.  If  the  heraldry  of  our  own  land 
yields  fewer  examples  of  such  coats  than  are  to  be 
found  in  that  of  Germany,  where  redende  Wappen 
have  always  been  held  in  high  favour,  the  reason  is 
probably  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that  English  family 
names  are  less  often  the  names  of  things  than  are 
German  patronymics  ;  and  it  must  be  confessed  that 
our  people  often  let  slip  opportunities  of  devising 
canting  arms  which  a  German  herald  would  eagerly 
have  seized.  Nevertheless,  a  glance  through  any 
English  roll  of  arms  or  any  Visitation  will  reveal  a 
substantial  number  of  the  heraldic  puns  in  which  our 
forefathers  delighted. 

The  Visitation  of  Cheshire,  made  by  Robert 
Glover  in  1580,1  contains  an  unusual  number  of 
such  evidences  of  playful  humour  ;  and  before  we 
speak  of  them  in  detail  it  will  perhaps  be  useful  to 
formulate  some  sort  of  arrangement  of  these  canting 
coats  into  groups,  according  to  the  greater  or  less 
obviousness  of  the  puns  which  they  contain. 

In  the  first  group  let  us  place  then  those  coats  of 

1  Had.  Soc,  vol.  xviii.,  edited  by  J.  Paul  Rylands  ;  a  model  in 
its  scholarly  and  accurate  editing  of  what  a  heraldry  book  should  be. 


Bird 


Birches 


Griffin 


Canting  Arms  in  Cheshire 


73 


arms  whose  charges  speak  of  the  whole  name  of  the 
bearers.  Such,  for  instance,  are  the  famous  arms 
attributed  to  Hugh  Lupus.  For  though  we  may  be 
sure  that  the  blue  shield  with  the  silver  wolfs  head 
that  symbolises  the  great  Domesday  earl  was  not 
really  heraldic  in  the  sense  in  which  we  understand 
the  term,  that  ancient  and  dignified  shield  must  be 
allowed  to  stand  in  the  very  forefront  of  Cheshire 
armory. 

In  our  second  group  might  be  put  those  coats  in 
which  charges  whose  names  are  the  whole  names  of 
the  bearers  are  combined  with  other  charges.  Delves 
of  Doddington,  who  thrust  a  cheveron  of  the  Audley 
colours  between  the  three  black  delves  in  his  silver 
shield,  carried  arms  of  this  class,  making  at  once  the 
play  on  his  name  and  proclaiming  his  kinship  with 
that  Staffordshire  squire  whom  James  Audley  de- 
lighted to  honour  for  his  valorous  work  at  Poitiers. 

The  third  group  would  contain  shields  of  arms 
in  which  part  only  of  the  names  of  the  owners  is 
indicated  by  the  charges.  Of  this  type  are  coats 
like  that  of  Millington  of  Millington,  who  placed 
three  silver  millstones  in  his  blue  shield. 

A  fourth  group  might  consist  of  shields  whose 
charges  are  objects,  the  name  whereof  is  part  only 
of  the  bearer's  name,  combined  with  an  ordinary. 
Calveley  of  the  Lea,  for  instance,  would  take  his 
place  in  this  class,  with  his  arms  of  three  black  calves 
in  a  silver  field  having  a  red  fesse  between  them, 
while  his  crest  of  a  black  calfs  head  razed  and 
collared  with  a  golden  crown  is  equally  an  example 
of  canting  heraldry. 

Into  the  fifth  group  we  should  collect  the  arms 
of  families  whose  names  merely  suggest  something 
which  the  charge  is  or  does.  The  humour,  it  will 
be  observed,  is  growing  more  subtle  as  we  proceed 
with  our  classification ;  but  there  is  an  obvious 
appropriateness,  for  example,  in  the  silver  hart 


74 


Canting  Arms  in  Cheshire 


lying  down  which  Downes  of  Downes  painted  on  his 
black  shield. 

In  our  last  group  we  shall  find  the  humour  beaten 
still  thinner  when  the  name  of  the  bearer  only  hints 
delicately  at  something  which  the  charge  in  the 
shield  has  to  do  with.  Praers  with  his  silver  scythe 
on  red  carries  an  object  which  seems  to  have  but 
little  suggestion  of  gentlehood  until  we  remember 
that  he  too  is  of  the  band  of  punsters,  and  that  the 
charge  in  his  knightly  shield  is  the  tool  wherewith 
his  meadows  were  mown.  Snelston  of  Snelston,  who 
bears  the  same  arms  but  differently  coloured — a 
black  scythe  on  silver — makes  his  arms  pun  more 
closely  on  his  name ;  for  the  first  three  letters  of  it 
are  a  hint  at  the  word  sneyd,  which  is  the  term  for 
the  handle  of  a  scythe. 

It  will  be  seen  from  this  attempt  at  some  system 
of  classification  that  all  examples  of  canting  arms  do 
not  stand  on  exactly  the  same  plane  of  simplicity  and 
obviousness.  Some  names  do  not  lend  themselves 
so  readily  as  others  to  this  treatment,  and  of  course 
this  form  of  humour  may  not  have  appealed  with 
equal  force  to  every  man  whose  name  might  have 
suggested  the  devising  of  a  canting  coat.  Never- 
theless we  shall  find  in  Cheshire  many  families,  in 
addition  to  those  already  mentioned,  who  either  with 
arms  or  crest  played  upon  their  names. 

Thus  in  our  first  group  we  must  set  Bird  of 
Yowley,  whose  parted  shield  of  silver  and  gold  is 
charged  with  a  black  eagle.  Birches  of  Birches 
parted  his  shield  cheveron-wise,  colouring  it  gold  in 
the  chief  and  green  in  the  foot,  and  placed  therein 
three  sprigs  of  a  birch  tree  countercoloured.  Griffin 
of  Cattenhall  charged  his  silver  shield  with  a  black 
griffin  ;  and  Harthill  placed  a  red  hart  on  a  green 
hill  in  his  shield  of  silver.  The  black  ass's  head 
which  Hocknell  of  Hocknell  bore  on  silver  is  not  a 
very  obvious  pun  until  we  remember  that  the  humble 


Cotton 


Corona 


Toft 


Canting  Arms  in  Cheshire 


75 


ass  might  quite  reasonably  be  regarded  as  a  little 
hackney.  Newton  of  Pownall  got  his  pun  more 
easily  when  he  displayed  a  fine  new  tun  of  gold  in 
his  green  scutcheon  ;  while  the  Starkeys  of  Stretton 
and  the  various  branches  that  came  off  the  parent 
house  had  nought  to  do  but  to  show  the  bird  of  their 
name  in  black  on  silver.  The  crest  of  Brooke  of 
Leighton,  which  naturally  is  a  brock,  may  also  be 
placed  in  this  group. 

To  the  arms  of  Delves,  mentioned  above  as  a 
characteristic  example  of  those  arms  which  com- 
bine other  charges  with  objects  of  the  same  name 
as  the  family,  we  may  add  those  of  Bonbury  of 
Stanney,  in  whose  silver  chess-rooks  we  see  three 
good  castles.  Bird  of  Clopton  carried  in  silver  a 
cross  paty  between  four  martlets  all  coloured  red, 
with  a  canton  differently  coloured  for  each  branch 
of  this  family.  Cotton  of  Cotton  placed  a  silver 
cheveron  between  the  three  hanks  of  cotton  that 
indicate  his  name  ;  and  Corona  of  Adlington,  instead 
of  showing  a  single  crown  as  a  German  would  have 
done,  bore  a  golden  cheveron  and  three  golden 
crowns  in  a  blue  field.  The  Tofts  of  Toft,  a  very 
ancient  Cheshire  house,  charged  their  silver  shield 
with  a  black  cheveron  and  three  text  T's  of  the 
same,  the  T  oft  repeated  being  an  exact  representa- 
tion of  their  name.  Shalcross  of  Stowshaw,  a  cadet 
of  Shalcross  of  Shalcross  in  Derbyshire,  made  his 
pun  less  easily  ;  nevertheless  his  saltire  cross  between 
four  golden  rings  in  red  is  a  fair  example  of  the 
humour  which  the  medieval  armorists  did  not  dis- 
dain. To  this  group  we  must  add  the  crests  of 
Leche  of  Carden  and  Leche  of  Nantwich,  who 
differenced,  the  one  with  a  crescent  on  a  crescent, 
the  other  with  a  ring,  the  old  family  crest  of  an  arm 
coming  out  of  a  crown,  the  hand  grasping  the  ser- 
pent of  ^Esculapius,  patron  of  all  leeches. 

The  third  group,  wherein  part  of  the  bearer's 


76 


Canting  Arms  in  Cheshire 


name  is  shown  by  the  charges,  contains  the  ancient 
coat  of  the  three  black  bulls'  heads  of  Bulkeley, 
the  fretted  trout  of  Troutbeck,  and  the  daws  that 
Dawson  of  Nantwich  painted  on  an  engrailed  bend 
of  silver.  The  arms  of  Spurstow  of  Spurstow,  who 
carried  in  his  green  shield  three  pierced  molets  of 
gold,  must  also  be  included,  for  his  charges  are  spur- 
rowels.  It  is  possible  that  Bostock  makes  similar 
play  with  his  silver  fesse  having  its  ends  cut  off,  for 
this  is  no  true  fesse,  but  may  be  designed  to  suggest  a 
conventionalised  stock  of  a  tree.  The  crest  of  a  silver 
ass's  head  which  Aston  of  Aston  displayed  is  an- 
other example  belonging  to  this  group ;  and  it  is 
conceivable  that  the  tree  which  is  part  of  the  crest 
of  Birchell  of  Birchell  is  not  an  oak  but  is  really 
intended  for  a  birch  tree. 

In  the  fourth  section  of  our  classification  we  place 
arms  in  which  charges  representing  part  of  the 
bearers'  names  are  combined  with  ordinaries.  There 
we  will  place  such  coats  as  the  bend  and  bees  of 
Beeston,  the  cheveron  and  ravens'  heads  of  Ravens- 
croft,  the  cheveron  and  moorhens  of  Henshaw,  the 
cheveron  and  Katherine-wheels  of  Wheelock,  and 
the  cheveron  and  cocks'  heads  of  Alcock  of  the 
Ridge.  It  is,  by  the  way,  a  little  curious  that  in 
each  of  these  shields  the  field  is  silver  and  the 
charges  are  all  black,  with  the  exception  of  Alcock's 
cocks'  heads,  which  are  red. 

Coming  now  to  the  fifth  group,  in  which  the 
names  of  the  bearers  suggest  some  quality  of  the 
charges,  the  allusiveness  of  the  arms  is  naturally 
less  immediately  obvious,  though  the  pun  becomes 
apparent  with  a  little  thought.  Thus  the  charges 
which  Swettenham  placed  on  a  green  bend  are 
spades  wherewith  a  man  tills  the  field  in  the  sweat 
of  his  brow.  Leversage  of  Wheelock  divided  with 
a  cheveron  three  black  ploughshares,  which  hint  at 
their  capacity  to  lever  up  the  soil.     And  surely 


Beeston 


Canting  Arms  in  Cheshire  77 


it  is  not  taxing  credulity  too  far  when  Wood  of 
Badersley  in  Stafford  (whose  arms  were  quartered 
by  a  Cheshire  house)  asks  us  to  take  his  black  lion 
for  a  u  wood  "  beast,  angry  and  raging  in  the  old  sense 
of  that  obsolete  word,  or  when  Savage  shows  six 
little  black  lions  as  the  emblem  of  his  fierce  name. 

Davenport's  crest  of  a  man's  head  with  a  rope 
round  his  neck  is  similarly  a  pun  on  "Damport," 
the  ancient  pronunciation  of  his  name,  for  this  is  the 
head  of  a  "damned"  man,  one  who  is  condemned 
to  a  felon's  death.  And  perhaps  in  the  horseshoe 
which  the  ostrich  of  Smith's  crest  holds  in  his  beak 
a  reference  is  intended  to  the  smith's  handicraft. 

We  come  at  last  to  the  group  of  coats  which 
make  a  still  more  refined  allusion  to  their  owners' 
names.  Mere  of  Mere  carried  in  his  silver  shield 
the  charge  of  a  black  ship,  and  his  crest  was  a  mer- 
maid, objects,  both  of  them,  having  to  do  with  the 
sea.  The  nine  golden  rings  interlinked  in  threes 
which  Hawberk  showed  on  a  red  bend  are  pieces  of 
the  hawberk  of  linked  mail  which  the  knight  himself 
wore  and  took  his  name  from.  Manley  of  Pulton 
considered  a  right  hand  enough  of  a  man's  figure 
to  symbolise  his  name,  and  as  has  been  pointed 
out  to  me,  the  sound  of  the  word  for  this  charge  in 
the  old  French  blazon  is  quite  near  enough  to  that  of 
his  name  to  suggest  such  a  piece  of  medieval  play- 
fulness. Silvester  placed  a  single  green  tree  in  his 
silver  shield  as  sufficient  emblem  of  his  name  and 
of  the  manor  which  Earl  Randle  gave  him  in  the 
forest  of  Wirral. 

Long  ago,  "one  who,"  as  a  good  judge  has  said 
of  him,  "  in  his  knowledge  of  heraldry  stands  to-day 
supreme "  told  us,  "  Almost  every  out-of-the-way 
charge  conceals  your  pun."  Here  in  our  list  are 
puns  not  a  few,  although  the  charges  in  these  coats 
of  Cheshire  gentlemen  are  some  of  them  familiar 
enough.     We  offer  these  notes  in  the  hope  that 


78 


Canting  Arms  in  Cheshire 


those  readers  who  are  heraldically  minded  may  be 
induced  to  keep  an  open  eye  for  such  curiosities  of 
armory,  though  we  cannot  promise  that  they  will 
find  so  many  examples  of  canting  arms  in  the 
heraldry  of  every  English  county. 


Wheelock 


Alcock 


SWETTEN  HAM 


Hawberk  Manley  Silvester 


OVERCHURCH  CHALICE 


79 


THE  OVERCHURCH  CHALICE 
By  F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A. 

Read  7th  November  1912. 


THE  parish  of  Overchurch  in  Wirral  (commonly 
called  Upton)  has,  almost  within  living 
memory,  possessed  no  less  than  three  churches : 
first,  the  old  Norman  edifice  which  stood  to  the 
west  of  the  Upton  to  Moreton  road,1  of  which 
nothing  remains,  though  the  ground  plan  may  be 
roughly  traced  within  a  copse  close  to  the  residence 
of  Mr.  George  Webster ;  the  second  church,  a 
modest  building  without  tower  or  steeple,  which 
stood  in  the  village  of  Upton,  to  the  south  of  the 
road  leading  to  Greasby,  until  it  was  pulled  down 
in  1887  ;2  and  the  present  church,  which  was  built 
by  the  late  Mr.  Inman.3  A  tablet  at  the  NE. 
corner  of  the  nave  records  his  death  on  3rd  July 
1 88 1.  There  is  thus  no  early  ecclesiastical  building 
in  the  parish,  and  we  may  be  the  more  thankful, 
therefore,  that  the  ancient  chalice  or  Communion 
cup  has  been  preserved  and  is  in  good  condition. 
The  Society  is  indebted  to  the  Rev.  Canon  Bel- 
lamy, the  present  incumbent,  for  permission  to 
photograph  it,  and  to  Mr.  James  A.  Waite  for  the 
skill  with  which  he  has  shown  the  details  in  the 
accompanying  reproduction.  The  dimensions  of  the 
chalice  are  as  follows :  Height,  6T7^  inches ;  depth 

1  See  Trans,  of  this  Society,  xliii.  305. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  314. 

5  Ibid.,  xlvii.  122. 


So 


The  Overchurch  Chalice 


of  bowl  inside,  3§  inches  ;  diameter  of  mouth,  3T3B 
inches  ;  diameter  of  foot,  3  inches  ;  weight,  8  ounces. 
Engraved  upon  the  upper  part  of  the  cup  is  a  com- 
plete achievement  with  an  inscription,  viz.  Crest :  A 
griphon's  head  [sable],  winged  [or],  a  crescent  for 
difference,  issuing  from  a  ducal  coronet  [gules]. 
Esquire's  helm  and  mantlet.  Arms :  1  and  4, 
[argent]  a  griphon  passant  [sable],  charged  on  the 
shoulder  with  a  crescent  of  the  field  for  difference. 

2,  [argent]  a  fesse  between  in  chief,  three  fleur-de- 
lys,  and   in   base   a   leopard's   face   [all  sable]. 

3,  [gules]  three  cross-croslets  fitch^e,  two  and  one 
[or],  a  chief  of  the  last.1  The  only  tincture  shown 
on  the  chalice  is  the  last  named. 

The  quartering  No.  2  is  accounted  for  by  the 
marriage  of  Baldwin  Bold,  probably  great-great- 
great-grandfather  of  the  donor  of  the  chalice,  to 
"  Margret  daughter  and  heire  of  Jo.  Warwicke," 
and  the  quartering  No.  3  by  the  fact  that  Margret's 
mother  was  11  Maud  daughter  and  co-heire  of  Sir 
John  Arderne"  ;2  but  it  is  noticeable  that  the  tinc- 
tures assigned  to  Warwick  in  the  funeral  certificate 
of  "Peter  Bold  de  Vptonne,  Esquire,  1605,"  do 
not  agree  with  those  given  in  the  Visitation  of  1 580, 
the  latter  being  gules  and  or  instead  of  argent  and 
sable.  The  Bold  crest  is  here  stated  to  be  "  beaked 
gules " ;  the  only  quartering  allowed  to  Bold  of 
Upton  is  "  2  and  3  Warwicke,"  while  the  crescent 
is  said  to  be  "over  all,"  which  seems  difficult  to 
understand. 

The  inscription 3  reads  : 


1  For  the  tinctures  see  Helsby's  Ormerod,  ii.  484  ;  Cheshire  and 
Lancashire  Funeral  Certificates,  ed.  by  J.  Paul  Rylands,  F.S.A. 
(Record  Society  of  Lancashire  and  Cheshire,  vi.),  21. 

8  The  Visitation  of  Cheshire  in  the  Year  1580,  ed.  by  J.  Paul 
Rylands,  F.S.A.  (Harl.  Soc,  xviii.),  34. 

3  The  inscription  is  in  two  lines  (though  here  for  clearness  shown 
in  three),  beginning  Carolus  and  tempore.  The  upper  line,  as  may 
be  seen  on  the  plate,  goes  round  the  cup. 


The  Overchurch  Chalice  81 
(^aro/u<f  hold,  Ji fiuy  ^tri  So/T  Jl^jton  armic^ri 
dec/it  /unc  Caficern  eccC/it  iCdeiri  eodm^ 
tempore  dec/it  idis  SiSiam    ) 6/  8 

The  donor  was  presumably  the  second  son  of 
Peter  Bold  of  Upton  (died  25th  October  1605)  \  ms 
nephew  Peter  sold  the  Upton  estate,  and  our  county 
historian  troubles  no  more  about  the  family. 

The  Bible  is  extant,  and  an  account  of  it  appeared 
in  the  Parish  Magazine  of  191 1.  It  is  a  Geneva 
or  94  Breeches  Bible."  The  title-page  of  the  Old 
Testament  is  missing ;  that  of  the  New  Testament 
bears  the  imprint  of  Christopher  Barker,  London, 
1599. 

Accompanying  the  chalice  is  a  small  paten  ; 
diameter  of  top  3 \  inches,  of  foot  if  inches,  height 
1  inch,  weight  2\  ounces.  Engraved  on  the  base 
are  the  initials  C  B  with  a  graceful  ropework  pat- 
tern. The  engraving  is  not  deep  enough  to  allow 
of  a  rubbing.  Both  pieces  bear  the  same  marks, 
which  appear  to  be — 1,  The  date  letter  d  within 
a  shield  (i.e.  16 18-9);  2  and  3,  the  lion  passant 
guardant  and  lion's  head  crowned — London  marks  ; 
and  4,  a  monogram  c.  I  or  I*  c,  the  I  being  the  larger 
and  bisecting  the  c  in  pale ;  for  what  maker  these 
initials  stand  I  have  been  unable  to  discover. 


F 


82 


THE  ROYAL  MANOR  AND  PARK  OF 
SHOTWICK 

By  Ronald  Stewart- Brown,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

Read  29th  February  191 2. 


A ROYAL  manor  and  a  royal  park,  environing  the 
remains  of  a  Norman  castle,  which  continued 
in  the  hands  of  the  earls  of  Chester  and  of  the 
Crown  until  the  seventeenth  century,  offers  an  at- 
tractive subject  for  historical  investigation.  For, 
apart  from  the  natural  notoriety  attaching  to  the 
possessions  and  occasional  residences  of  kings  and 
earls,  a  royal  manor  generally  presents  a  wider  and 
more  accessible  field  for  research  than  a  private 
estate.  The  history  of  celebrated  or  interesting 
private  places  frequently  lies  buried  in  collections 
of  deeds  and  documents  either  hard  to  come  at,  ill- 
arranged,  carelessly  guarded,  churlishly  hoarded, 
or  lost  for  ever.  But  with  the  possessions  of  the 
Crown  all  is  different,  and  during  the  last  twenty- 
five  years  a  mass  of  historical  material  has  been 
gradually  reduced  to  order  and  made  accessible  at 
the  Public  Record  Office.  Nearly  every  step  in 
the  history  of  a  Crown  manor  will  at  the  time  of  its 
occurrence  have  been  entered  on  the  records,  and, 
given  the  will  to  search  an  index,  and  some  know- 
ledge of  the  kind  of  records  which  are  likely  to  yield 
good  fruit,  a  large  amount  of  information  may  easily 
be  garnered  from  which  a  more  or  less  satisfactory 
history  can  be  produced. 

How  little  our  historians  have  explored  the  field 


I 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  83 

in  this  case  may  be  seen  in  the  meagre  and  con- 
fusing notes  in  the  pages  of  Ormerod  and  his 
copyists  on  the  history  of  Shotwick,  which,  as  we 
shall  see,  in  fact  illustrates  at  every  turn  the  close 
connection  of  Cheshire  with  the  royal  Courts  and 
favourites,  and  establishes  many  most  interesting 
links  with  celebrated  strangers  and  famous  Cheshire 
families. 

Shotwick  lies  a  few  miles  north  of  the  city  of 
Chester  and  borders  on  the  river  Dee.  Apart  from 
its  historical  associations,  it  has  now  no  very  im- 
portant features,  but  is  a  quiet  and  retiring  tract  of 
pleasant  country,  which  the  traveller  through  Wirral 
by  the  western  Chester  road  or  into  Wales  by 
Queen's  Ferry  barely  glances  at  and  seldom  visits. 
A  small  church,  probably  of  Saxon  foundation,  the 
grassy  mounds  of  the  castle  site  and  a  seventeenth- 
century  hall,  are  its  only  visible  points  of  interest, 
but  around  the  whole  district  there  is  the  glamour 
which  arises  from  a  connection  with  many  stirring 
events  in  the  history  of  Cheshire. 

Among  the  numerous  traditions  and  legends  of 
the  river  Dee  there  is  one  directly  referring  to 
Shotwick,  which,  under  the  title  of  "  The  Lady's 
Shelf,"  has  been  included  by  Egerton  Leigh  in  his 
Ballads  and  Legends  of  Cheshire.  The  story  tells 
how,  upon  a  ledge  of  rock  on  Hilbre,  the  Benedic- 
tine monk  who  occupied  the  cell  there  once  found  a 
dying  maiden  washed  up  by  the  sea.  Before  she 
died  she  told  the  monk  her  tale  : 

A  knightly  pennon  floats  abroad 
From  Shotwyke's  turrets  high  ; 
Of  Shotwyke's  tower  my  sire  is  lord, 
His  only  daughter  I. 

She  had  fallen  in  love  with  her  father's  esquire, 
Edgar,  an  orphan  who  had  been  brought  up  with 
her ;  but  her  father  wished  her  to  marry  Llewelyn, 


84     The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


a  rich  Welsh  knight.  When  sailing  one  day  near 
the  Point  of  Aire,  on  the  way  to  the  knight's  home, 
her  father,  to  gain  her  consent,  told  her  Edgar  was 
dead.  The  maiden  fainted  and  was  carried  away 
by  the  sea,  leaving  her  father  crying  in  his  despair 
that  Edgar  was  not  really  dead  ;  but  all  too  late,  as 
she  breathed  her  last  when  she  had  told  the  monk 
her  sad  story. 

In  "  Certayne  verses  wrytten  by  a  Werralyte  to 
the  tune  of  Upp  Willy  e,  it's  tyme  to  ryse"  in  161 5, 
there  is  a  curious  description,  in  the  form  of  a  hunt- 
ing song,  of  the  journey  and  adventures  of  a  hare 
which,  pursued  by  hounds,  starts  from  Flintshire, 
crosses  the  Dee  in  a  collier's  vessel  to  Dawpool, 
runs  through  Wirral  to  Chester  and  over  Saltney 
Marsh  to  meet  her  fate  near  Hawarden.  The 
writer  is  full  of  ardour  for  the  chase,  and  comments 
strongly  on  the  non-sporting  tendencies  of  some 
of  the  owners  whose  land  the  hare  traverses. 
After  leaving  Thurstaston  and  Oldfield,  the  hare 
travels 

Then  to  Geaton  to  Mr  Glegges : 
hele  suffer  noe  poore  at  his  house  to  begge ; 
he  hath  noe  hounde  to  rune  at  the  hare 
but  kepes  a  curre  against  poor  and  bare. 
Ore  Burton  Hill  to  Puddington  halle ; 
there  she  would  be  bould  to  calle, 
&  she  hoped  that  she  might  pass 
for  he  was  att  service  and  she  was  at  mass. 
The  hare  did  shoute  as  shee  went  bye, 
and  then  they  came  out  with  a  gallant  crye. 
The  hare  did  thinke  ye  worlde  went  rounde — 
4  huntinge  homes  at  once  did  sounde  ! 
She  found  them  pastyme  for  a  whyle, 
in  a  leawge  she  dubbled  they  lost  a  myle. 
To  Shotwicke  parke  the  hare  she  crost 
and  then  the  hounds  the  game  had  lost. 
The[y]  did  noe  good  on  Saugho  ground 
because  the  pav[i]er  had  stolen  the  hounde  ; 
the[y]  were  angrie  at  him  and  vext  in  mynde 
for  stealinge  a  whelp  of  the  best  kynde. 


SKETCH  PLAN  OF  SHOTWICK  PARISH 
(Scale,  i  inch  to  a  mile) 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  85 


The  hounds  were  seekinge  here  and  there 
&  she  went  on  with  a  fleay  in  her  eare. 


God  send  us  ail  in  heaven  a  place 
till  everie  hare  rune  such  a  race : 
&  ever  let  us  be  merrie  amonge 
and  soe  Fie  ende  my  huntinge  songe.1 

But  to  collect  such  legends  and  ballads  is  not  the 
object  of  the  writer,  and  we  will  now  pass  to  the 
realities  of  recorded  facts. 

There  are  properly  three  Shotwicks.  Church 
Shotwick  (or  Shotwick  Churchtown),  now  a  town- 
ship of  some  560  acres,  lies,  with  its  church,  on  the 
north,  next  to  Puddington ;  then  comes  Rough 
Shotwick  (or  Woodbank),  a  tiny  narrow  strip  of 
under  200  acres  running  east  and  west ;  and  then 
the  extra-parochial  estate  known  as  Shotwick  Park 
(about  1000  acres),  which  was  created  out  of  the 
royal  manor  of  Castle  Shotwick.  Southwards 
again,  and  nearer  to  the  city  of  Chester,  lie  Great 
and  Little  Saughall,  which  are  both  involved  in  the 
telling  of  this  history.  Capenhurst  completes  the 
parish  of  Shotwick,  but  we  shall  have  little  or 
nothing  to  say  of  it. 

u  Sotowiche "  appears  in  Domesday  Book  as  a 
possession  of  the  Church  of  St.  Werburgh  at 
Chester.  In  1093  Hugh  Lupus,  Earl  of  Chester, 
granted  a  charter  to  the  Benedictine  monks  of  St. 
Werburgh,  and  Cheshire  historians  have  assumed 
that  this  charter  merely  confirmed  the  church  in 
its  possession  of  Shotwick,  but  they  have  reckoned 
without  the  manor  of  Castle  Shotwick.  Either  the 
Shotwick  of  Domesday  included  Castle  Shotwick,  or 
it  did  not.  If  it  did  not,  then  the  monks  only  got 
in  1093  what  the  church  had  before,  namely,  Church 
Shotwick  ;  but  if  Castle  Shotwick  was  included  in 
the  Domesday  Shotwick,  it  is  certain  that  the  monks 

1  Printed  in  The  Cheshire  Sheaf %  3rd  Ser.  i.  10. 


86    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


did  not  get  it  by  the  charter  of  Hugh  Lupus  or  by 
any  other  means.  For  what  they  got  was  only  a 
third  part  of  Shotwick,  and  this  part  can  only  have 
been  Church  Shotwick.  The  words  of  the  charter1 
are  :  "  .  .  .  et  tertiam  partem  de  Berewardes- 
leia  et  Edinchale  et  Sotowica."  The  same  words 
("  Sotowica  "  being  spelt  "  Sotewica  ")  are  in  the  con- 
firming charter  at  Eaton,  temp.  Earl  Randle,  which 
recites  the  grant  of  Hugh  Lupus.2  Ormerod's  copy 
of  the  1093  charter  (vol.  i.  p.  12)  has  "  Sotowicam  "  ; 
and  this  is  perhaps  why  he  treated  it  as  a  grant  of 
the  whole  of  Shotwick.  It  is  noteworthy  that  he 
himself  assumes  that  one-third  only  of  Edenchale 
(Idenshaw)  was  granted  (vol.  ii.  305).  The  present 
area  of  the  three  Shotwicks  is  1733  acres,  and 
Church  Shotwick  is  just  one-third  of  this. 

The  monks  also  got  a  third  of  Great  Saughall 
(the  other  two-thirds  remained  in  the  hands  of  the 
Earl  and  the  Crown  until  the  seventeenth  century),3 
and  the  Abbot  of  Chester  undoubtedly  exercised 
manorial  jurisdiction  in  his  court  leet  of  Saughall 
over  some  of  the  inhabitants  (perhaps  only  his 
tenants)  of  Church  Shotwick.4  The  Abbey  would 
appear  to  have  become  lord  paramount  of  a  manor 
of  Church  Shotwick,  which  was  held  under  it  by  a 
family  bearing  the  territorial  name.  By  the  mar- 
riage of  a  Hockenhull  in  the  thirteenth  century  with 
the  heiress  of  the  Shotwicks,  the  manor  of  Church 
Shotwick  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Hockenhulls, 
who  held  it  until  the  eighteenth  century,  by  which 
time  all  knowledge  of  the  paramount  lordship  of  the 
Church  had  long  been  lost.    The  manor  was  then 

1  Printed  in  the  Monasticon  (1789  edn.,  vol.  ii.  385-6). 

2  See  the  photograph  of  it  in  Chester  Arch.  Soc.  (N.S.),  vi.,  and 
translation  and  transcript  in  Chester  Arch.  Soc.  (O.S.),  i-  476-7,  and 
Jour.  Brit.  Arch.  Assoc.,  185 1,  p.  318. 

3  Seeflost,  pp.  120  and  125. 

4  See  Trans.  Hist.  Soc.  Lanes,  and  Chesh.,  vol.  vi.  81,  vol.  xix.  (N.S.) 
64  ;  Miscell.  Pal.,  19  ;  and  the  Abbot's  Plea  to  Qmo  Warranto,  in  31 
Edw.  III. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  87 


purchased  by  Samuel  Bennett,  and  is  now  vested 
in  his  representatives.  So  much  for  Church  Shot- 
wick, with  which  we  shall  not  have  much  further 
concern  in  this  history.1 

Assuming  that  the  Domesday  Shotwick  belong- 
ing to  the  Church  included  all  the  three,  a  cause 
must  be  found  for  the  evolution  of  the  manor  of 
Castle  Shotwick.  It  is  possible,  in  that  case,  that 
Hugh  Lupus,  who  shortly  after  the  Conquest  be- 
came holder  of  the  whole  of  Cheshire  under  King 
William,  built,  or  formed  the  design  of  building,  the 
Castle  of  Shotwick  before  he  granted  his  charter  of 
1093,  and  whilst  he  was  in  possession  of  the  whole 
of  Shotwick ;  that  out  of  it  he  reserved  an  area  of 
demesne  surrounding  the  Castle,  and  that  this  it 
was  which  became  the  Royal  Manor  of  (Castle) 
Shotwick.    The  rest  he  gave  back  to  the  Church.2 

As  regards  Rough  Shotwick  or  Woodbank,3  por- 
tions were  undoubtedly  within  the  royal  manor,  and 
none  of  it  would  appear  ever  to  have  been  held  by  the 
Church.  Parts  stayed  in  the  hands  of  the  barons 
of  Wich  Malbank,  but  are  not  clearly  traceable 

1  Mr.  F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A.,  has  in  preparation  a  full  account  of  it. 

2  Another  view  of  the  Domesday  Book  record  may  be  stated. 
Castle  Shotwick  may  very  well  have  been  formed  from  the  Malbank 
manor  of  Salghall,  which  in  1086  had  an  assessment  of  6  hides,  a 
large  one  as  compared  with  the  church  manors  there  and  in  Shotwick, 
which  were  of  1  hide  each — making  8  hides  in  all.  Those  church 
manors  did  not  belong  to  the  earl,  but  on  the  dissolution  of  the  body 
of  canons  or  other  clergy  at  St.  Werburgh's  to  make  way  for  the  new 
abbey,  the  church  lands  might  technically  be  considered  to  revert  to 
him  as  an  escheat.  He  would  then  grant  the  lands  to  the  abbey.  If, 
according  to  the  view  adopted  in  the  text,  the  church  had  third  parts 
only  of  Saughall  and  Shotwick,  each  of  these  vills  would  be  of  3  hides 
assessment,  so  that  2  hides  of  the  Malbank  holding  must  remain  to 
be  accounted  for.  These  may  have  belonged  to  an  unnamed  vill 
absorbed  in  Castle  Shotwick  (see  note,  p.  94).  It  is  possible,  as 
comparison  with  the  general  wording  of  the  charter  suggests,  that 
Ormerod's  reading,  Sotowicam,  is  that  intended  ;  in  which  case  some 
modification  of  this  note  would  be  necessary. — Ed. 

3  There  was  perhaps  some  distinction  between  the  two  which  is 
now  lost.  In  the  mise  levied  31  Henry  VI  on  the  creation  of  the 
Prince  as  Earl  of  Chester  (Ormerod,  i.  882,  ii.  876),  "  Rough  Shot- 
wick" paid  2s.  8d.  and  41  Magna  Salghall  cum  Woodbank"  16s. 


88    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

among  the  maze  of  their  heirs.1  We  find  upon  the 
Close  Roll  of  1 6th  September  1240  an  order  which 
probably  relates  to  land  in  Rough  Shotwick.  It 
was  addressed  to  John  de  Lexington,  justiciar  of 
Chester,  and  commanded  an  inquiry,  on  the  oath  of 
men  of  the  neighbourhood  of  "Shotewic,"  whether 
William  Maubanc  (doubtless  the  first  baron)  ever 
gave  to  Colebrand  of  Shotwick,  his  serviens,  four 
bovates  of  land  and  a  croft  in  Shotwick,  whether 
on  his  death  Godwin  Opendeur  his  son  succeeded, 
and  so  the  land  descended  from  heir  to  heir  to  Adam, 
son  of  Colebrand  Widhond,  who  was  killed,  so  it 
was  said,  in  the  Holy  Land  in  the  presence  of 
Randle,  once  Earl  of  Chester,2  and  whether  Simon, 
son  of  Agnes,  was  the  next  heir  of  the  said  Adam 
his  grandfather  (avus).* 

Another  part  of  Rough  Shotwick,  perhaps  the 
major  part,  passed  to  the  Hootons,  and  from  them 
to  the  Stanleys,  by  whom  a  so-called  manor  was 
sold  in  1637.4 

By  whom  or  when  the  Castle  of  Shotwick  was 
built  there  is  no  evidence  to  show.  It  has  generally 
been  assumed  to  have  been  the  work  of  the  Nor- 
man earls  of  Chester  as  a  protection  against  the 
inroads  of  the  WTelsh,5  and  I  have  already  given  a 
reason  for  thinking  it  was  built  by  Hugh  Lupus 
before  1093.    There  can  be  little  doubt  that  it  was 

1  See  Hall's  Nantwich  for  the  descent.  Lord  Cholmondeley,  whose 
family  ultimately  acquired  19/20  of  the  barony,  was  a  freeholder  in 
Woodbank  in  1668.  See  Mortimer's  Wirral,  appendix  (Randle 
Holme's  account).    See  also  Appendix  II  hereto. 

3  Perhaps  in  12 18,  when  Randle  III  was  at  Jerusalem. 

3  Cal  Close  Roll. 

*  For  deeds  of  the  Hootons  see  Chester  Arch.  Soc.  (N.S.),  vi.  167. 
For  the  later  title,  see  Lysons'  Cheshire,  776.  An  enclosure  of  Wood- 
bank  Common  took  place  about  1650.  See  Spec.  Comm.  (Chester), 
16  Car.  I,  Mich.  13:  Sir  John  Banks  (A.G.)  v.  Sir  R.  Wilbraham, 
Wm.  Gamul,  W.  Cookson,  Ric.  Chamberlain,  J.  Clarke,  Thos. 
Hiccock,  T.  Crosse,  and  others.  This  action  also  related  to  the 
wastes  of  Great  and  Little  Saughall,  Crabwall,  and  Mollington. 

6  Shotwick  Castle  is  not  in  the  list  of  eleventh-century  Norman 
castles  given  by  Mrs.  Armitage  in  Eng.  Hist.  Review,  xix.  417. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  89 


intended  to  command  an  important  ford  of  Dee 
leading  into  Wales,  and  it  seems  likely  that  it  took 
the  place  of  an  earlier  fortification  of  a  ruder  kind. 
Some  scattered  details  about  it  are  collected  later 
on.1  I  have  not  found  any  references  to  it  until  the 
middle  of  the  thirteenth  century,  but  it  seems  very 
probable  that  it  was  in  existence  long  before  that. 
In  1 1 56  we  are  told  that  Henry  II  led  his  army 
against  the  Welsh  to  Chester,  and  encamped  upon 
the  marsh  of  the  Dee  at  Saltney.2  If  Shotwick 
Castle  was  then  in  existence  it  must  surely  have 
been  used  by  him;  and  also  in  1165  when  he  was 
encamped  "  apud  Wirhalam,"  whence  he  had  retired 
after  a  defeat  by  the  Welsh  on  the  Berwyn  Moun- 
tains.3 It  has  been  stated  that  on  one  occasion  he 
sailed  thence  to  Ireland,  but  I  have  not  found  any 
record  of  this.  Shotwick  Castle  is  not  mentioned 
in  1237  when,  upon  the  death  of  John  Scot,  Earl 
of  Chester,  Henry  III  took  possession  of  the  earl- 
dom, together  with  all  its  castles,  which  he  subse- 
quently granted  to  John,  Earl  of  Lincoln.4  Nor 
do  we  find  Shotwick  named  among  the  castles  of 
Cheshire  of  which  John  le  Strange,  the  justiciar  of 
the  earl's  palatine  court,  was  appointed  constable 
during  pleasure  in  1241.5  But  we  know  the  manor 
was  a  source  of  royal  revenue  at  this  date,  for  in 
September  1241  the  justice  of  Chester  was  ordered 
to  inquire  whether  Gilbert  de  Woodchurch6  had 
fallen  into  poverty  by  reason  of  the  farm  which  he 

1  P.  128. 

2  Powel's  Wales  (1697),  p.  173,  quoted  by  Ormerod  (Helsby), 
i.  230. 

3  Eyton,  Court  and  Itinerary  of  Henry  II,  pp.  82-3. 

4  Pat.  Roll  1237.  The  Cal,  Close  Roll  of  1216  contains  two  refer- 
ences to  land  of  Richard  de  Fordes  in  "  Shokerwik,"  Philip  de 
Albiniaco  and  Savory  de  Mauleon  (Malo  Leone)  being  ordered  to 
give  it  up  to  Stephen  de  Mara.  The  latter  was  a  Cheshire  man,  but 
the  reference  is  probably  not  to  Shotwick,  which  was  then  still  in  the 
hands  of  the  earls  of  Chester,  but  to  Shokerwick  in  Co.  Somerset. 

6  Pat.  Roll  1 24 1. 

6  For  him  see  Ormerod  (1882),  ii.  521. 


90    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

held,  unwillingly,  as  he  said,  of  the  manor  of  Shot- 
wick, and  had  been  forced  to  sell  his  inheritance.1 

In  1245  Henry  III  and  his  Queen  came  to 
Chester  with  a  great  army  and  almost  all  the  nobles 
of  England.2  After  a  week's  stay,  perhaps  at  Shot- 
wick, the  King  set  out  for  Wales  and  conducted 
an  ineffective  campaign  against  the  Welsh.  At 
the  end  of  October  he  was  back  at  Chester,  and 
before  he  left  on  November  3rd  we  find  it  recorded 
upon  the  patent  rolls  that  on  November  1st  he 
assigned  to  Owen,  son  of  Griffin,  "  the  houses  of 
Shotwick,"  for  the  reception  of  him  and  his  during 
pleasure.  This  was  accompanied  by  a  mandate  to 
John  de  Grey,  just  appointed  justiciar  of  Chester 
in  place  of  Le  Strange,  to  deliver  the  houses  up. 
Probably  they  had  been  included  in  the  justiciar's 
farm  leases  of  the  castles  of  Cheshire.  At  any  rate 
in  1250  we  find  Grey  ordered  to  deliver  the  castles 
which  he  had  at  farm  to  Alan  la  Zouche,  the  new 
justiciar,  who  had  to  keep  all  the  castles  in  the 
county  of  Chester  at  his  own  cost  in  the  time  of 
peace,  an  allowance  being  made  in  time  of  war. 
Commissioners  were  appointed  to  view  the  castles 
and  see  in  what  condition  they  were,  and  if  they 
were  stored  with  munitions  of  war  when  Grey 
handed  them  over.3  King  Henry  III  himself  visited 
Chester  in  the  autumn  of  1257,4  but  whether  he 
stayed  or  visited  at  Shotwick  does  not  appear. 

On  the  first  progress  of  Prince  Edward  into 
Cheshire,  we  are  informed  by  Dugdale 5  that  he 

1  Cal.  Close  Roll. 

2  Annates  Cestrienses  (Rec.  Soc). 

3  Pat.  Roll  of  July  1250.  Ormerod  gives  a  justiciar's  patent  of 
28  Ed.  I  in  his  Memoir  of  the  Cheshire  Do?nesday,  p.  24  (Miscell. 
Pal.).  Sir  W.  Trussell's  commission  of  1301  is  given  at  pp.  13-14  of 
Cheshire  Chanibe>  tains'  Accts.  (Rec.  Soc). 

4  Cal.  Close  Rolls,  August  6-17  and  September  12-15. 

6  Dugdale's  Baronage,  ii.  57.  He  gives  as  his  authority  "  Pat.  Edw. 
Princ  44  Hen.  Ill,  m.  5."  Neither  on  the  Pat.  nor  Close  Rolls  of  44 
Hen.  Ill  is  there  any  such  reference.    See  next  note. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick    9 1 

committed  the  custody  of  the  castles  of  Chester, 
Beeston,  and  Shotwick  to  Fulke  de  Orreby,  then 
justiciar  of  Chester.  This  appears  to  have  been 
about  1260,  and  in  that  year,  when  Henry  III  was 
at  Chester,  a  grand  council  of  the  barons  and 
knights  of  Chester  and  many  others  is  stated  to 
have  been  called  by  the  prince  at  a  meeting  at 
Shotwick  Castle  to  consult  upon  the  affairs  of  his 
territories,  though  the  documentary  evidence  is  now 
not  forthcoming.1 

Fulke  de  Orreby  died  on  23rd  August  1261,  and 
was  succeeded  as  justiciar,  and  as  custodian  of  the 
castles,  by  his  kinsman  Thomas  de  Orreby.  In 
December  1262,  Henry  III  sent  a  letter  to  the 
latter,  in  which  he  referred  to  the  serious  disturbance 
of  the  Marches  of  Wales  by  Llewelyn,  son  of  Griffin, 
the  Welsh  prince,  and  said  that  he  was  sending 
Alan  la  Zouche,  then  the  Justice  of  the  Forest  on 
this  side  Trent,  for  the  defence  of  the  Marches. 
Orreby  was  commanded  to  deliver  up,  without 
delay,  Shotwick,  Chester,  and  Beeston  castles  to 
Eudo,  Alan's  brother,  until  Alan  should  arrive, 
and  in  the  meantime  the  justiciar  was  to  behave 
himself  so  manfully  and  powerfully  about  the  defence 
of  those  parts  that  the  King  could  commend  his 
diligence  and  probity.2  On  3rd  April  1263,  a  peace 
was  arranged  at  Hereford  between  Prince  Edward 
and  the  Welsh  prince,  David,  son  of  Griffin,  son  of 
Llewelyn,  which  was  confirmed  on  May  26th.3 
David  was  granted  the  land  of  Dyffryn-clwyd  and 

1  Ormerod  (i.  liv.  11.)  quotes  a  Latin  passage  from  Cowper's  MS. 
which  refers  to  Rot.  Pat.  44  Hen.  Ill,  m.  1  dorso  as  the  authority  for 
this  statement.  Like  the  last  reference  there  is  no  such  entry  on  the 
Pat.  or  Close  Rolls.  I  can  only  imagine  they  had  seen  the  Chancery 
(or  Recognizance)  Roll  of  Chester  for  the  date  in  question.  It  is  not 
known  now  to  exist.  A  large  number  of  important  persons  were  un- 
doubtedly summoned  to  Chester  in  1260;  see  Rymer  (1745  edition), 
vol.  i.  part  2,  fo.  57. 

2  Cal.  Pat.  Rolls. 
8  Cal,  Pat.  Rolls. 


92    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


Cynmeirch  until  he  could  obtain  his  inheritance  be- 
yond Conway  by  the  aid  of  the  Prince.  But  during 
the  present  Welsh  war  Edward  undertook,  when- 
ever necessary,  and  if  he  thought  fit,  to  receive 
David  in  the  bailey  of  the  castle  of  Hawarden  and 
at  Shotwick  ;  presumably  as  places  of  refuge  from 
the  other  Welsh  tribes  with  whom  the  prince  was 
still  at  war.  A  constable  of  the  Castle  of  Shotwick 
occurs  in  1274  in  the  person  of  one  Roger  Gille,1 
and  in  this  year  the  justiciar  received  an  order  to 
have  the  King's  demesne  lands  there  tilled  and  sown.2 
Edward  I  paid  a  visit  next  year  to  Chester  when 
he  also  visited  Birkenhead.3  He  was  there  again 
in  July  1277,  and  his  itinerary  included  Birkenhead 
(August  2  and  4),  Ince  (August  11),  Bromborough 
(August  12  and  13),  after  which  he  crossed  the  Dee 
to  Basingwerk,  and  eventually  got  back  to  Chester 
on  September  2.4  In  the  autumn  of  1278  the  King 
himself  again  came  to  Chester  from  Shrewsbury. 
On  September  5th  he  was  at  Shotwick  Castle,  from 
which  he  dates  a  letter  close.  He  then  proceeded 
to  Rhuddlan  Castle  and  Flint,  whence  he  returned 
to  Shotwick,  where  he  was  again  upon  the  15th, 
1 6th,  and  17th  of  September.5  His  visit  of  course 
was  connected  with  the  Welsh  wars,  and  one  of 
several  of  his  letters  patent  which  are  dated  from 
Shotwick  on  the  17th  September  is  addressed  to 
Llewelyn  the  Welsh  prince,  and  concerned  the 
return  of  hostages.  It  was  no  doubt  upon  one  of 
these  occasions  that  the  King  crossed  the  Dee  into 
Wales  on  horseback,  passing  over  Shotwick  ford ; 6 
to  this  we  shall  refer  later  on.    In   1281,  upon 

1  Witness  to  a  charter  in  Harl.  MS.  2099,  329  ;  and  see  post,  p.  95. 
3  Cal.  Close  Roll. 
3  Cal.  Close  Roll. 
*  Cal.  Close  Roll. 

6  Cals.  of  Patent,  Close,  and  Fine  Rolls. 

8  Ormerod (Helsby),  i.  231,  quoting  Cowper's  MS.  ;  Taylor,  Historic 
Notices  of  Flint,  p.  15,  quoting  a  Harl.  MS.    See  $dstt  p.  130. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  93 

Llewelyn's  death,  a  peace  was  made  with  the  Welsh  ; 
and  from  this  date  must  be  reckoned  the  gradual 
decay  of  Shotwick  Castle,  for,  although  there  were 
many  subsequent  brushes  with  the  Welsh  in  the 
lower  and  middle  marches,  the  northern  borders 
seem  to  have  required  but  little  control,  and  the 
fords  of  the  estuary  of  Dee  would  need  less  watch- 
ing. From  this  time  onward  the  custody  of  the 
castle  and  demesne  surrounding  it  appears  to  have 
been  treated  as  a  mark  of  royal  favour  and  honour 
rather  than  as  a  post  of  any  real  military  im- 
portance. 

In  1278,  or  earlier,  Roger  le  Strange,  of  Elles- 
mere,  received  a  grant  for  life  from  the  King  of  the 
manor  and  fishery  of  [Castle]  Shotwick.  Le  Strange 
was  a  person  of  great  influence,  and  afterwards  held 
the  important  office  of  justice  of  the  forest  this  side 
Trent.  He  was  also  bailiff  and  keeper  of  the 
castle  of  the  Peak,  and  in  July  1277,  when  Edward  I 
was  at  Chester,  he  was  given  the  custody  of  the 
castles  of  Dinasbran  and  Oswestry.1  In  1275  the 
Justiciar  of  Chester  was  ordered  to  allow  Le  Strange 
to  take  two  stags  in  the  forest  of  Wirral,  which  were 
to  be  salted  and  brought  to  Westminster  for  the 
King's  use  at  Michaelmas,  a  similar  order  to  the 
sheriff  of  Lancashire  permitting  ten  harts  to  be 
taken  in  the  King's  brother's  chace  of  Liverpool, 
i.e.  Toxteth  Park,  then  in  the  hands  of  Edmund  of 
Lancaster.2 

During  the  time  that  Roger  le  Strange  held 
the  lordship  of  the  manor  of  Shotwick,  an  "  extent," 
or  valuation  and  survey,  of  the  manor  was  made. 
The  original  document,  on  a  single  sheet  of  parch- 
ment and  more  than  600  years  old,  has  been  pre- 
served at  the  Record  Office,3  and  affords  some 

1  Cal.  Close  Roll. 
%  Cal.  Close  Roll. 

8  Surveys  and  Rentals,  P.R.O.,  portfolio  6,  No.  33  ;  and  see 
Appendix  I,  where  a  translation  of  the  Extent  is  printed. 


94    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


interesting  information.  On  8th  April  1280,  Robert 
de  Poole  (one  of  the  earliest  recorded  members  of 
the  well-known  Wirral  family),  Nicholas  de  Yucflet, 
and  Philip  de  Say  summoned  before  them  a  body 
of  jurors,  and  a  kind  of  minor  Domesday  inquest  of 
the  royal  manor  took  place,  the  results  being  re- 
corded in  writing.  The  jury  reported  that  Le 
Strange,  as  lord  of  the  manor,  held  thirty  bovates 
(or  oxgangs)  of  land  in  demesne,  that  is,  as  his 
home  farm.  Each  bovate  (which  was  the  varying 
area  of  ground  which  one  ox  could  keep  in  tillage) 
here  contained  only  three  Cheshire  acres,  and  was 
valued  at  is.  an  acre.  The  demesne  land  therefore 
represented  a  value  of  £4,  10s.  The  pannage 
(payments  made  for  permission  to  feed  swine  in  the 
woods)  produced  10s.,  and  the  fallen  wood  6s.  6d.  a 
year.  The  grazing  upon  the  common  lands  of  the 
manor  brought  in  19s.,  which  was  paid  in  varying 
proportions  by  the  townships  of  Shotwick,  Saughall, 
and  Crabwall,1  and  also  by  Woodbank,  which  is  not 
dignified  by  that  title.  Originally  no  doubt  the 
pasturage  was  all  paid  for  in  kind  or  by  services 
to  the  lord,  but  commutation  into  money  rents  was 
taking  place  ;  and  so  we  find,  whilst  Saughall  paid 
10s.  and  Woodbank  4s.,  Shotwick  paid  is.  6d. 
or  gave  eighteen  boon  hens,  did  a  day's  plough- 
ing for  the  lord  or  paid  iod.,  and  one  day's  labour 
for  him  in  the  harvest  time,  or  is.  6d.  Crabwall's 
one  day's  ploughing  was  only  worth  6d.,  and  its 
boonday  8d.  The  next  source  of  income  re- 
ported was  the  fishery  in  Dee.  This  was  valued 
at  £6,  13s.  4d.,  since  four  weirs  (or  traps)  were 
leased  out  for  £4.,  and  the  men  of  Saughall  paid 
£2,  13s.  4d.  for  the  general  right  of  fishing  with 
nets.    The  right  of  the  lord  to  half  the  catch  of 

1  This  cannot  have  been  Crabwall  proper,  which  was  a  Mainwaring 
property  and  included  in  Blacon  ;  but  an  outlying  part  of  Crabwall 
may  have  been  absorbed  in  Castle  Shotwick,  and  the  two  hides 
mentioned  in  note  2,  p.  87  might  thus  be  accounted  for. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  95 

salmon  is  carefully  noted.  From  these  various 
sources  therefore  the  value  of  the  manor  is  set  down 
as  £12,  1 8s.  rod.  The  jury  next  passed  to  an 
enumeration  of  the  free  tenants  and  of  the  bondmen. 
Of  the  former  four  are  named,  holding  by  ancient 
feoffment,  or  by  charter,  two  or  more  bovates  of 
land.  One  by  his  tenure  was  obliged  to  act  as  the 
summoner  of  the  manor  court  and  as  the  carrier  of 
letters  and  messages  relating  to  the  affairs  of  the 
manor,  and  paid  no  rent.  Another  paid  3s.  4d.  for 
two  bovates  in  Great  Saughall.  Richard  de  Dom- 
ville  held  four  bovates  and  a  croft  and  paid  but  iod., 
whilst  Dobyn  and  his  fellows  paid  20s.  for  (appar- 
ently) half  that  amount  in  Woodbank.  A  long  list 
of  bondmen's  holdings  follows,  apparently  in  Saug- 
hall, of  one  or  two  bovates,  at  the  uniform  rent 
(with  exceptions)  of  3s.  a  bovate,  or  is.  an  acre. 
Twenty-three  holdings  are  named,  and  the  total  of 
twenty-eight  bovates  brought  in  £4,  9s.  3d.  But 
besides  the  money  rents  each  bondman  owed  a  set 
of  services  to  the  lord  which  are  duly  set  out.  A 
day's  ploughing  in  the  winter  at  the  bondman's  own 
expense  and  with  all  the  oxen  working  in  his  own 
plough ;  another  day's  ploughing  in  Lent  at  the 
lord's  expense,  and  three  days'  work  by  one  man  in 
the  autumn — four  days  in  all — were  required  of  most, 
even  of  Edusa  the  widow.  Whilst  there  is  no  men- 
tion at  all  of  the  castle,  the  name  of  Roger  Gille, 
who  was,  we  know,  the  constable  in  1274,1  occurs 
among  the  bondmen.  He  held  a  double  set  of 
bovates.  Two  services  are  next  mentioned  for 
which  a  money  equivalent  could  hardly  have  been 
substituted.  The  men  of  Saughall  were  bound  to 
collect  a  cartload  of  rushes  (no  doubt  to  strew  the 
house  or  possibly  the  castle)  upon  the  coming  of 
the  lord  ;  and  if  the  serjeant  of  Shotwick  was  then 
without  a  stock  of  corn,  five  or  six  Saughall  men 
1  See  p.  92. 


96    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

had  to  do  a  day's  work  in  the  lord's  grange  getting 
provender  for  the  horses.  The  total  annual  value 
of  the  whole  manor  is  set  down  as  16s.  iod., 

which  represents  nearly  ^300  of  our  present  money. 
The  royal  manor  was  therefore  a  perquisite  which 
produced  a  fair  return. 

It  is  not  at  all  clear  at  this,  or  at  a  later,  date 
what  exactly  was  included  in  this  "manor"  of 
Shotwick  which  now  appears  for  the  first  time. 
It  is  certain  it  did  not  include  the  land  of  Church 
Shotwick,  but  how  far,  if  at  all,  that  township  was 
subject  to  the  manorial  jurisdiction  of  the  Crown 
and  its  grantees  is  not  certain.  The  Abbot  of 
St.  Werburgh's  jurisdiction  in  Church  Shotwick 
never  seems  to  have  clashed  with  that  of  the 
Crown,  otherwise  we  might  have  obtained  some 
information  on  the  point.  Little  Saughall  was 
practically  all  wood  at  this  date,  but  two-thirds  of 
Great  Saughall  and  part  of  Woodbank  appear  to 
have  been  subject,  at  this  date  at  any  rate,  to 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  royal  manor  of  Shotwick. 
Upon  the  whole  it  would  seem  that,  as  regards 
area,  probably  the  whole  of  what  is  now  known  as 
Shotwick  Park  and  also  the  greater  part  of  Great 
Saughall  were  within  the  manor,  whilst  it  had 
rights  of  jurisdiction  and  revenue  over  a  somewhat 
larger  area. 

The  fact  that  Le  Strange  held  the  Shotwick 
fishery  in  Dee  raised  some  difficulty  a  little  later, 
as  the  men  of  Chester,  who  had  a  lease  of  the 
fishery  of  Chester,  claimed  that  this  usually  included 
the  fishery  of  Shotwick.  In  this  they  were  suc- 
cessful, as  on  26th  November  1280  an  order  was 
made,  on  the  testimony  of  Gunselin  de  Badels- 
mere,  justiciar  of  Chester,  directed  to  Leonius  the 
Chamberlain,  to  allow  the  men  of  Chester  in  their 
"  farm  "  of  the  fishery  of  Chester,  a  deduction  of  8 
marks  in  respect  of  the  years  1278-80,  which  they 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  97 

ought  to  have  received  from  the  fishery  of  Shot- 
wick pertaining  to  the  fishery  of  Chester,  but  of 
which  they  were  deprived  by  the  grant  to  Roger 
le  Strange.1  In  later  years  it  is  clear  that  the 
Shotwick  fishery  was  a  separate  one  and  constituted 
an  important  item  in  the  leases  of  the  manor.  The 
Dee  was  full  of  similar  fisheries,  and  putting  aside 
the  ordinary  methods  of  fishing  with  nets,  it  is 
quite  probable,  though  it  does  not  seem  to  have 
been  generally  noted,  that  to  the  excessive  use  of 
fish  weirs,  "coups,"  fishyards  or  floodyards,  as  they 
were  called,  may  be  ascribed  much  of  the  gradual 
silting  up  of  the  Dee.  Their  construction,  abuse, 
and  effect  in  that  river,  and  in  the  Mersey,  are 
clearly  explained  in  a  memorial 2  compiled  in  1762 
in  support  of  the  application  made  by  Liverpool  for 
the  George's  Dock  Act.    From  this  we  learn  that — 

Coups  or  fish-yards  are  large  conical  baskets  made  of  twigs 
or  branches  of  trees,  closely  woven,  six  or  seven  feet  in  diameter 
at  the  mouth,  which  are  joined  together  in  rows,  and  then  made 
fast  to  the  ground  by  strong  piles  or  stakes,  driven  down  at  the 
edge  of  the  channels  at  low  water.  These  not  only  diminish 
the  depth  of  the  channel  by  six  or  seven  feet,  and  entangle  or 
overset  the  vessels  that  happen  to  run  on  them,  but  by  stopping 
and  collecting  the  sand,  weeds,  and  mud  which  is  carried  along 
with  the  stream,  by  degrees  form  a  bank  round  them,  which  in 
time  fills  up  the  channels  and  tracks  of  shipping  altogether. 
There  are  many  instances  of  channels  filled  and  removed  and 
of  flats  sunk  and  goods  damaged  by  this  absurd  and  mischievous 
manner  of  taking  fish,  tolerated  [in  1762]  in  no  other  part  of 
Britain  but  on  one  part  of  the  river  Dee  next  adjacent  to  the 
Mersey.  .  .  .  There  is  one  example  of  the  tendency  of  these  fish- 
yards  to  amass  the  sand  and  fill  up  the  channels  where  they  are 
placed,  that  ought  to  alarm  everyone  who  has  any  concern  in  or 
connection  with  the  trade  carried  on  in  the  river  Mersey,  which, 
if  not  timely  adverted  to,  it  is  to  be  feared  may  render  this  river 
quite  incapable  of  ships  of  considerable  burthen.  The  Rock 
Channel  is  the  only  channel  from  Hylelake  to  Liverpool.  About 
twenty-six  years  ago  this  channel  ran  very  near  the  shore  of 


1  Cal.  Close  Rolls,  1280. 

8  See  Touzeau's  Rise  and  Progress  of  Liverpool,  p.  527,  &c. 

G 


98    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

Wallasey  and  had  four  feet  of  water  in  it  at  the  lowest  spring- 
tides. At  the  edge  of  this  channel  the  fish-yards  were  then 
placed.  Seven  years  ago  the  fish-yards  had  occasioned  the 
filling  up  of  this  channel  and  a  new  one  had  arisen  nearer  to 
Burboe,  to  the  margin  of  which  the  fish-yards,  as  usual,  were 
removed.  This  channel  was  then  dry  at  low  spring-tide.  Now, 
from  the  same  cause,  it  is  advanced  still  farther  from  the  land ; 
the  channel  is  dry  at  low  neap-tide,  and  the  fish-yards  are  placed 
in  the  middle  of  it.  As  the  course  of  the  stream  is  thus  inter- 
rupted along  the  rock  land,  pursuing  the  easiest  course,  it  begins 
to  force  its  way  through  the  sand  of  Burboe,  and  has  actually 
opened  a  number  of  narrow  winding  gullets  through  the  bank, 
which  being  of  a  loose,  spungy  consistence,  the  gullets  are 
perpetually  varying  with  the  weather,  but  none  of  them  fit  for 
shipping.  The  consequence  of  this,  if  the  fish-yards  are  con- 
tinued, very  probably  will  be  that  Burboe  will  be  joined  to 
Wallasey  or  the  Rock  Point,  without  any  channel  between  them, 
and  the  sand  washed  from  Burboe  by  the  stream,  forcing  various 
passages  through  it,  will  settle  into  so  many  different  banks  in 
the  Channel  of  Formby,  and  render  it  intricate  and  incapable  of 
large  vessels  as  well  as  the  Rock  Channel ;  then  the  Mersey  will 
become  like  the  neighbouring  rivers  Dee,  Ribble,  and  Conway, 
fit  only  for  small  craft,  in  which  all  the  trade  of  Liverpool,  Man- 
chester, and  Warrington  must  be  carried  on. 

Returning  to  the  history  of  Shotwick,  we  find 
that  in  the  year  1284  Edward  I  paid  another  visit 
to  Chester,  and  on  10th  September  he  was  at  Shot- 
wick, whence  he  proceeded  to  Rhuddlan  and  Flint, 
returning  to  Chester.  He  was  again  at  Shotwick 
on  the  17th  September,1  and  this  is  the  last  record 
of  a  King's  visit,  though  the  Princes  of  Wales  were 
doubtless  more  often  there. 

Roger  le  Strange  died  about  131 1,  and  on  the 
7th  August  of  that  year  Edward  II  granted  the 
manor  of  Castle  Shotwick  to  Andrew  de  Kendale 
for  ten  years  at  a  rent  of  £20  per  annum,2  just  a 
little  more  than  it  had  produced  in  the  hands  of 
Le  Strange.  This  grant,  however,  was  soon  ter- 
minated, and  in  131 2   Kendale  was  ordered  to 

1  Cals.  of  Close  and  Pat.  Rolls.  Edward  II  was  at  Chester  in  13 10 
and  1 3 19,  but  there  is  no  record  that  he  went  to  Shotwick. 

2  Cal.  Fine  Rolls  and  Abbrev.  Rot.  Orig.  (Rec.  Comm.),  i.  182. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  99 

deliver  over  the  manor  to  Robert  de  Felton,  to 
whom,  on  account  of  his  good  services,  the  King, 
on  the  information  of  E.  de  Malo  Lacu  (Mauley), 
had  granted  it  for  life.1  This  grant  occurred  just 
before  Edward  II  made  over  to  his  son  Prince 
Edward  the  earldom  of  Chester  ;  and  in  the  charter 
(dated  24  November  13 12) 2  recording  this  gift, 
the  manor  of  Shotwick  is  specially  exempted,  but 
the  reversion  on  the  death  of  Felton  was  given  to 
the  Prince.  As  late  as  1 3 1 9  a  special  order 3  was 
directed  to  the  treasurer  and  barons  of  the  Exchequer, 
acquitting  Kendale  of  the  rent  under  his  cancelled 
lease.4  Felton  was  of  Luchin  (or  Litcham)  in  Nor- 
folk, and  had  served  in  the  Scotch  war  in  1306.  He 
was  made  governor  of  Scarborough  Castle  in  13 12, 
and  after  being  summoned  to  Parliament  as  Baron 
Felton  in  13 13, 5  died  the  next  year. 

For  the  next  few  years  the  manor  remained  in 
the  hands  of  the  earl,  and  the  accounts  of  the 
chamberlains  of  Chester6  contain  numerous  items 
relating  to  receipts  and  expenses  incurred  by  the 
reeve  or  bailiff,  the  names  of  William  Greathead, 
Alan  de  Hawkeston,  and  Hy.  Gille  occurring  about 
this  time  in  that  capacity.  In  1318  Jordan  de 
Kirkby,  and  Richard,  clerk,  of  Kirkby,  became 
bound  to  the  earl  for  the  sum  of  £/\,  os.  8d., 
apparently  the  value  of  corn  grown  in  the  manor.7 
In  1325-6  the  chamberlain  of  Chester  claimed  dis- 
charge for  £%  paid  to  Master  Robert  de  Helpeston, 
mason,  and  for  £\,  13s.  4d.  paid  to  William  de 
Bukeden,  for  various  work  done  in  the  manor.  It 

1  Cal.  Pat.  Rolls ,  131 2. 

2  Charter  Rolls.    See  also  Cal.  Close  Rolls,  Nov.  17,  1329. 

3  Cal.  Close  Rolls. 

4  In  the  Cal.  Pat.  Rolls,  1338,  And.  de  Kendale  appears  as  owing 
£21  odd  for  the  farm  of  the  manor. 

5  G.  E.  C,  Complete  Peerage. 

6  Rec.  Soc.  of  Lanes,  and  Ches.,  vol.  lix. 

7  Cal.  of  Ches.  Recog.  Roll  in  36/^  Report  Dep.  Keejjer,  hereafter 
referred  to  as  "  Ches.  Recog.  Roll." 


ioo    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

was  again  leased  out  in  1327,  but  the  name  of  the 
tenant  does  not  appear.  In  the  previous  year  a 
special  order1  was  issued  by  the  King  to  the 
chamberlain  ordering  repairs  to  the  castles  of 
Chester,  Flint,  Rhuddlan,  and  Beeston,  and  also 
to  cause  the  wells  and  houses  of  the  manor  of 
Shotwick  to  be  repaired,  and  the  houses  roofed. 
This  work  was  to  be  done  on  the  view  of  John  de 
Essheby,  of  Plemondstall,  the  escheator  of  Cheshire, 
and  the  King  ordered  the  cost  up  to  ^140  to  be 
allowed. 

It  will  be  observed  that  up  to  this  date  we  have 
heard  nothing  about  Shotwick  Park,  and  there  is 
a  very  good  reason  for  this  which  does  not  seem  to 
have  been  noticed  hitherto.  The  park  as  such  did 
not  in  fact  exist  until  the  first  year  of  Edward  III. 
In  1327,  the  King,  who,  as  Earl  of  Chester,  had 
doubtless  become  well  acquainted  with  the  sporting 
possibilities  of  the  manor  of  Shotwick,  determined 
to  create  a  park  there.  The  particular  portion  to 
be  dealt  with  is  indicated,  and  in  all  probability 
nearly  the  whole  of  the  land  in  the  manor  of  Castle 
Shotwick  was  enclosed.  On  October  1,  1327,  the 
King  issued  a  letter  close  to  Richard  de  Eumary, 
the  justiciar  of  Chester,  in  which,  after  reciting  his 
wish  4 'that  our  several  wood  called  '  Burnelleswode ' 
together  with  the  lands  belonging  to  it  in  our  manor 
of  Shotwick  should  be  a  park,"  he  ordered  the 
justiciar  to  enclose  them  without  delay  and  to  keep 
them  so  enclosed  as  a  park.2  Public  notice  of  the 
enclosure  was  to  be  given,  and  John  Paynel,  the 
chamberlain,  was  ordered  to  pay  the  expenses 
incurred  over  the  enclosure  out  of  the  revenues  of 
his  office.  The  process  of  creating  a  park  involved 
the  making  of  a  ditch  and  the  erection  of  palings 
all  round  it,  and,  in  some  cases,  the  building  of  a 

1  CaL  Close  Rolls. 

3  CaL  Close  Roll,  1327. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  101 

deer  leap  to  enable  the  deer  from  outside  to  enter, 
but  not  to  leave,  the  park.  We  only  hear  of  deer 
at  Shotwick,  but  perhaps  there  were  also  wild  boars. 
Besides  the  necessity  of  keeping  the  game  in, 
it  was  important  to  keep  the  wolves  out ;  there 
were  some  in  Delamere,  and  enough  in  Macclesfield 
Forest  in  1302  to  make  it  necessary  to  construct  a 
special  trap.1 

The  work  at  Shotwick  was  at  once  commenced, 
as  appears  by  an  entry  of  £\6,  10s.  3d.  in  the 
chamberlain's  accounts  for  1327-8,  in  respect  of 
"  divers  works  done  about  the  making  the  ditch  of 
Burnilhaye  Park  "  (which  was  only  another  name 
for  the  same  place).  The  work,  however,  did  not 
proceed  as  rapidly  as  the  King  wished,  and  on  18th 
May  1328,  he  issued  an  order2  to  Thomas  de 
Blaston,  then  the  chamberlain,  to  cause  the  en- 
closure to  be  completed  by  the  view  and  testimony 
of  Oliver  de  Ingham,  the  justiciar  of  Chester. 

There  is  nothing  now,  except  the  limits  of  the 
present  Park,  to  show  where  Burnellswood  lay,  nor 
do  we  know  why  it  was  so  called.  But  a  sugges- 
tion may  be  hazarded  that  it  had  been  made,  or 
possessed  by,  or  named  after,  Robert  Burnell, 
Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells.  This  powerful  prelate, 
who  was  lord  chamberlain  to  King  Edward  I, 
obtained  about  1285-6  part  of  the  barony  of  Wich 
Malbank,  which  at  one  time  included  rights  over 
Rough  Shotwick  and  Saughall,3  both  adjoining  the 
manor  of  Castle  Shotwick.  There  are  several 
charters 4  granting  the  bishop  rights  to  other  woods 
in  Cheshire,  and  he  had  also  special  privilege  in  the 
forests  of  Shropshire.5 

1  Chamberlain?  Accts.  (loc.  cit.),  pp.  25,  41.         2  Cal.  Close  Roll, 

3  "  Salhale  "  in  Domesday  Book  ;  see  a  preceding  note. 

4  Grant  of  rights  to  a  wood  called  Otwode  between  Crewe  and 
Coppenhall  (Ches.  Plea  Rolls,  1287-8) ;  grant  of  wood  of  Woolstan- 
wood  (Do.,  c.  1292). 

5  Cox's  Royal  Forests  of  England,  p.  225. 


102    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

Early  in  1 33 1  William  de  Clinton,  justiciar  of 
Chester,  and  John  Paynel,  the  chamberlain,  were 
ordered  to  inspect  the  castles  of  Chester,  Flint, 
Rhuddlan,  and  Beeston,  and  the  two  royal  manors  of 
Frodsham  and  Shotwick,  and  to  certify  what  repairs 
were  necessary,  as  the  King  understood  there  were 
many  defects.  A  surveyor  was  to  be  appointed  and 
paid  4d.  a  day.1  Probably  these  repairs  preceded 
the  lease  of  the  manor  of  Castle  Shotwick  taken 
about  this  time  by  Sir  Richard  de  Eumary  or  Dam- 
mory  who,  as  justiciar  of  Chester,  had  the  custody 
of  the  castles  of  that  county  and  of  Flint,  with  a  fee 
of  £\oo  a  year.  The  rent  of  the  manor  was  the 
usual  £20  a  year.  In  the  autumn  of  1331  Adam 
de  Wettenhall,  the  parson  of  Woodchurch  in  Wirral, 
took  over  the  remainder  of  De  Eumary's  lease.2  In 
the  following  year,  however,  this  lease  came  to  an 
end,  and  a  royal  favourite,  in  the  person  of  Sir 
Roger  de  Swynnerton,  had  a  grant  of  the  manor  for 
life  on  17th  September  133 2. 3  Sir  Roger  was  of 
Swynnerton,  Staffordshire,  in  which  county  he  was 
the  most  powerful  noble.  He  was  constantly  en- 
gaged in  personal  attendance  upon  Edward  II  and 
Edward  III,  by  whom  he  was  held  in  great  esteem, 
and  from  whom  he  obtained  many  honours.  Be- 
sides being  a  banneret,  he  was  King's  coroner, 
governor  of  the  town  of  Stafford  in  13 19,  governor 
of  Harlech  and  Eccleshill  castles,  and  constable  of 
the  Tower.4  The  grant  of  Shotwick  was  in  part 
satisfaction  of  ^300  per  annum  of  land  and  rent 
promised  to  Swynnerton  by  the  King  in  Council, 
for  the  support  of  his  estate  as  a  banneret  and  for 
his  good  services  towards  the  King,  and  Queen 
Isabel  his  mother.    Part  of  this  gift  he  had  already 

1  Cal.  Close  Roll,  and  Abbrev.  Rot.  Orig.,  ii.  58. 

2  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

3  Cal.  Pat.  Rolls. 

4  For  an  account  of  him  see  The  Ancestor,  vii.  217. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  103 

received  by  a  grant  of  the  lands  in  Staffordshire  and 
Cheshire  of  Hugh  le  Despenser,  Earl  of  Win- 
chester, who  had  been  attainted.  The  Cheshire 
estates  included  the  manors  of  Great  and  Little 
Barrow,  which,  after  being  enjoyed  by  Sir  Roger's 
heir,  Sir  Thomas  Swynnerton  (who  married  Maud, 
sister  of  Thomas  Holand,  Earl  of  Kent,  and  thus 
became  uncle  by  marriage  of  Richard  II),  eventually 
passed  in  the  reign  of  Henry  IV  to  the  Savages 
of  Clifton  by  a  marriage  with  the  Swynnerton 
heiress.  A  few  weeks  later,  on  28th  October  1332, 
Swynnerton's  Shotwick  grant  was  enlarged1  by  a 
gift  of  all  estovers  usually  let  with  the  manor,  to- 
gether with  housebote,  heybote,  herbage,  pannage, 
and  other  commodities  usually  enjoyed  by  the 
lessees  of  the  manor  in  Shotwick  Park.  Swynner- 
ton also  had  leave  to  take  one  stag  and  two  bucks 
by  the  view  of  "  the  parker "  in  the  summer,  and 
four  does  in  winter. 

We  have  here  the  first  mention  of  the  parker, 
or  park-keeper,  of  Shotwick  Park.  The  office  was 
one  of  some  dignity,  with  perquisites,  and  was 
eagerly  sought  for.  The  first  parker  whose  name 
is  recorded  was  Nicholas  de  Ufton,  or  Upton,  to 
whom  we  find  the  chamberlain  paying  a  wage  of  2d. 
a  day  during  the  years  1334-6.2  The  next  was 
Richard  Roer.  He  was  one  of  the  King's  archers, 
to  whom  the  Prince  of  Wales,  at  the  desire  of  the 
King,  had  given  the  custody  of  ''the  Parks  of 
Shotwick  and  Burnellwood."  His  wages  were  the 
same  as  those  of  Upton,  but  on  22nd  August  1335 
he  obtained  in  lieu  a  grant3  of  the  land  which 
Guyonet  de  Provence  had  of  the  King's  grandfather 
in  Little  Saughall.  This  land  in  an  adjoining 
manor  has  some  features  of  interest  to  which 
reference  will  be  made  later  on. 

1  CaL  Pat.  Roll  2  Chamb.  Accts.  (Rec.  Soc),  p.  no. 

3  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 


104   The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


Returning  to  the  manor  of  Castle  Shotwick,  Sir 
Roger  de  Swynnerton  appears  to  have  died  about 
1338,  and  it  is  in  that  year  that  a  series  of  court  rolls 
of  the  manor  of  Shotwick  (now  in  the  Public  Record 
Office)  begins.1  The  rolls  contain  no  court  with  a 
heading  specifying  who  was  the  lord,  but  there  are 
several  writs  attached  by  "  the  steward  of  the  lord 
the  King  of  his  manor  at  Castleshotwyk."  The 
entries  are  of  the  usual  character. 

In  1347  or  thereabouts,  the  manor  was  let  to 
Bartholomew  de  Northworthyn  (or  Norden)  at 
£2$  a  year.2  He  was  a  prominent  local  person, 
and  lessee  of  the  mills  and  fishery  of  Dee.  He  was 
dead  in  1349-50  when  his  executors,  Robert  de 
Brendon,  chaplain,  and  Richard  de  Coton,  paid  his 
rent.3  Presumably,  therefore,  it  was  a  son  of  the 
same  name  who  was  mayor  of  Chester  in  1353  and 
was  killed  by  Thomas  de  Frodsham.  This  felony 
was  specially  excepted  from  a  pardon  granted  in 
1357  to  Frodsham  for  services  to  the  Prince  in 
Gascony  and  at  Poictiers.4 

In  1347-8  there  are  some  interesting  references 
to  the  Park.  One  quarter  of  the  underwood,  which 
was  almost  destroyed,  presumably  by  overgrowth, 
was  cut  down,  and  the  clearing  surrounded  by  a 
hedge,  no  doubt  to  protect  the  young  shoots.  Ten 
thousand  faggots  were  made  up  and  sold  to  John 
Colle,  baker,  of  Chester,  for  the  sum  of  60s.,  which 
nearly  equalled  the  .£3,  12s.  expended  in  the  labour 
of  cutting  them.5  So  far  little  has  been  heard  of  the 
game,  for  the  preservation  of  which  the  Park  was 
no  doubt  created,  but  in  the  accounts  just  referred 

1  List  of  Court  Rolls  (P.R.O.)  :  Gen.  Series,  Portfolio  156,  Nos. 
12  and  13.    The  rolls  are  for  1338-44,  1379-85,  1399,  1407-10. 

2  Chamb.  Accts.,  p.  120. 

3  Chamb.  Accts. 

*  Ches.  Recog.  Rolls. 

5  Chamb.  Accts.,  p.  122,  &c.  Other  work  of  enclosure  was  done 
in  1349-5°;  Mid.,  p.  129. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  105 

to  appears  an  item  of  3s.  6d.  for  salt  (at  2s.  a 
quarter)  purchased  for  salting  for  the  lord's  larder 
two  stags  and  five  does  of  good  condition  taken  by 
Sir  Thomas  de  Ferrers  as  well  in  Shotwick  Park  as 
in  the  forest  of  Wirral.  Sir  Thomas,  who  was  the 
justiciar,  had  probably  had  a  day's  hunting  allowed 
him. 

The  manor  continued  in  the  Earl's  hands  for  a 
good  many  years  from  the  death  of  Norden,  during 
most  of  which  time  Wm.  Jonet  was  the  reeve.  In 
1350  trouble  seems  to  have  arisen  between  the 
custodians  of  the  Park  and  manor,  as  Wm.  Wood- 
noth  and  John  de  Chirton  were  bound  over  to  keep 
the  peace  towards  all  the  Earl's  ministers  of  his 
manor  of  Shotwick,  and  to  be  of  good  behaviour  in 
the  custody  of  the  Park  there.1 

Probably  in  consequence  of  the  death  of  Richard 
Roer,  the  parker,  Wm.  de  Stanley,  forester  of 
Wirral,  was  granted  on  the  18th  July  1351,  by  privy 
seal,  the  custody  of  Shotwick  Park,  with  a  fee  of 
30s.  a  year.2  In  this  office  he  continued  for  a  great 
many  years,  and  his  fee  appears  annually  in  the 
chamberlain's  accounts,  which  also  contain  several 
items  of  interest  about  this  date.  In  1353-4  Alan, 
the  lord's  plumber,  earned  35s.  6d.  for  repairing  the 
lead  roofing  at  Shotwick,  Rhuddlan,  and  Chester 
castles.  His  services  were  worth  6d.  per  day, 
whilst  those  of  Richard,  his  assistant,  were  given 
for  is.  a  week.  The  same  account  contains  an 
item  of  ^"19,  17s.  2d.,  paid  for  mending  the  en- 
closures of  Shotwick  Park  with  thorns  and  brambles 
for  keeping  the  game  there  until  it  could  be  enclosed 
with  pales.  Whether  this  had  never  yet  been  pro- 
perly done  does  not  appear,  but  the  lord's  Council 
now  commanded  it,  and  13,500  pales  were  made  in 
Eulowe  Wood  for  the  purpose,  at  the  price  of  10s. 

1  Ches.  Recog.  Rolls. 

2  Chamb.  Accts.,  p.  170. 


106     The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

for  500.  The  carriage  to  the  Park  cost  9s.  6d.  a 
thousand. 

Items  for  mending  houses  in  the  manor  and  for 
cement,  iron,  and  steel  occur  in  subsequent  years. 
As  might  be  expected,  horses  were  bred  upon  the 
royal  manor,  and  in  1358-9  the  chamberlain  acknow- 
ledges receipt  of  eight  horses  branded  with  the  lord's 
sign,  which  he  received  from  Wm.  Jonet  the  reeve. 
The  animals  are  each  carefully  described,  as  a  black 
four-year-old  with  a  long  white  mark  on  its  fore- 
head, or  with  a  white  star,  and  so  on. 

During  his  lifetime  the  Black  Prince  granted 
many  gifts  to  his  esquires,  one  of  which  was  an 
annuity  of  £20  to  Ralph  Standish,  afterwards  men- 
tioned as  a  knight,  and  presumably  one  of  the 
Lancashire  family.  The  money  was  charged  upon 
the  Sutton  estate  in  the  Hundred  of  Macclesfield, 
but,  upon  the  death  of  the  Prince  in  1376,  that 
Hundred  was  assigned  in  dower  to  his  widow  Joan, 
the  Fair  Maid  of  Kent.  In  consequence  of  this, 
in  February  1377-8  Standish  obtained  from  King 
Richard  II  a  confirmation  of  his  annuity,  which 
was  charged  afresh  upon  the  issues  of  the  manor 
of  Shotwick.1  Upon  the  death  of  Standish,  the 
annuity  was  given  to  Sir  John  Beauchamp,  of  Holt, 
Co.  Worcester,  then  an  esquire  of  the  King's 
chamber,  John  de  Woodhouse,  sometime  chamber- 
lain of  Cheshire,  being  ordered  to  pay  it.2  Beau- 
champ  served  in  the  French  wars,  became  justice 
of  North  Wales,  and  in  1387  was  steward  of  the 
King's  household.  The  same  year  he  was  created 
Lord  de  Beauchamp,  Baron  of  Kidderminster,  but 
was  attainted  and  beheaded  on  Tower  Hill  after 
Easter  1388.3    In  1384  the  manor  was  granted4 

1  Cal.  Pat.  Rolls  and  Ches.  Recog.  Rolls. 

2  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

3  See  Complete  Peerage. 
1  Cal.  Pat.  Rolls. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  107 

for  life  to  John  Golofre,  subject  to  the  Beauchamp 
annuity.  Golofre  was  a  figure  of  some  importance, 
who,  like  Beauchamp,  had  been  of  the  King's 
chamber.  In  1367,  upon  his  undertaking  to  serve 
the  Prince  of  Wales  at  all  times  when  summoned 
and  in  time  of  war  with  two  shields,  he  obtained  a 
grant  of  ^40  a  year  for  life.1  This  was  confirmed 
by  Richard  II  when  Prince  of  Wales.1  Subse- 
quently Golofre  was  knighted,  and  became  sheriff 
and  constable  and  raglot  of  Flint  in  1390.1  In  1393 
he  appears  to  have  been  concerned  in  the  giving  up 
of  Cherbourg  to  the  agent  of  the  King  of  Navarre. 
His  enjoyment  of  the  Shotwick  annuity  did  not  last 
long,  as  that  manor  was  wanted  as  a  royal  gift  for 
a  far  more  important  personage.  An  exchequer 
grant  was  substituted  in  1384,2  but  in  1386  this 
again  was  vacated,  as  the  King  gave  him  the 
annuity  of  100  marks  which  Sir  John  del  Hay,  de- 
ceased, had  received  from  the  profits  of  the  royal 
lordship  of  Wallingford.3 

On  September  16,  1385,  the  manor  of  Shotwick 
was  granted,4  for  life,  without  rent,  to  Sir  Hugh 
Calveley  of  Lea,  one  of  the  most  illustrious  captains 
the  English  army  has  ever  known,  and  one  of  the 
greatest  Cheshire  figures  of  all  time.  The  chronicles 
of  Froissart  and  Chandos  Herald  ring  with  his 
exploits  and  achievements  in  France,  Spain,  and 
elsewhere,  but  there  is  no  room  here  to  set 
them  down.5  He  was  appointed  governor  of  the 
Channel  Isles,  and  was  a  witness  in  the  Scrope  and 
Grosvenor  case  in  1385.  Shotwick  was  valued  at 
^36  per  annum  for  the  purposes  of  a  gift  by  the 

1  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

2  CaL  Pat.  Rolls. 

3  CaL  Pat.  Rolls. 

4  Ches.  Recog.  Rolls  ;  Cal.  Pat.  Rolls. 

5  For  him,  see  Dr.  Bridge's  account  in  vol.  xiv.  Chester  Arch.  Soc. ; 
Diet.  Nat.  Biog.  ;  The  Black  Prince  (Roxburghe  Club,  1842)  ;  An- 
cestor, vol.  v.  p.  67  ;  and  Sir  C.  Doyle's  The  White  Company. 


io8    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


King  of  ^ioo  a  year  which  was  not  to  be  exceeded 
in  grants. 

The  relative  positions  of  the  manor  and  Park  are 
not  altogether  clear  about  this  time.  In  1386  we 
find  a  warrant  issuing  to  Wm.  de  Stanley,  the  park- 
keeper,  for  delivery  to  Sir  Hugh,  on  the  view  of 
the  royal  master-carpenter,  of  wood  for  the  repair 
of  the  "  floddeyard  "  1  in  the  Dee  pertaining  to  the 
manor.2  But  in  1387  a  warrant2  ordered  the  bailiffs 
of  Sir  Hugh  to  provide  the  King's  carpenter  with 
oak  or  other  timber  for  the  repair  of  the  mills  of 
Dee,  as  the  only  timber  fit  for  the  purpose  was  to 
be  found  in  the  Park  and  in  the  wood  of  Saughall. 

During  Calveley's  life,  the  fishyard  next  to  the 
castle  was  leased3  to  Sir  John  Holand,  a  son  of  the 
Earl  of  Kent  by  the  Fair  Maid,  who  afterwards 
became  the  mother  of  Richard  II.  No  doubt  this 
was  when  Holand  was  justice  of  Chester,  and  before 
he  became  Earl  of  Huntingdon  or  Duke  of  Exeter.4 
At  the  same  period  the  name  of  Roger  Drury  occurs 
in  connection  with  the  sale  of  dead  wood  and  bark 
in  the  Park  and  in  the  wood  of  Saughall.5 

Sir  Hugh  died  in  1393,  and  his  son,  Sir  John,  on 
May  28,  1394,  obtained  a  grant  of  Shotwick  on 
similar  terms,  "  because  he  was  retained  for  life  to 
stay  with  the  King." 6  Meanwhile  the  parker's 
office  had  been  given  to  Wm.  de  Helegh,  and  in 
1394  there  are  orders  to  him  to  deliver  to  Lawrence 
Drue  and  John  Elyncham,  who  were  taking  a  large 
sum  of  treasure  to  the  King  in  Ireland,  two 
"  stubbes "  for  fuel  on  their  passage ; 7  to  provide 
the  necessary  wood  for  "  bridges  "  (no  doubt  gang- 

1  See  ante,  p.  97. 

2  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

3  Ledger  Book  of  Excheq.  of  Chester  {Ormerod,  ii.  572  n.). 

4  See  Complete  Peerage,  and  Diet.  Nat.  Biog. 

5  See  Ledger  Bk.,  toe.  cit. 

6  Cat.  Pat.  Rolls. 

7  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  109 

ways)  for  the  shipment  of  oxen  and  sheep  by  sea  to 
the  King  in  Ireland  ; 1  to  deliver  twenty  oak  trees  to 
the  chamberlain  of  North  Wales  for  the  repair  of 
the  Kings  castles  and  mills  there ; 1  and  for  the 
delivery  of  two  oak  trees  to  the  prioress  and  nuns 
of  Chester  for  the  repair  of  their  houses  and  church.1 
Sir  John  gave  up  the  manor  of  Shotwick  in  1398 
in  return  for  an  annuity  of  ^30  a  year,1  and  he  fell 
at  the  battle  of  Shrewsbury  in  1403.  Helegh  re- 
ceived a  confirmation  of  his  office  for  life,  with  land 
in  the  Park  rent  free,1  in  1399,  in  which  year  Henry 
the  Prince  of  Wales  ordered  his  chamberlain  to 
repair  all  the  royal  castles,  houses,  and  mills  in 
Chester,  Flint,  and  North  Wales  ; 1  an  order  which 
in  terms  included  the  castle  of  Shotwick,  but  men- 
tion of  it  rarely  occurs  in  these  days,  and  whether  it 
was  even  occupied  we  do  not  know. 

It  was  probably  upon  Helegh's  death  that,  in 
September  1403,  the  Prince  issued  from  Killing- 
worth  letters  patent  giving  the  parker's  office  for 
life  to  John  Brownwynd,  his  yeoman.  The  salary 
was  a  penny  a  day  ;  the  parker  had  also  eight  acres 
of  land  "  called  Woodbank "  adjoining  the  Park 
and  a  house  there,  also  the  windfallen  wood,  but 
not  trees  torn  up  by  the  roots.2  Some  trouble  arose 
about  1 410  between  the  parker  and  Hamo  de 
Massey  of  the  neighbouring  manor  of  Puddington, 
and  a  number  of  bonds  were  entered  into  by  im- 
portant local  persons  that  Hamo  should  keep  the 
peace.3 

Brownwynd  continued  in  office  until  1430.  In 
141 2  he  was  ordered  to  deliver  a  doe  to  Sir  Wm. 
de  Stanley,4  and  to  the  dean  and  chapter  of  St. 
John's,  Chester,  four  oaks  for  the  repair  of  the  church, 
the  forester  of  Delamere  being  at  the  same  time  to 

1  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

2  Cal  Pat.  Roll  1423,  where  the  1403  grant  is  recited, 

3  Ches.  Recog.  Roll  1410-11. 
*  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 


1 10   The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


provide  eight.1  In  1422  the  Privy  Council  ordered 
a  warrant  to  be  sent  to  the  chamberlain  of  Chester 
for  the  delivery  of  wood  from  Delamere  and  Shot- 
wick Park  for  the  repair  of  Beaumaris  Castle.2 

Meanwhile  the  manor  had  been  leased  for  a  time 
to  Hugh  Daukyn  and  Simon  le  Shepherd,3  but  in 
1410  William  Porter,  one  of  the  King's  esquires, 
had  a  grant  of  it  for  life  upon  his  giving  up  an 
annuity  of  £20  which  he  received  out  of  the  fee 
farm  of  the  town  of  Coventry.4  The  Prince  in 
14 1 2  renewed4  this  grant  to  Porter  and  his  wife 
Agnes  in  survivorship,  with  an  annuity  of  50  marks 
and  the  stipulation  that  "le  savagyn "  (the  beasts 
of  game)  in  the  Park  were  to  be  reserved  for  the 
Prince's  recreation.  Porter,  who  became  a  knight,5 
received  other  marks  of  royal  favour  in  14 13, 6  when 
the  custody  (without  rent)  of  the  manors  of  Led- 
combe  Regis  (Berks),  Offord  Cluny  (Hunts), 
Manton  and  Tykesore  (Rutland)  was  granted  to 
him  so  long  as  they  were  in  the  King's  hand  on 
account  of  the  French  war.  A  commission  was 
issued  in  1426-7  to  Sir  William  de  Stanley,  knight, 
and  John  Hope  of  Chester  to  inquire  into  certain 
wards,  reliefs,  escheats  and  "  natives  "  (presumably 
bondmen)  pertaining  to  the  manor  of  Shotwick,  as 
Porter  complained  he  was  not  being  allowed  them 
as  he  should  be  under  his  grants.7 

Agnes  Porter  appears  to  have  lived,  and  held  the 
manor,  for  many  years,  during  which  various  persons 
occupied  the  office  of  parker.  In  1430  William 
Troutbeck  of  Dunham,  the  founder  of  the  Cheshire 
branch  of  that  family,  obtained  it  on  the  surrender 

1  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

2  Acts  of  Privy  Council,  vol.  ii.  319. 

3  Ches.  Recog.  Roll  1406. 

4  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

5  For  other  reference  to  him  and  archers  of  Cheshire  in  his  retinue, 
see  Cheshire  Sheaf  III. %  vol.  v.  p.  92. 

6  Cal.  Pat.  Rolls. 

1  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick   1 1 1 

by  Brownwynd.1  In  April  1437,  Thomas  Aventre, 
a  groom  of  the  chamber,  was  given  the  parkership 
of  "  Shotwick  Park,  lately  called  Burnellwoodes," 
to  hold  by  self  or  deputy,2  but  in  May  this  was 
superseded  by  a  grant3  of  the  office  for  life  or 
survivorship  to  William  Troutbeck,  then  the 
chamberlain  of  Chester,  and  John  his  son,  with 
2d.  a  day  for  their  wages.  William  Troutbeck 
fought  at  Agincourt  in  command  of  a  large  body 
of  men-at-arms  and  archers,  and  was  chancellor  of 
the  Duchy  of  Lancaster  in  1424,  and  sheriff  of 
Chester  in  1437.  His  son,  Sir  John,  succeeded 
him  as  chamberlain,  and  held  the  honourable 
serjeanty  of  the  Bridge  Gate.  They  were  the 
ancestors  in  the  female  line  of  the  Talbots,  Earls 
of  Shrewsbury. 

Agnes  Porter  seems  to  have  been  still  alive  in 
1452  when  John  Troutbeck  obtained  a  reversionary 
lease  of  the  manor  for  fifty  years  at  a  rent  of  10 
marks  per  annum,  in  recompense  of  his  expenses 
whilst  attending  the  King's  three  eyres  held  at 
Blackheath  and  in  the  last  Parliament.3  He  was 
a  whole-hearted  supporter  of  the  house  of  Lan- 
caster, and  fell  at  the  battle  of  Bloreheath  in  1459 
with  his  two  brothers-in-law,  Sir  Thomas  Venables 
and  Sir  John  Done  of  Utkinton,  mentioned  below. 
Thomas  Dawne,  a  yeoman  of  the  Crown,  was  given 
the  parker's  office  in  1458  during  pleasure,3  and 
was  followed  in  office  by  Sir  John  Done.4 

A  great  Lancashire  family  now  enters  the  field  of 
our  history,  upon  the  accession  of  Edward  IV  ;  and 
in  1 46 1  the  two  manors  of  Shotwick  and  (Great) 
Saughall,  with  the  office  of  parker,  were  given 
for  life  to  Eleanor,  wife  of  Thomas,  Lord  Stanley, 

1  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

2  Cal.  Pat.  Rolls. 

3  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

4  Ormerod,  quoting  Harl.  MSS.  21 15,  123.  [ 


1 1 2    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


and  his  son  John.1  Eleanor  Stanley  was,  of  course, 
the  daughter  of  the  Earl  of  Salisbury,  and  sister  of 
Richard,  Earl  of  Warwick,  11  the  King-maker." 
The  Act  of  Resumption  in  1467-8  by  Edward  IV 
contains  a  provision  that  it  is  not  to  be  prejudicial 
to  gifts  to  Lord  Stanley,  his  wife  or  son,  but  makes 
a  special  exception  of  "the  lordship  and  manor  of 
Shotwyke  with  the  Parke  there,"2  which  were  thus 
resumed  by  the  King,  only  to  be  regranted  again 
in  December  1468. 3  Eleanor  died  about  1472,  and 
in  1475  John  her  son  obtained  the  office  of  "par- 
carius "  during  pleasure,3  being  succeeded  therein 
in  1477  by  his  brother  George.3  John  Stanley  is 
usually  ignored  in  the  Stanley  pedigrees,  but  George 
was  the  son  who  was  created  Lord  Strange  in 
1482-3,  and  died  in  his  father's  lifetime.  Lord 
Stanley,  who  became  Earl  of  Derby  in  1485,  and 
had  held  the  office  of  justice  of  Chester,  so  often 
associated  with  Shotwick,  took  a  lease  the  same 
year  of  the  manor  of  Shotwick  with  the  piscary 
known  as  the  Floodyards,  for  twenty  years  at  a 
rental  of  £i\  per  annum.3  This  fishery  was  quite 
distinct  from  the  one  owned  by  the  Hockenhulls 
of  Church  Shotwick.  According  to  a  claim  made 
by  John  Hockenhull  in  1499-1500,  his  fishery 
seems  to  have  been  "  within  the  bounds  of  the 
Woodbank,"  i.e.  between  the  bounds  of  Church 
Shotwick  and  Castle  Shotwick,4  and  up  the  stream 
which  runs  between  Church  Shotwick  and  Wood- 
bank.  Hockenhull  also  claimed  the  right  to  make 
voyages  with  ships  without  licence  ;  probably  a 

1  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

2  Rot.  Pari,  v.  608. 

3  Ches.  Recog,  Roll. 

*  Harl.  MS.  21 15,  84,  92  quoted  by  Ormerod  (Helsby's  edition), 
p.  563,  where  a  perfectly  intelligible  reference  to  the  manor  of  Castle 
Shotwick  is  made  to  refer  to  the  castle  of  Shotwick  by  the  addition 
of  words  in  square  brackets.  See  also  Lanes,  and  Ches.  Records, 
pp.  1 17-18  and  122. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick   1 1 3 

reference  to  freedom  from  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
admiral  or  the  searcher. 

The  Stanleys  were  followed  at  Shotwick  by 
Peter  Newton,  who  seems  to  have  been  of  a 
Cheshire  family.1  He  was  secretary  and  coun- 
cillor to  Arthur  Prince  of  Wales  and  clerk  of  the 
signet.  After  being  appointed  parker  during  plea- 
sure in  1494,2  and  for  life  in  1500,  he  obtained 
a  lease  of  the  manor  for  twenty-one  years  at 
£2^,  2s.  4d.  rent.3  It  was  during  his  tenure  of  office 
that  Richard  Oldham,  a  monk  who  later  became 
abbot  of  St.  Werburgh's,  was  "  presented  "  for  hunt- 
ing in  the  royal  Park  with  greyhounds  and  other 
dogs,  and  killing  two  harts  and  four  hinds.4 

Under  Henry  VIII  another  Cheshire  family 
comes  to  the  fore.  In  151 2  Sir  Ralph  Egerton  of 
Ridley  received  a  lease  (to  take  effect  at  the  end 
of  Newton's)  of  the  manor,  park  and  fishery  in  Dee 
for  forty-one  years  at  the  same  rental,5  and  a  little 
later  he  was  appointed  "  Magister  de  la  Game  "  at 
Shotwick,6  whilst  he  also  held  the  offices  of  ranger 
of  Delamere  and  constable  of  Chester  Castle. 
Egerton  was  not,  however,  parker  of  Shotwick,  and 
on  the  death  of  Newton  this  office  was  given  in 
1524  to  John  Southall.7 

A  contest  for  the  parkership  and  its  perquisites 
now  seems  to  have  taken  place  between  the  Brere- 
ton  family,  who  were  much  in  favour  at  Court  at 
this  time,  and  Egerton.  The  families  were  both  in 
close  association  with  Henry  VIII.    Writing  from 

1  Ormerod,  iii.  pp.  858  and  860. 

2  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

3  Ches.  Recog.  Roll  and  Signed  Warrants,  26th  Rep,  Dep.  Keeper, 
App.  p.  26. 

4  Indict.  Rolls,  quoted  in  Chester  Arch.  Soc,  vol.  xvi.  (N.S.), 
p.  1 56  n. 

5  CaL  S.  P.  Dom.y  30  Aug.  15 12. 

6  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

7  Ches.  Recog.  Roll  and  Signed  Bill,  26th  Rep.  Dep.  Keeper,  App. 
p.  29. 

H 


H4   The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

Greenwich  on  21st  March  1524-5  to  the  com- 
missioners appointed  to  raise  a  voluntary  aid  of 
money  in  Cheshire  for  his  use,  the  King,  after 
saying  they  had  no  doubt  heard  of  the  happy  results 
of  his  assistance  in  men  and  money  to  the  Duke  of 
Bourbon  and  other  great  personages  in  Italy  by  the 
defeat  and  captivity  of  Francis  I  of  France  and 
the  King  of  Navarre  at  the  battle  of  Pavia,  goes 
on  to  say  that  he  had  consulted  with  his  Council 
how  to  turn  the  victory  to  the  best  account,  and 
was  sending  instructions  to  the  commissioners  by 
Sir  Ralph  Egerton  and  Randulf  Brereton.1  But 
the  families  were  far  from  being  friends,  and  these 
two  quarrelled  over  Shotwick.  The  State  Papers 
have  preserved  an  interesting  letter,  dated  at 
Chester,  25th  August  1526,  from  "  Randulph  Brere- 
ton " — either  Sir  Randulph  Brereton  of  Ipstones, 
Shocklach  and  Malpas,  a  knight  -  banneret  who 
acted  as  chamberlain  of  Chester  for  more  than 
twenty  years,  or  his  son  of  the  same  name.  It  is 
addressed  to  William  Brereton2  (son  of  the  elder 
Sir  Randulph),  then  a  groom  of  the  Privy  Chamber 
of  Henry  VIII,  and  afterwards  knighted,  and  it  is 
apparent  that  the  latter  was  endeavouring  to  get 
the  parker's  office,  with  the  addition  of  the  right 
to  the  herbage  in  the  Park,  which  he  thought 
had  never  been  part  of  the  parker's  perquisites. 
William  Brereton  is  advised  to  get  his  warrant 
signed  in  all  haste,  as  "  Sir  Ralph  Egerton  rode  on 
Friday  last  to  my  lady  Princess  and  intendeth  to 
make  great  labour  for  all  his  offices  and  farms  to 
him  and  his  son  jointly,  if  it  cost  him  ,£1000,  as 
it  is  me  told.  Howbeit  he  speaketh  fair  and  every 
day  more  gentely  than  other,  I  trust  him  the  worse." 
William  Brereton  is  urged  to  move  the  King,  "my 
Lord  Cardinal,"  the  Princess,   Lord  Exeter,  and 

1  Signed  Bill,  26th  Rep.  Dep.  Keeper,  App.  p.  23. 

2  Letters  and  Papers  Henry  VHIy  iv.  part  i.  p.  1087  (No.  2431). 


Tke  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  1 1 5 


any  others  who  might  have  influence  in  his  cause. 
Randulph  Brereton  inquires  what  is  proposed  as 
regards  the  execution  of  warrants  from  the  King 
and  the  Princess's  Council  for  bucks  and  the  like 
in  Shotwick  Park.  One  had  come  for  "  master 
Russell"  her  secretary,  and  perhaps  therefore  it 
had  better  be  executed.  No  one  will  stay  long  in 
the  office  of  parker  unless  there  are  other  profits 
besides  the  wage  of  a  penny  a  day,  and  so  William 
should  press  for  the  occupation  of  the  eight  acres 
and  house  usually  attached  to  the  office,  and  take 
the  advice  of  learned  counsel.  The  land  is  sown 
with  corn  and  the  third  sheaf  belongs  to  the  parker 
or  his  deputy.  A  later  letter 1  mentions  that  there 
had  been  a  restraint  on  hunting  at  Shotwick  for  a 
period  of  a  year. 

The  Breretons  gained  the  day,  and  in  1528  Sir 
William  Brereton  and  Sir  Urian  Brereton  of  Hand- 
ford,  his  brother,  obtained  a  grant  by  patent  for 
their  joint  lives  of  the  lordship  and  of  the  office 
of  park-keeper  on  the  resignation  of  Southall.2  Sir 
William  held  other  local  offices  of  importance,  being 
comptroller  of  the  records  of  Chester  and  Flint, 
rider  of  Delamere,  escheator  of  Cheshire,  and  also 
sheriff  of  Flint  at  the  time  of  his  downfall.  He  was 
one  of  those  who  were  accused  by  Henry  VIII  of 
being  on  too  familiar  terms  with  Anne  Boleyn 
(whose  pet  dog,  it  may  be  noted,  was  called  after 
his  brother  Urian).  Sir  William  was  beheaded  in 
I536,sandthe  same  year  one  Richard  Bream  ob- 

1  Letters  and  Papers  Henry  VIII,  iv.  part  i.  p.  3179. 

a  Signed  Bills  loc.  at.  and  Ches.  Recog.  Roll.  There  were  still  dis- 
putes, and  in  1 530-1  the  matter  was  referred  to  two  of  the  judges  ; 
Anc.  Deeds  10,688  (late  Cartae  Antiquae,  M.  97).  Excheq.  K.  R. 
Accounts  135/28  (late  Cartae  Antiq.,  T.  91)  are  accounts  of  herbage 
and  profit  of  fishery  at  Shotwick.  Account  135/29  {Cartae  Antiq., 
T.  106)  is  a  packet  of  copies  of  Parker's  patents.  There  are  also 
copies  of  patents  and  some  accounts  in  Aug.  Off.  Miscell.  Parcel  33 
(late  Cartae  Antiq.,  T.  139). 

3  Letters  and  Papers  Henry  VIII,  x.  pp.  364-6,  gives  details  of 
his  lands  and  offices,  with  a  reminder  to  Master  Secretary  of  those  in 
the  King's  gift. 


n6   The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shot  wick 

tained  a  lease  for  life,  at  the  old  rent,  of  the  manor 
or  ' '  lordship"  of  Shotwick,  as  it  was  now  more 
often  called,  the  fishery,  and  also  the  parkership 
for  life  with  the  office  of  M  Master  of  the  Park 
and  Hunt."  1  Who  Bream  was  does  not  appear, 
but  in  a  very  short  time  he  surrendered  his  grant 
in  order  to  have  Sir  John  Massey  of  Pudding- 
ton  associated  with  him  in  the  offices  and  lease,2 
which  appears  to  have  somehow  terminated  before 
Massey's  death. 

Massey  was  customs  searcher  of  the  city  of 
Chester,  and  there  are  several  references  to  him  and 
his  duties  in  the  proceedings  of  the  Privy  Council. 
In  May  1546,  a  vessel  arrived  at  Dublin  laden  with 
goods  from  abroad,  which  included  wine,  "  Tolous 
woad,"  cotton,  cloth  "  brode  and  narroe,"  salt,  resin, 
and  pitch.  Being  seized  in  Dublin  by  the  farmer 
of  the  customs  there,  the  ship  was  afterwards 
stolen  in  the  night  by  John  Brown,  "  a  common 
robber  upon  the  Sees,"  and  Dennis  Fleming,  an  ex- 
soldier,  and  sailed  across  into  "  the  Creke  "  of  Shot- 
wick. There  "  eftsoones "  she  was  stayed  by  Sir 
John  Massey  as  a  forfeiture.  The  Privy  Council, 
"  for  that  the  wares  by  long  lyeing  wold  suffer  grete 
empayrement,"  ordered  them  to  be  valued  and  sold, 
and  eventually  "  entier  restitucion "  was  made  to 
William  Hancock  and  Patrick  Sarswell,  the  Dublin 
merchants  to  whom  the  goods  belonged.3  Massey's 
zeal  in  his  duties  had  just  before  received  a  rebuff. 
"  Upon  a  vayne  pretence  "  he  seized  some  Gascon 
wines  out  of  a  Spanish  ship  at  Chester  "  wythout 
that  any  vent  hadde  been  made  or  any  bulcke 
broken   of  the  same."    Upon  the  merchants  of 

1  Ches.  Recog.  Roll,  and  Privy  Seal  in  26th  Rep.  Dep.  Keeper, 
App.  p.  18. 

2  Ches.  Recog.  Roll,  and  Privy  Seal  in  26th  Rep.  Dep.  Keeper^ 
App.  p.  18. 

3  Acts  of  Privy  Council  (Nicolas),  1542-7,  pp.  441  and  449. 
Letters  and  Papers  Henry  VIII,  xxi.  (1),  p.  490. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick   1 1 7 

Chester  complaining  to  the  Privy  Council,  "a 
sharppe  letter"  was  written  ordering  him  to  re- 
deliver incontinently  the  wine,  and  make  a  large 
recompense  for  his  indiscreet  molesting.1 

Under  Edward  VI  another  distinguished  and 
wealthy  family  obtained  an  interest  in  Shotwick 
which  ultimately  developed  into  a  permanent  one. 
For  the  Wilbrahams  of  Woodhey  the  sober 
Ormerod  even  cannot  withhold  his  admiration,  and 
exclaims  that  they  were  1 '  graced  with  every  social 
virtue  that  could  render  rank  endearing  to  their 
equals  and  venerated  by  their  dependants."  Richard 
Wilbraham,  afterwards  of  Woodhey,  was  appointed 
park-keeper  in  1 549, 2  but  surrendered  this  grant  in 
1553  in  order  to  obtain  from  Queen  Mary  a  lease2 
for  sixty  years  of  the  demesne  and  manor  of  Shot- 
wick, the  vill,  demesne,  and  manor  of  Great  Saughall, 
the  parker's  office,  house  and  land  in  Woodbank, 
and  the  fishery,  at  a  rental  of  ^24,  3s.  4d. 

Richard  was  a  great  courtier.  He  was  master 
of  the  jewel-house  and  of  the  revels  to  Queen  Mary, 
who,  Webb  tells  us  in  his  Itinerary  of  Nantwich, 
"princeley  rewarded  his  worthy  service  unto  her." 
He  died  in  1558  and  left  his  lease  of  Shotwick  to 
his  executors  to  pay  his  debts  and  legacies  and  the 
expenses  of  his  nephew  William  Daniell  (afterwards 
a  judge)  at  the  Inns  of  Court.  He  ordered  that 
James  Hawky,  his  servant,  should  be  "  kept  of 
Shotwick  Park  during  his  life,  and  to  have  for  his 
wages  40s.  by  yere,  grass  for  vj  Kye,  iiij  yong  bests 
and  a  nage  yerely,  he  using  himself  to  them  whom 
shall  have  the  lease  of  Shotwicke  like  as  ane  honest 
servant  be  put  in  such  trust  ought  to  do."  3 

The  Park  was  still  full  of  deer,  and  the  Wilbra- 
hams were  frequent  donors  of  venison  to  their 

1  Acts  of  Privy  Council^  loo  cit.,  p.  184. 

2  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

3  Wills  and  Inv.  (Chet.  Soc),  i.  84. 


1 1 8   The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

friends,  including  in  particular  Sir  Richard  Shuttle- 
worth  of  Smithills,  Lancashire,  the  justice  of 
Chester.  There  are  many  entries  in  the  Shuttle- 
worth  accounts1  from  1591  to  1598  of  payments 
to  men  bringing  "fatte  bukes"  from  Shotwick 
Park,  the  fees  being  upon  a  regular  scale,  4s.  for  a 
doe,  5s.  or  6s.  8d.  each  for  a  buck,  two  does  a  noble, 
or  two  bucks  a  mark. 

In  1572  "my  Lord  Strange"  was  entertained  at 
a  banquet  at  Shotwick  to  which  the  corporation  of 
Chester  contributed  18s.  6d.  for  wine,  sugar,  fruit, 
marmalade,  comfits,  carraways,  and  biscuits.2 

In  July  1 60 1  a  special  commission3  was  issued  by 
Queen  Elizabeth,  under  which  Sir  John  Savage, 
Richard  Grosvenor,  Henry  Mainwaring,  William 
Liversage,  Hugh  Beston,  and  others  were  ordered 
to  view,  perambulate,  and  tread  over  "  our  Park  of 
Shotwick  with  the  Palinge  and  Inclosure  thereof," 
and  to  make  a  report  on  various  points  set  out  in 
certain  "  articles  of  instruction."  These  included 
the  number  and  state  of  the  buildings,  the  acreage 
of  pasture,  arable,  and  waste,  the  timber,  and  the 
annual  value  of  them  all ;  whether  the  Park  was 
enclosed  with  pale,  wall,  or  hedge ;  how  many 
keepers,  their  wages,  &c. ;  what  "  mynes "  and 
quarries  of  stone,  lead,  and  coal,  &c. 

At  the  time  of  this  inquiry  one  George  Main- 
waring,  gentleman,  was  living  in  Shotwick  Lodge,4 
and  is  sometimes  described  as  "  of  Shotwick  Park." 
I  have  not  identified  him,  but  1  suspect  his  presence, 
no  doubt  as  a  tenant,  is  due  to  the  fact  that  Richard 
Wilbraham's  elder  brother  Thomas  (whom  he  suc- 

1  Printed  by  the  Chet.  Soc 

2  Morris,  Chester ;  p.  80  n. 

3  Spec.  Comm.  Chester,  No.  508  (Pub.  Rec.  Off.).  No  return  to 
this  commission  has  been  found. 

*  Cheshire  Sheaf,  3rd  Ser.,  i.  p.  9.  This  is  possibly  Ormerod's 
reason  for  saying  the  Mainwarings  of  Peover  acquired  Shotwick  Park 
from  the  Wilbrahams.    I  have  seen  no  evidence  of  that. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  119 

ceeded  at  Woodhey  in  1558)  married  a  daughter  of 
Sir  John  Mainwaring  of  Peover.  George  Main- 
waring  died  in  May  1608,  and  was  buried  at  Burton.1 
His  widow,  as  Elizabeth  Mainwaring  of  Shotwick, 
was  married  again  the  following  November  to  Henry 
Bold  of  Upton,  and  her  daughter  of  the  same  name 
married  Peter,  son  of  this  Henry  Bold.2 

In  August  16 1 7  King  James  visited  Chester  on 
his  way  south  from  Scotland.  He  rode  in  state 
through  the  city,  received  an  address,  listened  to  a 
Latin  oration,  attended  service,  and  was  present  at 
a  civic  banquet;  in  fact,  his  visit  took  much  the 
same  course  as  a  royal  one  would  do  in  these  days, 
except  that  an  offer  of  knighthood  made  to  the 
mayor  of  Chester  was  declined.  James  then  pro- 
ceeded to  the  Vale  Royal,  and  stayed  at  Utkinton 
with  John  Done  (whose  wife  was  a  daughter  of 
Thomas  Wilbraham  of  Woodhey).  Webb,  who 
laments  the  death  in  16 10  of  "his  dear  master  the 
renowned  owner  of  Woodhey,"  has  some  notes  on 
this  royal  visit.  The  King  spent  four  days  "  taking 
pleasing  contentment  in  his  disports  to  the  Forest," 
and  enjoying  "  successful  pleasure  in  the  hunting  of 
his  own  hounds  of  a  stag  to  death."  John  Done, 
the  forester  of  Delamere,  "  a  gentleman  very  corn- 
pleat  in  many  excellencies  of  nature,  wit,  and  in- 
genuity," so  satisfactorily  arranged  the  sport  that 
he  was  honoured  with  knighthood,  and  the  bonds 
which  joined  the  Wilbrahams  with  the  court  were 
greatly  strengthened. 

Shortly  after  the  expiration  of  the  long  Wil- 
braham lease  of  1553,  namely  in  January  161 7-1 8, 
King  James  vested  a  number  of  royal  manors  and 
estates  by  deed  3  in  commissioners  for  the  benefit  of 
the  Prince  of  Wales,  their  names  being  Sir  Francis 

1  Beazley's  Burton,  p.  55. 

2  Mar.  Lies.  (Rec.  Society). 

3  Recited  in  the  deeds  of  1627  next  mentioned. 


120   The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

Bacon,  Chancellor  of  the  Prince ;  Sir  John  Dac- 
combe,  Chancellor  of  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster  ; 
Thos.  Murray,  Sir  John  Fullerton,  Sir  John  Walter, 
and  Sir  Thomas  Trevor.  The  properties  (which 
included  the  manors  of  Shotwick  and  Great  Saug- 
hall,  the  Park,  &c.)  were  transferred  for  a  period  of 
ninety-nine  years.  Thomas  Wilbraham  of  Wood- 
hey  was  then  dead,  and  his  son,  Sir  Richard,  a 
knight  who  Was  created  a  baronet  in  1621,  set 
about  soon  after  the  accession  of  Charles  I  to  be- 
come the  absolute  owner  of  the  Shotwick  property. 
This  he  effected  by  two  deeds1 — one,  dated  nth 
December  1627,  under  which  he  acquired  from  the 
surviving  commissioners  the  remaining  years  of 
their  long  lease  ;  and  the  other,  dated  1 7th  December 
1627,  by  which  Charles  I  confirmed  the  last  trans- 
action and  sold  the  reversion  for  ^900.  A  rent  of 
£20  per  annum  was  payable  to  the  Crown  after  the 
end  of  the  ninety-nine  years ;  and  the  property, 
which  included  the  Park  of  873  acres,  the  Lodge, 
the  parker's  house  with  25  acres,  and  the  deer,  but 
not  the  manor  of  Great  Saughall,  which  the  Crown 
retained  for  a  while,2  all  described  as  "  part  of  the 
possessions  of  the  Earls  of  Chester,"  was  vested  in 
Thomas  Wilbraham,  the  son  and  heir  of  Richard, 
to  hold  by  military  service  as  the  fourth  part  of  a 
knight's  fee,  The  second  deed  is  of  portentous 
length,  and  includes  in  the  sale  all  the  royal  rights 
of  hunting  and  free  warren  in  the  Park.  Wilbraham 
agreed  to  be  responsible  in  future  for  the  wages  of 
30s.  5d.  payable  to  the  H  Custos  "  of  the  Park,  and 
of  1  os.  to  the  "  Magister  of  the  Game."  Certain 
encroachments,  within  the  manor  of  Saughall  but 
outside  the  ambit  of  the  Park,  which  were  let  by 
the  Crown  at  a  rental  of  £gy  13s.  4d.,  were  excepted 

1  Ches.  Recog.  Roll  4-5  Car.  i.  m.  3-5. 

2  Great  Saughall  is  wrongly  stated  by  Ormerod  to  have  passed  by 
this  grant.    Sulley  says  Sir  T.  Wilbraham  bought  it  in  1665. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  121 

from  the  grant,  but  otherwise  the  Crown  interests 
in  Shotwick  completely  disappeared  for  ever. 

In  1632  there  appears  to  have  been  an  action1 
brought  by  the  Attorney  -  General  against  Sir 
Richard,  in  which  the  title  to  the  manor,  and  also 
the  extent  of  his  purchase,  was  called  in  question, 
but  apparently  without  much  result.  Further 
troubles  too  arose  in  1637,  when  Matthew  Ander- 
ton,  the  Deputy  Vice-Admiral  of  Cheshire  and 
Lancashire,  complained  to  the  Lords  of  the  Ad- 
miralty that  he  and  his  assistants  had  been  affronted 
and  hindered,  and  the  Courts  held  by  him  violently 
opposed,  by  the  tenants  of  the  lord  of  Saughall  and 
Shotwick,  also  by  the  mayor  of  Chester,  the  lords 
of  the  coast  manors  of  Hale  and  Halebank  and 
along  to  Liverpool,  by  Liverpool  itself,  Mr.  Blun- 
dell  of  I  nee,  the  lord  of  Bold  for  North  Meols,  the 
lord  of  Rossall,  and  the  water-bailiff  of  the  duchy 
of  Furness.2 

Sir  Richard  Wilbraham  died  in  1643,  an<3  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Sir  Thomas,  whose  estates 
as  a  Royalist  were  seized  by  the  Commonwealth 
sequestrators.  From  his  composition  papers  it 
appears  that  he  still  possessed  Shotwick  Park,  and 
that  he  was  paying  King's  chief  rents  for  it  and  for 
the  manor  of  Great  Saughall  (the  latter  under  his 
lease).  Sir  Thomas  compounded  for  his  valuable 
estates  in  Cheshire  and  elsewhere  by  a  payment 
of  ^3093,  urging  in  mitigation  that  his  manor  house 
of  Tilston  had  been  burnt  to  the  ground,  that  he 
had  himself  lost  ^1000  worth  of  personal  belong- 
ings, and  that  Sir  Richard,  his  father,  was  always 
well  affected  to  the  Parliament,  and,  being  taken 
prisoner  by  the  King's  forces,  had  died  in  custody. 
Sir  Wm.  Brereton,  the  great  Cheshire  Parliament 

1  Ex.  Dep.  1632-3,  Hilary  22. 

2  Cal.  S.  P.  Dom.  1637,  fo.  142.  For  some  other  proceedings  of 
the  Vice- Admiral,  see  Jour.  Chester  Arch.  Soc.  (O.S.),  vol.  i.  p.  244. 


122    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

tary  leader,  wrote  a  letter  "  from  Chester  Suburbs," 
on  20th  November  1645,  to  the  Speaker,  asking 
for  a  pass  to  be  granted  to  enable  Sir  Thomas  to 
come  in  and  compound  :  "  He  was  never  active  nor 
in  arms.  His  Lady  [Elizabeth]  is  a  very  godly 
and  gracious  woman,  and  one  who  from  the  be- 
ginning hath  manifested  her  great  and  good  affec- 
tions in  the  cause,  the  prosperitie  and  success 
whereof  I  believe  she  prefers  before  any  outward 
interests  whatsoever." 

Sir  Thomas  died  in  1660,  and  presumably  Shot- 
wick passed  to  his  son  of  the  same  name,  who  died 
in  1692,  leaving  three  daughters  to  inherit  his 
estates.  They  became  the  respective  wives  of  Lord 
Huntingtower  (afterwards  the  Earl  of  Dysart),  the 
Earl  of  Bradford,  and  Sir  Thomas  Middleton  of 
Chirk,  Baronet. 

Before  we  pass  to  the  post-Commonwealth  his- 
tory of  Shotwick  Park,  which  is  not  quite  of  the 
same  interest,  a  few  contemporary  references  may 
be  introduced. 

Leland,  in  his  Itinerary  written  about  the  year 
1536,  has  these  notes  on  the  district:  "A  Myle 
lower  [than  Crabwall]  is  Shottewik  Castelle  on  the 
very  Shore  longging  to  the  King ;  and  thereby  ys 
a  Park.  Shottewike  Townelet  is  a  3  Quarters  of 
a  Myle  lower.  And  2  Mile  lower  is  a  Rode  in 
Dee  caulled  Salthouse,  wher  again[st]  it  on  the 
Shore  is  a  Salt  House  Cottage." 1  Of  these  Salt- 
works, Ormerod  says  the  spring  is  entirely  unknown, 
and  he  suggests  that  the  salt  was  obtained  by 
evaporation  from  the  waters  of  the  estuary.2  "  The 
Saltersway "  occurs  in  the  fourteenth  century  as 
the  name  of  the  highway  from  the  eastern  outskirts 
of  Chester  to  Shotwick  Ford.3    Whether  the  name 

1  Hearne's  edn.,  v.  55. 
3  Helsby's  edn.,  i.  lxxii. 
3  Post,  p.  130. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  123 

Shotzc/zV/£,  or  Sotowiche  in  its  early  form,  has  any- 
thing to  do  with  salt  is  a  difficult  question,  but  the 
derivation  from  the  Scandinavian  wik,  a  creek  or 
bay,  seems  much  more  probable. 

Camden  in  the  1594  edition  of  his  Britannia  does 
not  refer  to  Shotwick  Castle,  but  in  that  of  1607  1 
states  "  Huius  ingressu  [Wirall]  ad  austrum  Shot- 
wick castrum  regium  aestuario  incumbit,"  which 
Gough,  in  his  1789  version,  thus  paraphrases  :  "  On 
the  entrance  of  this  neck  of  land  from  the  south 
stands  Shotwick,  a  royal  castle  commanding  the 
firth." 2  He  adds  :  "  Shotwick  Castle,  now  in  ruins, 
stands  in  a  park  formerly  belonging  to  the  Crown, 
but  now  the  property  of  Owen  Salusbury  Brere- 
ton,  esq.3  The  castle  was  a  pentagon  of  fifty-one 
feet  on  each  side.  The  watch  tower  five  story 
high.  An  exact  drawing  of  it  is  preserved  in  the 
British  Museum  [Harl.]  MS.  No.  2079." 4 

Webb  in  his  account  of  Wirral,5  written  about 
the  year  1621,  says:  "And  so  we  come  to  Shot- 
wick, a  little  parish  Church,  and  near  unto  it  an 
ancient  house  that  hath  belonged  to  John  Hocken- 
hall  (sic)  of  Hockenhall,  esq.,  and  so  we  come  to 
that  gallant  park  called  Shotwick  Park  where  some- 
times have  been  and  yet  are  remaining  the  ruins  of 
a  fair  castle  that  stands  upon  the  brink  of  Dee 
within  the  Park  ;  in  which  is  also  a  fine  lodge  for 
the  habitation  of  the  keepers  of  the  Prince's  High- 
ness' deer  in  that  park  and  is  in  the  holding  of  Sir 
Richard  Wilbraham  whom  we  have  so  often  men- 
tioned ;  from  whence  we  come  to  Great  Saughall, 
a  fair  lordship  and  chiefly  belonging  to  his  High- 
ness ;  and  Little  Saughall,  another  fine  township, 
the  lands  of  sundry  freeholders  there  inhabiting ; 

1  6th  edn.,  p.  460. 
3  Vol.  ii.  p.  424. 
3  For  him,  see  post. 
*  See  post,  p.  128. 

5  Printed  in  King's  Vale  Royal  and  Ormerod. 


124   The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


and  along  by  the  precincts  of  them  both  lies  a  place 
called  anciently  King's  Wood  where  now  his  High- 
ness's  tenants  have  made  inclosure  to  the  great 
encrease  of  corn  for  the  benefit  of  the  country."  1 

According  to  Lysons'  Cheshire,  Shotwick  Park 
was  sold  by  the  Wilbrahams  about  1700  to  Thomas 
Brereton,  but  I  am  unable  to  say  if  this  was  so, 
and  until  the  deeds  of  the  property  are  examined 
it  must  remain  uncertain  what  part  of  the  estates 
in  Shotwick  Park  and  Great  Saughall  came  to 
Brereton  by  purchase  and  what  part  through  his 
wife.  Thomas  Brereton  was  apparently  a  descen- 
dant of  the  Malpas  Hall  (or  junior)  branch  of  the 
Cheshire  Breretons  through  the  Breretons  of  Burros 
(or  Bersham)  in  Denbighshire.2 

Thomas  Brereton  was  Mayor  of  Liverpool  in 
1732,  and  sat  in  Parliament  for  that  place  for  many 
years.  In  1729  he  was  appointed  a  Commissioner 
of  the  Victualling  Office,  and  was  certainly  at  Shot- 
wick then.  His  first  wife  was  a  Miss  Trelawny,  a 
sister  of  Sir  William  Trelawny,  sixth  baronet,  of 
Trelawny,  Cornwall,  governor  of  Jamaica.  After 
her  death  Brereton  married  Catherine,  daughter 
and  heiress  of  Salusbury  Lloyd,  of  Leadbrook,  Co. 
Flint,  with  whom  he  ultimately  obtained  a  number 
of  valuable  estates.  Salusbury  Lloyd,  who  died 
about  1754,  seems  to  have  been  a  son  of  John 
Lloyd  of  Chester,3  and  the  latter's  wife  was,  it 
would  seem,  Letitia  Salusbury,  the  ultimate  heiress 
of  the  Leadbrook  estates,  which  had  passed  to  a 
junior  branch  of  the  Salusbury  family  of  Lleweni 
by  a  marriage  long  ago  with  the  heiress  of  the 
Hookes  of  Leadbrook.4    A  branch  of  the  Lloyds 

1  See  post,  pp.  132  et  seq. 

2  The  descent  is  far  from  clear.  See  Ormerod,  ii.  301,  686;  iii. 
901  ;  Cheshire  Sheaf,  1st  Ser.,  ii.  284. 

3  Chester  Freemen^s  Rolls  (Rec.  Soc). 

1  See  Cheshire  Sheaf,  1st  Ser.,  iii.  244  and  i.  300. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  125 

appears  at  Shotwick  in  the  seventeenth  century,1 
and  I  should  not  be  surprised  to  find  that  a  member 
of  the  family  purchased  the  manor  of  Great  Saug- 
hall, which  was  still  held  by  the  Crown  at  the  time 
of  the  Commonwealth.  A  survey  of  "the  New 
Common  or  New  Ground,  part  of  the  manor  of 
Saughall,"  was  made  in  October  1650,  under  the 
act  for  the  sale  of  the  King's  manors.  From  this  it 
appears  there  were  thirty-three  tenants,  all  holding 
under  Sir  Thomas  Wilbraham,  who  himself  held 
by  lease  from  the  Crown.2  Catherine  Brereton 
inherited  her  father's  estates,  and  thus  in  one  way 
or  another  Thomas  Brereton  became  owner  of 
Shotwick  Park  and  the  manor  of  Great  Saughall, 
and  adopted  the  additional  surname  of  Salusbury. 
He  died  on  9th  March  1756,  and  left  his  estates 
to  his  son  Owen  (Salusbury)  Brereton,  born  in 
17 15,  and  educated  at  Westminster  and  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  was  a  scholar,  but 
did  not  graduate.  He  ultimately  became  recorder 
of  Liverpool  and  baron  of  the  Exchequer  of  Chester, 
posts  which  he  held  for  many  years.3  He  was  a 
diligent  antiquary  also,  though  not  an  accurate  one. 
"He  was  solicitous  to  be  considered  the  represen- 
tative ...  of  the  elder  and  principal  branch  of  the 
family  of  the  Breretons  of  Brereton  Hall  and  Malpas 
Castle.  Confounding  persons  who  were  of  different 
branches  and  eighth  cousins,  in  statements  which 
must  be  pronounced  empirical,  in  order  to  support 
the  misrepresentation,  he  contrived  the  introduction 
upon  a  portrait  of  the  first  Lord  Brereton  of  a 
suicidal  inscription  in  which  it  is  stated  that  the 

1  Wills  of  Edward  Lloyd  of  Shotwick,  gent.,  1646,  of  Edward  Lloyd 
of  Shotwick,  1671,  and  of  William  Lloyd  of  Shotwick,  1721,  were 
proved  at  Chester. 

2  List  of  Parliamentary  Rentals  and  Surveys  (P.R.O.),  No.  22, 
Cheshire. 

3  For  him,  see  Diet.  Nat.  Biog.,  Chalmers'  Biog.  Diet.,  and 
Or?nerod,  ii.  573.  Another  son,  Robert,  two  years  younger,  was  also 
a  scholar  of  Trinity,  Cambridge,  and  did  not  graduate. 


126   The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

father  of  the  first  Lord  Brereton  (who,  three  reigns 
later,  according  to  the  parish  register,  died  and  was 
buried  at  Brereton,  4th  September  1559,  in  the 
reign  of  Elizabeth),  was  beheaded  on  the  26th 
Henry  VIII."1 

Owen  Salusbury  Brereton  died  without  issue  in 
1798,  and  appears  to  have  divided  his  large  estates 
in  Cheshire,  Flintshire,  Derbyshire,  and  Wales 
amongst  his  maternal  relatives  the  Trelawnys. 
Part  he  left  to  William  Lewis  Trelawny,  afterwards 
eighth  Baronet,  of  Trelawny,  Lord- Lieutenant  of 
Cornwall,  M.P.,  who  assumed  the  additional  name 
of  Salusbury  on  30th  October  1802,  and  the  name 
of  Salusbury-Trelawny  on  19th  December  1807. 
The  Shotwick  and  Great  Saughall  estates  were 
given  to  Colonel  Charles  Brereton  Trelawny,  a 
nephew  of  the  first  Mrs.  Thomas  Brereton,  and  of 
Sir  William  Trelawny,  sixth  Baronet.  Charles 
Trelawny  assumed  the  additional  name  of  Brereton 
on  1 2th  June  1800.  He  was  a  Lieutenant-Colonel 
in  the  3rd  regiment  of  Guards,  and  M.P.  for  the 
borough  of  St.  Michael's,  Cornwall.  He  died  on  10th 
September  1820,  aged  61,  and  was  buried  at  St. 
Anne's,  Soho,  where  there  is  a  monumental  inscrip- 
tion.2 He  appears  to  have  added  the  reputed  manor 
of  Little  Saughall  to  his  estates  by  an  exchange 
with  Charles  Potts.  From  him  Shotwick  passed  to 
his  son,  Captain  Harry  Brereton  Trelawny,  who 
died  in  1869,  and  then  to  the  latter's  son,  Captain 
Horace  Dormer  Trelawny,  who  built  a  house  there 
which  was  subsequently  enlarged.  Horace  Dormer 
Trelawny  died  without  male  issue ;  his  brother, 
Harry  Brereton  Trelawny,  junior,  died  a  bachelor 
in  1 85 1  ;  and  another  brother,  Clarence,  died  with- 
out male  issue.    The  heiresses  were  Mrs.  Florence 

1  Archaologia,  vol.  xxxiii.  (1848),  p.  80.  See  also  Ormerod,  iii.  85, 
ii.  573      and  Arckceologia,  ix.  368. 

2  MiscelL  Gen,  et  Her.  (Series  five),  vol.  i.  p.  86. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  127 

Rooper,  Maud  and  Lilian  Trelawny,  Mrs.  Hilda 
Cottrell  Dormer,  and  Mrs.  Mimy  Rigby,  the 
daughters  of  Horace  Dormer  Trelawny. 

It  may  be  worth  noting  that  Clarence  Trelawny 
(born  1826,  the  third  son  of  Captain  H.  B.  Trelawny, 
of  Shotwick),  who  was  an  officer  in  the  Austrian 
army,  married,  for  his  first  wife,  the  Countess  de 
Beauregard,  who,  as  Miss  Howard,  had  been  the 
mistress  of  Napoleon  III.  Upon  the  latter  announc- 
ing his  intention  to  marry  the  lady  who  became  the 
Empress  Eugenie,  Miss  Howard's  wounded  feelings 
manifested  themselves  by  some  extraordinary  ex- 
hibitions in  Paris,  and  she  had  to  be  consoled  with 
titles  for  herself  and  her  son,  and  an  estate  at 
Versailles.  Her  marriage  with  Captain  Trelawny 
was  dissolved  in  the  fifties,  and  on  her  death,  in 
1865,  a  remarkable  rumour  was  current  that  she  had 
been  strangled  by  the  Emperor's  orders.1 

On  27th  October  1906  the  Shotwick  Park 
estate  of  about  1600  acres  was  offered  for  sale  at 
the  Grosvenor  Hotel,  Chester.  The  sale  included 
"  the  manor  or  royalty  of  Shotwick  Park,  and  the 
manors  or  reputed  manors  of  Great  and  Little 
Saughall " ;  but  the  vendors  declined  to  show  the 
boundaries,  nature,  or  constituents  of  the  last  two 
manors,  or  to  give  any  information  about  the 
manorial  rights. 

Lot  1  included  the  area  of  the  old  Park,  still  de- 
fined by  hedge  and  dyke,  then  divided  into  the  Park- 
gate  House2  Farm  of  376  acres,  Shotwick  Lodge 
Farm  of  429  acres,  the  Home  Farm  of  43  acres, 
the  Green  Farm  of  no  acres,  74  acres  of  woods, 
and  also  a  strip  of  plantation  on  the  north  of 
Woodbank  Lane  which  probably  represented  the 

1  For  her,  see  Notes  and  Queries^  nth  Series,  iv.  347,  430,  473, 
535,  &c.    Captain  Trelawny  married  a  second  wife. 

*  This  stands  at  the  southern  boundary  of  the  old  park,  and  there 
are  still  gates  here  and  at  the  Woodbank  end  of  the  road  which  bi- 
sects the  park.    The  lodge  at  the  latter  end  is  quite  modern. 


128    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


land  attached  in  older  days  to  the  parker's  house 
and  office.  Among  the  field  names  of  this  lot, 
it  is  interesting  to  find  some  near  the  corner  of 
Woodbank  Lane  and  the  main  road  bearing  the 
name  of  "  the  pale  heys,"  a  clear  reference  to  the 
fence  which  enclosed  the  Park.  This  lot  (1328 
acres),  with  lots  5  to  18  (about  60  acres  more), 
was  purchased  by  Mr.  William  Vernon,  and  he  thus 
acquired  a  square  of  property  reaching  from  the 
Parkgate  Road  on  the  east  to  the  Dee  boundary  on 
the  west,  and  from  the  Woodbank  Lane  on  the 
north  to  the  main  street  of  Great  Saughall  on  the 
south.  The  remaining  lots  (about  250  acres),  which 
included  the  centre  and  middle  part  of  Great  Saug- 
hall and  part  of  Little  Saughall,  were  sold  to  other 
persons. 

From  the  scantiness  of  the  references  to  the 
Castle  which  have  occurred  in  the  foregoing 
account,  it  will  be  clear  that  we  know  very  little 
about  it.  Leland  and  Camden  mention  it  as  exist- 
ing in  their  days,  though  in  what  state  they  do  not 
say.1  In  162 1  "the  ruins"  of  a  castle  are  noted 
by  Webb,  and  by  Gough  in  1789.2  The  latter 
states  it  was  a  pentagon  of  fifty-one  feet  on  each 
side,  mentions  "  The  Water  Tower  five  storey  high," 
and  goes  on  to  refer  to  a  drawing  in  the  British 
Museum.  No  doubt  he  means  the  "  Ground  Plots 
and  Draught  of  the  Castle  of  Shotwick  "  in  Harl. 
MS.  2073  (l  1  *)»  where  two  rude  sketches  are  given. 
One  is  "  the  ruines  of  the  Castle  of  Shotwick  on  the 
west  side,"  showing  a  decayed  tower  on  a  mound  ; 
this  no  doubt  formed  a  basis  for  the  old  engraving3 

1  Ante,  pp.  122  -3. 

2  Ante,  p.  123. 

3  Taken  from  Hulbert's  Cheshire  A?itiquities,  1838.  This  engraving 
is  missing  in  the  copy  in  the  Liverpool  Public  Library,  but  there  are 
several  specimens  in  the  Mayer  papers  there.  The  castle  is  drawn 
on  Captain  Collin's  Survey  of  the  Dee  (1684-9),  a°d  on  Chart  No.  5  of 
Huddart's  Coasting  Pilot  ( 1 794),  but  only  in  a  conventional  manner. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  129 


(drawn  by  J.  Strutt  at  the  commencement  of  the 
eighteenth  century),  recently  reproduced  in  Me- 
morials of  Old  Cheshire.  The  other  is  "The 
ground  plot  of  Shotwick  Castle  before  it  was 
ruinated  "  ;  this  is  the  plan  reproduced  by  Ormerod 
and  by  Sulley.1  The  former's  account  of  the  castle 
need  not  be  repeated  here. 

In  1876  Mr.  Williams,  the  schoolmaster  of  Saug- 
hall,  made  some  excavations  on  the  site  of  the 
castle,  of  which  Sulley  gives  a  few  details,  but  the 
writer  has  not  found  that  any  full  account  was  ever 
printed,  which  is  unfortunate.2  The  foundations 
were  uncovered  at  a  depth  of  about  seven  feet, 
resting  on  great  boulder  pebbles.  A  pebbled  road- 
way leading  from  an  arched  way  into  the  courtyard 
and  a  watercourse  were  also  revealed.  The  bricks 
were  small  and  thin,  and  not  of  the  local  clay. 
Many  pieces  of  glazed  pottery  of  various  periods 
were  discovered,  also  a  spur,  and  fragments  of  deer 
horns.  At  Shotwick  Lodge,  now  a  farm,  there  is 
a  building  with  mullioned  windows,  the  stones  and 
bricks  of  which  are  said  to  have  come  from  the 
castle  ruins.  Other  remains  were  used  upon  the 
roads  in  the  vicinity.  It  is  much  to  be  wished  that 
some  systematic  excavation  by  experienced  persons 
could  be  made  upon  the  site  of  the  castle,  and  until 
this  is  done  any  attempt  to  describe  it  accurately 
would  be  of  little  value. 

As  the  Dee  ran  close  to  the  walls  of  the  castle 
of  Shotwick  after  rounding  the  bend  by  Burton 
Rocks,  it  is  natural  that  there  should  have  been 
in  earlier  days  a  landing  place  near  it,  perhaps  up  a 
creek,  which  would  later  develop  into  a  quay  where 
soldiers  could  be  landed,  and  disembarked,  and  goods 

1  Henshall's  History  of  Chester  (1817),  p.  647,  also  reproduces  this 
plan,  but  reversed  as  seen  in  a  looking-glass. 

2  The  files  of  the  Chester  Courant  might  reveal  an  article  or  note 
on  the  subject. 

I 


130    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

received.  In  1357-8  we  hear  of  21,000  slates  from 
Ogwen  in  Wales  being  brought  by  ship  to  Shotwick 
Park,  and  thence  carted  to  Chester  to  repair  the 
roof  of  the  great  stable  in  Chester  Castle.1  A  sub- 
stantial quay  is  said  to  have  been  built  near  Shot- 
wick Castle  in  the  fifteenth  century,  but  it  was 
gradually  superseded  by  the  New  Quay  formed  at 
Great  Neston  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth. 

In  the  finding  of  the  jurors  in  an  inquiry  held  in 
1339-40  into  the  boundaries  of  Hoole  Heath  near 
Chester,  reference  is  made  to  the  "  Saltesway  which 
is  the  Kyng's  Highway  ner  Chester  to  lede  the 
hoost  of  our  Sovregn  lord  the  Kyng  in  tyme  of 
warre  unto  Shotwyk  Ford."2  Probably  this  ford 
over  the  Dee  into  Wales  was  entered  not  far  from 
the  castle,  which  was  no  doubt  built  to  protect  it. 
It  was  one  of  the  regular  fords  of  Dee,  and  must 
have  been  much  used  in  the  Welsh  wars  of  the 
thirteenth  century.  There  is  no  record  that  the 
tenants  upon  the  manor  of  Shotwick  had  to  assist 
in  protecting  the  ford,  but  the  Arneways  of  Chester, 
when  tenants  of  the  neighbouring  hamlet  of  Crab- 
wall  under  the  Mainwarings  in  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury, were  bound  to  see  to  the  safe  keeping  of  the 
ford,  as  it  was  wont  to  be  guarded  in  time  of  war.3 
This  obligation  was  doubtless  of  very  ancient  date. 
There  is  reason  to  believe  that  in  1277  or  1278 
Edward  I  crossed  there  on  horseback,  and  pitched 
his  camp  at  Basingwerk,  whence  he  personally 
superintended  the  erection  of  Flint  Castle.4  The 
fords  of  Dee  were  still  in  use  in  the  eighteenth 
century.  Celia  Fiennes,  sister  of  Viscount  Say 
and  Sele,  passed  through  Cheshire  and  Wales  about 
1700,  and  recorded  her  experiences  in  a  diary  which 

1  Chamberlain?  Accounts,  loc.  cit. 

2  Ormerod  (original  edition),  ii.  440. 
Ormerod  (Helsby),  ii.  576. 

Ante,  p.  92. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shoiwick   1 3 1 

was  published  only  in  1888.1  After  leaving  Holy- 
well she  crossed  the  Dee,  and  gives  an  interesting 
account  of  the  dangers  of  the  journey  : 

I  forded  over  the  Dee  when  the  tide  was  out,  all  upon  the 
sands  at  least  a  mile,  which  was  as  smooth  as  a  die,  being  a 
few  hours  left  of  the  flood.  The  sands  are  here  so  loose  that 
the  tides  do  move  them  from  one  place  to  another  at  every  flood 
that  the  same  place  one  used  to  af-ford  a  month  or  two  before  is 
not  to  be  passed  now,  for  as  it  brings  the  sands  in  heaps  to  one 
place  so  it  leaves  others  in  deep  holes,  which  are  covered  with 
water  and  loose  sand  that  would  swallow  up  a  horse  or  carriages ; 
so  I  had  two  guides  to  conduct  me  over.  The  carriages,  which 
are  used  to  it,  and  pass  continually  at  the  ebb  of  water,  observe 
the  drift  of  the  sands  and  so  escape  the  danger.  It  was  at  least 
a  mile  I  went  on  the  sands  before  I  came  to  the  middle  of  the 
channel,  which  was  pretty  deep  and  with  such  a  current  or  tide 
which  was  falling  out  to  the  sea,  together  with  the  wind,  the 
horses'  feet  could  scarce  stand  against  it ;  but  it  was  but  narrow, 
just  the  deep  part  of  the  channel,  and  so  soon  over.  When  the 
tide  is  fully  out  they  frequently  ford  in  many  places  which  they 
mark  as  the  sands  fall,  and  go  near  nine  or  ten  miles  over  the 
sands  from  Chester  to  Burton,  or  to  Flint  town  almost ;  but  many 
persons  that  have  known  the  fords  well,  that  have  come  a  year 
or  half  a  year  after,  if  they  venture  on  their  former  knowledge 
have  been  overwhelmed  in  the  ditches  made  by  the  sands,  which 
is  deep  enough  to  swallow  up  a  coach  or  waggon;  but  they 
convey  their  coals  from  Wales  and  any  other  things  by  waggon 
when  the  tide  is  out  to  Chester  and  other  parts. 

When  the  new  straight  channel  of  the  Dee 
was  constructed  Shotwick  Ford  (with  others)  was 
abolished,  and  the  Upper  and  Lower  King's  (now 
Queen's)  ferries  were  established.  The  Wild  Marsh 
is  a  more  recent  name  for  that  part  of  the  Dee 
flats  which  it  traversed,  and  now  the  members  of 
the  Chester  Golf  Club  have  their  links  upon  the 
reclaimed  ground. 

There  are  frequent  mentions  in  old  deeds  of  a 
mill  at  Shotwick,  and  we  are  told  by  Mr.  Elton 
that  a  water-mill  lay  just  north  of  the  castle.  This 

1  Through  England  on  a  Side  Saddle.  See  the  extracts  in  Cheshire 
Sheaf,  3rd  Ser.,  vi.  6o,  &c. 


132    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

must  not  be  confused  with  "the  Two  Mills,"  which 
stood  on  the  heath  at  the  top  of  Woodbank  Lane. 

The  most  interesting  feature  of  the  history  of 
Little  Saughall,  and  one  which  is  closely  connected 
with  the  Park  of  Shotwick,  is  the  Royal  Wood  of 
Saughall,  the  King's  Wood.  All  trace  of  it  except 
the  name  has  long  disappeared,  but  at  the  present 
day  a  walk  from  Blacon  Station  towards  the  Saughalls 
will  bring  one  to  a  point  where  the  present  road 
turns  off  sharply  to  the  left.  In  front,  at  this  point, 
there  is  a  grassy  lane,  now  deserted  and  overgrown 
with  scrub  and  bushes,  which  still  retains  the  name 
of  the  King's  Wood  Lane.  It  led  through,  or  to, 
the  Royal  Wood  of  Saughall,  and  then  over  the 
commons  of  Saughall  on  to  Shotwick  and  perhaps 
the  north  of  Wirral.  The  lane,  though  about  fifteen 
yards  wide  between  the  hedges,  is  now  practically 
only  a  narrow  footpath.  Large  dykes  run  at  the  sides. 
The  King's  Wood  Lane  joins  with  Fidlers  Lane,  and 
thence  the  road  goes  through  the  middle  of  Shot- 
wick Park  to  Woodbank  Lane,  where  it  turns  down 
into  Church  Shotwick.  The  road  was  pitched  and 
paved,  and  in  1889  there  were  still  small  patches  of 
a  once  continuous  stone  pavement  to  be  found  in  the 
Park  section  of  this  ancient  road.1  Probably  this 
was  part  of  the  "  Saltersway  "  which  led  to  Shotwick 
Ford.2  Mr.  Sulley  tells  us  that  another  name  for  it 
was  "  The  Military  Road,"  doubtless  from  the  fact 
that  troops  of  all  ages  have  marched  along  it — 
possibly  the  Romans  to  their  camps  at  Meols, 
certainly  the  Normans  and  Plantagenets  to  the  castle 
or  to  the  ford  at  Shotwick,  the  Tudor  men-at-arms 
to  embark  for  Ireland  at  the  New  Quay,  Great 
Neston,  and,  later,  the  soldiers  of  the  Stuarts  and 
of  William  of  Orange  to  and  from  Hoylake. 

We  will  now  return  to  the  King's  Wood  itself, 

1  Cheshire  Sheaf,  4th  Ser.,  iv.  pp.  47,  61. 

2  See  ante,  p.  1 30. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  133 


which  must  once  have  been  an  extensive  area  ©f 
woodland  and  rough  wastes.  We  first  hear  of  it 
about  1260,  when  we  find  Guy  de  Provence  and 
Thomas  de  Mainwaring  coming  to  an  agreement 
that  a  jury  should  set  out  the  bounds  between 
Saughall  and  Blacon.  The  jury's  finding  was  that 
all  the  wood  (nemus)  between  the  two  places  be- 
longed to  Saughall,  as  far  as  the  outer  oaks  (marked) 
on  the  Blacon  side,  these  oaks  being  within  Saug- 
hall, while  the  plain  outside  the  wood  pertained  to 
Blacon.1  This  plain  must  have  included  the  twelve 
acres  of  land  lying  between  Little  Saughall  and 
Blacon  Wood  which  one  of  the  Randies,  Earls  of 
Chester,  granted  to  William  de  Barrow,  of  Chester, 
for  the  yearly  service  of  two  ploughshares. 

I  have  not  been  able  to  trace  the  ancestry  of  Guy 
of  Provence,  who  had  obtained  a  grant  of  lands  in 
Little  Saughall  from  Henry  III.  We  know,  how- 
ever, that  upon  the  marriage  of  the  King,  in  1236, 
to  Eleanor,  one  of  the  daughters  of  Raymond,  Count 
of  Provence,  England  was  flooded  with  her  foreign 
adherents,  many  of  whom  secured  estates  and  titles 
from  the  King.  Guy  of  Provence  seems  to  have 
married  Alice,  a  sister  of  Sir  Patrick  de  Heswall, 
and  through  her  obtained  land  at  Oldfield  and  at 
Pensby.  Apparently  Simon  of  Provence  was  their 
son,  and  he  married  Annabel  (or  Amabilla),  daughter 
of  Sir  Thomas  Bamville  of  Storeton.  Ormerod  and 
Earwaker  are  not  agreed  whether  her  marriage  with 
Hugh  de  Corona,  lord  of  Adlington,  took  place 
before  or  after  her  marriage  to  Simon  of  Provence. 
Simon  occurs  as  a  witness  to  a  charter  dated  about 
1 292, 2  but  was  dead  before  1300,  when  we  find 

1  Cal.  of  Ches.  Plea  Rolls  (Chester  Plea  Roll  i)  in  26th  Rep.  Dep. 
Keeper,  App.  38.  The  jurors  were:  Bertram  de  Melis,  Hugh  de 
Berniston,  William  the  Welshman  (Walens'),  Robert  de  Pulle, 
Henry  de  Becheton,  William  Lancelin,  William  Punterling,  William 
Sanson,  Robert  de  Waley,  William  Sorel,  William  de  Preston,  Gilbert 
de  Potinton,  John  de  Wodebonc,  Brun  de  Staney,  Bernard  the 
Welshman,  Roger  de  Lethton,  and  Hugh  de  Hole. 

2  Chester  Arch.  Soc.  (N.S.),  x.  49. 


1 34    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


"the  guardian  of  the  heir  of  Simon  de  Provence" 
among  the  holders  of  Cheshire  knights'  fees.1  Upon 
his  death  the  Saughall  lands  reverted  to  the  earl, 
Simon  only  having  had  a  grant  of  them  for  life  from 
Edward  I  at  26s.  8d.  per  annum.  According  to 
local  historians,  his  son  Richard  assumed  the  name 
of  Oldfield,  and  was  the  ancestor  of  the  Oldfields  2 
who  settled  in  the  Hundred  of  Northwich. 

Sulley  in  his  Histoiy  of  Wirral  speaks  of  Guy 
as  a  famous  knight,  and  calls  him  "  County  Guy." 
But  it  is  not  clear  why  he  does  so.3  We  are  all 
familiar  with  the  two  stanzas  in  Scott's  Quentin 
Durzuard,  beginning  "  Ah,  County  Guy,  the  hour  is 
nigh,"  and  ending,  "  But  where  is  County  Guy?" 
But  he  was  an  imaginary  person,  as  Scott  says  of 
this  that  the  Lady  of  the  Lute  sang  "  exactly  such 
an  air  as  we  are  accustomed  to  suppose  flowed 
from  the  lips  of  highborn  dames  when  knights  and 
troubadours  listened  and  languished.  The  words 
had  neither  so  much  sense,  wit,  or  fancy  as  to  with- 
draw the  attention  from  the  music." 

It  is  somewhat  remarkable  that  this  Little 
Saughall  property,  which  was  usually  held  by  the 
woodward  of  Saughall,  or  the  rider  of  the  forest  of 
Wirral,  remained  associated  with  the  name  of  Guy 
and  his  son  Simon  for  hundreds  of  years.  Whether 
this  was  because  no  other  suitable  way  to  describe 
it  was  found  or  because  the  original  grantees  were  so 
famous,  does  not  appear.  Simon  followed  his  father, 
and,  as  we  have  stated,  held  for  life  by  grant  of 
Edward  I.4  Subsequent  grantees  were  Nicholas 
Hody,4  circa  131 5,  and  Richard  de  Wyford  or 
Weford,4  1320,  the  rent  being  26s.  8d.  per  annum. 
The  latter  was  rider  (or  equitator)  of  the  forest  of 

1  Sheafs  3rd  Ser.,  v.  16. 

2  I  cannot  find  that  the  Oldfield  pedigree  in  Harl.  MS.  21 19, 125, 
has  ever  been  printed. 

3  A  question  in  Notes  and  Queries  in  191 1  produced  no  result. 

*  Chamberlains'  A  ccounts. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  135 

Wirral,  an  office  for  which  he  was  paid  6d.  a  day. 
In  1335  Richard  Roer,  one  of  the  royal  archers,  and 
Keeper  of  Shotwick  Park,  received  a  grant 1  of  the 
Saughall  land  in  lieu  of  his  wages.  Together  with 
William  de  Glazebrook  Roer  also  had  a  lease 2  in 
1339  °f  tne  town  and  mill  of  Northwich  for  £60 
per  annum.  In  1349  the  property,  the  rent  of 
which  had  risen  then  to  66s.  8d.,  was  granted2  to 
William  de  Stafford,  yeoman  of  the  chamber,  and 
rider  of  Wirral,  for  life  with  no  rent,  and  upon  his 
death  the  Prince  of  Wales  in  1359  gave 2  them  to 
Sir  John  de  Pembridge,  yeoman  of  the  chamber,  for 
life ;  he  also  held  the  rider's  office.  Reginald 
Hokere3  was  the  next  recorded  holder,  viz.  in 
1375,  and  then  in  1390  Hubert  de  Florie,4  otherwise 
Hubert  de  Burgh,5  who  also  held  the  office  of  wood- 
ward of  Little  Saughall  Wood,  in  which  (with 
Shotwick  Park)  the  best  oaks  for  timber  are  said  to 
have  been  grown.6  John  Bredon  is  named  as  keeper 
of  the  wood  in  1390,  and  was  ordered 7  to  deliver  an 
oak  to  John  Leche  for  works  in  Chester,  other  oak 
at  the  same  time  being  ordered  7  from  the  park  of 
Lloitcote.  Peter  Rukke  and  Walter  Wybourne 
were  the  next  grantees,8  in  1396,  and  also  held  the 
woodwards  office,  rendering  to  the  earl  the  issues 
over  six  marks  a  year. 

The  custody  of  the  royal  wood  was  given 9  in  1399 
by  Henry  Prince  of  Wales  to  John  Goodfellow, 
together  with  a  place  in  Wirral  called  "  Riders- 
place,"  in  recompense  of  his  services  in  Ireland  and 
elsewhere.     Philip  Shocklach  leased 9  "  the  lands 

1  Chamberlains'  Accounts  and  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

2  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

3  Ches.  Recog.  Roll,  1390. 
*  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

6  Ches.  Recog.  Roll,  1397. 

6  Ches.  Recog.  Roll,  1387. 

7  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

8  Ches.  Recog.  Roll,  1397. 

9  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 


136    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 

which  were  of  Guy  de  Provence  "  for  five  years  at 
4  marks  a  year  in  1422,  and  in  1440  John  Trout- 
beck  had  a  grant 1  for  life,  with  custody  of  the  wood. 
A  long  lease 1  of  the  lands  for  twenty-six  years  was 
taken  in  1453  by  Robert  Halsted  at  a  rising  rent, 
whilst  Nicholas  Glegge  was  appointed 1  keeper  of 
the  wood  for  life  in  1462.  He  was  followed  in  1484 
by  James  Saxton,1  whilst  a  few  years  later  John 
Glegg  appears2  as  farmer  of  Guy  de  Provence's 
land.  In  1493  Wm.  Tatton  of  Chester,  one  of  the 
Wythenshaw  family,  took  them  on  long  lease2  at 
Glegg's  old  rent  of  55s.  and  is.  8d.  increase,  and 
with  this  family  the  property  seems  to  have  been 
connected  for  many  years.  The  Tattons  were  ex- 
tensive farmers  of  offices.  William  held  the  ad- 
vowries  of  Cheshire  and  the  mills  of  Disserth.  He 
was  a  justice  in  the  swainmote  in  Delamere,  a  baron 
of  the  Exchequer,  a  surveyor  of  the  river  Dee,  and 
vice-chamberlain  of  Chester,  besides  being  ap- 
pointed a  commissioner  to  hold  a  Court  of  His- 
trionics there.  He  left  no  family.  John,  his  brother, 
sheriff  of  Chester  and  also  baron  of  the  Exchequer, 
and  Robert  Tatton,  the  latter's  son,  renewed3  the 
lease  in  1525  for  twenty-one  years,  the  rent  rising 
another  is.  8d.  In  April  1553,  William  Earl  of 
Pembroke  bought  from  the  Crown  a  house  in  Little 
Saughall  with  part  of  the  Provencal  lands,  which 
in  1562  he  sold  to  Robert  Tatton  for  £120?  to 
whom  the  hall  and  demesne  of  Saughall  had  been 
granted  by  Queen  Elizabeth.5  During  her  reign 
there  were  disputes6  between  the  Crown  and  the 
Tattons  over  the  ownership  of  "  the  Kingswood, 
alias  Kingsland,  alias  Little  Saughall  Wood,"  and 

1  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 

2  Ches.  Recog.  Roll  1493. 

3  Ches.  Recog.  Roll. 
*  Harl.  MS.  2099. 

6  Ly sons'  Cheshire. 
6  Harl.  MS.  2002,  34.. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  137 

in  1565  an  inquisition1  appears  to  have  found  that 
it  was  "solum  et  liberum  tenementum "  of  the 
Queen.  Tatton  contended,  however,  that  it  was 
part  of  the  lands  of  Guy  de  Provence  and  so  be- 
longed to  him  ;  and  from  a  letter  2  written  by  him 
on  the  subject,  it  seems  the  extent  of  the  wood  was 
100  acres,  and  that  it  was  then  common  land. 
Eventually,  early  in  the  seventeenth  century,  there 
appears  to  have  been  an  enclosure 3  and  a  division 
of  the  resulting  land  among  the  freeholders.  Pos- 
sibly the  reputed  manor  of  Little  Saughall  was  thus 
evolved.  (The  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Chester  were 
in  receipt  of  10s.  rent  from  Richard  Poole  for 
Saughall  Wood  in  1549.4)  The  Does  and  Gamuls 
were  no  doubt  among  the  local  families  who  re- 
ceived an  allotment,  and  the  latter  family  even- 
tually acquired  Tatton's  lands.  A  Mrs.  Elizabeth 
Sloughter  [?]  inherited  these  estates,  which  passed 
into  the  hands  of  Charles  Potts  of  Chester,  and  he 
sold  the  reputed  manor  of  Little  Saughall  to  the 
Trelawny  family,5  and  presumably  it  passed  in 
1906  to  William  Vernon. 

1  Ex.  Spec.  Comm.,  No.  90. 

2  Harl.  MS.  2099,  fo.  502-16. 

3  See  Webb's  statement,  ante,  p.  123. 

4  Harl.  MS.  2095,  fol.  lb. 

6  Vide  Ormerod  and  Lysons. 


138 


APPENDIX  I 


EXTENT  OF  THE  ROYAL  MANOR  OF  SHOTWICK, 

1280 

(Rentals  &  Surveys  P.R.O.,  Portfolio  6,  No.  33) 
[  Translation] 

EXTENT  made  of  the  Manor  of  Shetewyk  in  the  time  of 
the  lord  Roger  le  Strange  (Extraneus)  before  Robert  de 
Poulle,  Nicholas  de  Yucflet  and  Philip  de  Say  on  Monday 
next  before  Palm  Sunday  in  the  8th  year  of  the  reign  of  King 
Edward  [I,  i.e.  8  April,  1280]  by  these  jurors:  that  is  to  say,  by 
Thomas  son  of  John  of  Salghal,  Thomas  son  of  Richard  of  the 
same  place,  Cadogon  son  of  Meiller  of  the  same  place,  Richard 
Prest  of  the  same  place,  Roger  son  of  Richard  of  the  same  place, 
Richard  of  London,  Simon  son  of  Richard,  John  son  of  Meiller, 
Roger  son  of  Adam,  John  son  of  Yereford  and  others,  who  say 
upon  oath  that : — 

The  Lord  holds  in  demesne  30  bovates  of  land,  of  which  each 
bovate  contains  3  acres  of  land,  the  value  of  each  bovate  3s., 
whereof  a  total  of  ^4,  10s.  They  say  that  the  pannage  of  the 
wood  is  worth  10s.,  and  that  the  gatherings1  [volae  bosci\  of  wood 
are  worth  6s.  6d.  a  year.  Also  they  say  that  the  pasturage  is 
worth  yearly  19s. ;  of  which  the  township  \villd\  of  Salghal  pays 
10s. ;  Wodebank  4s. ;  the  township  of  Shetewick  i8d.  or  18  hens 
and  does  one  day's  ploughing  or  iod.,  and  one  boon-day  in  autumn 
or  i8d. ;  and  the  township  of  Crabwell  of  these  renders  6d.  or 
does  one  day's  ploughing,  and  one  boon-day  or  gives  8d.  Also 
they  say  that  the  fishery  is  worth  annually  10  marks  [£6, 
13s.  4d.],  of  which  4  weirs  [gurgif]  are  worth  to  rent  ^4,  and 
the  men  of  Salghal  pay  4  marks  [£2,  13s.  4d.]  for  the  fishery  with 
their  nets  :  and  the  lord  shall  have  from  the  fishery  half  of  each 
catch  of  salmon  caught  by  nets  as  his  fee. 

Total  £i2>  18s.  iod. 
Free  Tenants. — Also  they  say  that  Thomas  son  of  John 
holds  2  bovates  of  land  of  ancient  feoffment  without  charter,  and 


1  Or  "  handfuls,"  i.e.  fallen  wood. 


The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick  139 


ought  to  be  the  summoner  of  the  court,  and  to  carry  letters  every- 
where within  the  bounds  of  Cheshire  relating  to  the  manor  ;  and 
he  pays  no  rent.  And  Thomas  son  of  Richard  de  Lound  holds 
2  bovates  of  land  in  Great  Salghal  and  pays  4od.  at  Michaelmas 
and  holds  by  charter.  And  Richard  de  Dounvill  holds  without 
charter,  of  ancient  tenure,  4  bovates  of  land  with  one  croft ;  and 
he  is  liable  to  pay  of  right  at  the  Feast  of  St.  Martin  iod.  And 
Dobyn  with  his  fellows  holds  [?  land  in]  Wodebank,  which  con- 
tains 2  bovates  of  land,  at  the  will  of  the  lord,  and  pays  10s.  at  the 
Feast  of  St.  Martin  and  10s.  at  the  Feast  of  St.  John. 

Total  23s.  4d.  [?  2d.]. 
Bondsmen. — Roger  son  of  Richard  holds  one  bovate  of  land 
in  Salghal  and  pays  3s.  at  Martinmas  and  at  the  Feast  of  St.  John 
and  at  Michaelmas ;  and  he  owes  one  day's  ploughing  in  the 
winter  at  his  own  cost  with  all  the  oxen  working  in  his  own 
plough,  and  one  day's  ploughing  in  Lent  at  the  cost  of  the  lord, 
and  he  owes  3  boon-days  in  autumn  of  one  man,  that  is  one 
day-work  at  the  cost  of  the  lord.  And  Stephen  son  of  Robert 
holds  one  bovate  and  pays  3s.  at  the  said  terms  and  does  all  the 
above-mentioned  services.  And  Nicholas  son  of  Robert  holds 
one  bovate  and  pays  3s.  at  the  said  terms  and  does  [&c.].  And 
Thomas  son  of  John  holds  2  bovates  and  pays  6s.  at  the  said 
terms  and  does  such  of  the  above  services  as  belong  to  his  2 
bovates.  And  Richard  Jouwe  and  Richard  son  of  Alan  hold 
one  bovate  and  pay  3s.  at  the  said  terms  and  do  all  the  said 
services.  And  William  son  of  Richard  son  of  Osbert  holds  1 
bovate  and  pays  3s.  and  does  [&c.].  And  Edusa  the  widow 
holds  1  bovate  and  pays  3s.  and  does  [&c.].  And  John  son 
of  Richard  holds  1  bovate  and  pays  3s.  and  does  [&c.].  And 
Simon  son  of  Richard  holds  2  bovates  and  pays  6s.  and  does 
[&c.].  And  James  son  of  Meiller  holds  1  bovate  and  pays  3s. 
and  does  [&c.].  And  Daykin  Owen  holds  1  bovate  and  pays 
3s.  and  does  [&c.].  And  Ranulph  son  of  Richard  holds  1  bovate 
and  pays  3s.  and  does  [&c]  And  Simon  son  of  Adam  holds  2 
bovates  and  pays  6s.  at  the  said  terms  and  does  [&c.].  And 
Roger  Gille  holds  2  bovates  and  pays  6s.  and  does  [&c.]. 
And  John  son  of  Yarford  and  William  Hog  hold  1  bovate  and 
pay  3s.  and  do  [&c.].  And  William  le  Wayte  holds  1  bovate 
and  pays  3s.  and  does  [&c.].  And  Hugo  son  of  Adam  holds  1 
bovate  and  pays  3s.  and  does  [&c.].  And  Roger  Gille  holds  2 
bovates  and  pays  6s.  at  the  under-mentioned  terms,  namely  at 
the  Feast  of  St.  John  and  at  Martinmas;  they  do  not  know  how 
he  holds  these.  And  William  son  of  Roger  holds  1  bovate  and 
pays  4s.  at  Martinmas  and  the  Feast  of  St.  John,  and  owes  a 
day's  ploughing  in  Lent  and  a  boon-day  in  autumn  of  one  man 
at  the  cost  of  the  lord.  And  Richard  de  London  holds  one 
bovate  and  pays  4s.  and  does  the  said  services.   And  Roger  Botet 


140   The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick 


and  Richard  his  brother  hold  1  bovate  and  pay  4s.  and  do  [&c.]. 
And  John  son  of  Meiller  holds  1  bovate  and  pays  4s.  3d.  and  does 
&c.].  And  Robert  Cook  holds  1  bovate  and  pays  4s.  and  does 
&c.].  Also  the  township  of  Salghal  at  the  coming  of  the  lord 
has  to  gather  a  cartload  of  rushes.  And  if  the  Serjeant  of  Shet- 
wick  has  not  a  stock  of  corn  at  the  lord's  coming,  five  or  six  men 
of  Salghall  shall  thresh  provender  for  the  horses  in  the  lord's 
grange  for  one  day.  Total  ^4,  gs.  2d  [?  3d.] 

Of  the  Avowries  {Be  Advocacionibus)} — From  Hugh  Grount 
4d.  at  Martinmas,  Richard  son  of  John  4d.,  Richard  Berie  4d., 
Roger  Brun  4d.,  Hamo  son  of  Peter  4d.,  Hawisa  de  Moleton  4d., 
Richard  le  Counte  4d.,  Nicholas  Rotel  4d.,  and  there  are  others 
who  are  not  named  here.  Total  5s.  6d. 

Total         16s.  iod. 


1  This  must  refer  to  the  "  avowries "  usually  called  "advocariae" 
and  not  to  "  advowsons,"  which  in  this  case  would  have  no  meaning. 
But  it  may  be  noted  that  the  expression  "advocatio  ecclesie  ejusdem 
manerii "  occurs  in  the  extent  of  Frodsham  of  the  same  date  as  this 
one.  See  Ormerod's  Cheshire  (Helsby),  ii.  50.  I  have  collected  a 
quantity  of  Cheshire  references  to  the  avowries,  and  have  a  paper  in 
preparation  upon  the  subject,  but  can  only  state  here  that  the  pay- 
ments were  made  by  strangers  to  obtain  the  protection  of  the  earl 
upon  whose  demesne  lands  they  had  been  given  an  allotment. 


i4i 


APPENDIX  II 

Since  the  above  essay  was  in  type  the  Editor  kindly 
points  out  that  Rough  Shotwick  is  named  in  a 
Malbank  charter  of  the  time  of  Henry  II.  By  this 
deed1  William  Malbank,  the  third  baron  of  Nant- 
wich,  granted  to  Robert  de  Bracy  ''the  Black/'  his 
nephew,  three  knight's  fees  in  Wistaston,  near 
Nantwich,  and  other  places,  including  four  bovates 
in  Rowheschetewyk.  The  fee  descended  to  William 
de  Berci,  whose  son  Hameline  resigned  his  right  to 
his  brother  Roger  de  Berci,  and  this  act  was  con- 
firmed by  Richard  de  Redvers  as  successor  to  the 
above-named  William  Malbank.2  Amice,  lady  of 
Wistaston,  granted  it  to  her  son  William  about 
1280;  the  free  chapel  of  St.  Mary  of  Wistaston 
being  mentioned,  as  also  its  -*  governor,"  Robert 
the  chaplain.  Lawrence  Bresci  was  a  witness  to 
the  charters  of  Amice.3  The  earliest  deed  may  be 
printed  in  full ;  it  is  just  mentioned  by  Williamson, 
as  quoted  in  Ormerod  (Cheshire,  iii.  330). 

William  Maubanc  to  all  his  friends  French  and  English,  pre- 
sent and  future,  greeting.  I  make  known  to  you  that  I  have 
received  from  my  nephew  Robert  de  Bracy  the  Black  the  homage 


1  Additional  Charter  (British  Museum),  43964. 

2  Ibid.,  43065.  In  this  charter  Ric.  de  Redvers  speaks  of  William 
Malbank  as  antecessor  mens  and  acts  as  heir  of  the  family,  but  his 
connection  with  it  has  not  been  explained.  The  witnesses  are  : 
Walter  and  Alan  de  Dunestan villa,  Alured  and  Roger  de  Cumbray, 
Ralph  de  Menewarin,  Robert  de  Praers,  Richard  de  Lestra,  Walter 
Mautravers,  Wm.  de  Lestra,  Peter  de  Vallitort,  Philip  Maubanc, 
Rag'  [?  Reginald]  fil'  Archenbaldi,  Adam  Waschet,  William  de  Mene- 
warin, William  Waschet,  Robert  s.  Peter,  Hugh  de  Aldelime,  Ralph 
de  Buillon',  Nicholas  de  Crue,  and  Roger  the  clerk  who  wrote  this 
charter. 

3  Ibid.,  43965-8. 


142    The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Skotwick 

and  service  of  three  fees :  viz.  Wistaniston  and  4  bovates  in 
Wilaston  and  8  bovates  in  White  Pull  and  4  bovates  in  Rowhe- 
schetewyk  in  Vyrhale — one  fee ;  and  in  the  same  Vyrhale  Fingh- 
walle  [Thingwall],  the  fourth  part  of  a  fee ;  and  Rap  [Rope]  also 
the  fourth  part,  and  Sattisclive 1  and  Horistok 2  the  half  of  a  fee ; 
and  Norhburi  and  Wyriswall  by  Album  Monasterium  [Whit- 
church], one  fee.  And  he  and  his  heirs  shall  perform  to  me  and 
my  heirs  the  service  of  three  knights ;  likewise  wards  and  relief 
and  scutage  whenever  it  may  be  levied.  And  in  the  presence  of 
my  knights  and  my  whole  court  I  have  affixed  my  seal  hereto. 
These  are  witnesses  :  Walter  de  Dunstanvill,  Reginald  de  Coubray, 
Edwin  de  Banc[a]vill,  Reginald  Archinebawd,  Alfred  de  Cum- 
bray,  Richard  de  Lestra,  Robert  son  of  Peter,  Philip  Maubanc, 
and  Roger  the  clerk  who  wrote  this  charter. 

In  the  same  collection  is  preserved  a  rental  of 
the  manors  of  Leadbrook  and  Great  Saughall  of 
the  year  1735. — Add.  Charter  1009. 

1  Or,  Cattisclive.    Catsclough  near  Whitegate  has  been  suggested. 

2  Or,  Boristok. 


Photochrom  Co.,  Ltd. 

YORK  CHAPTER-HOUSE 


143 


SOME  NOTES  ON  CHAPTER-HOUSES 

By  the  Rev.  W.  A.  Wickkam,  Vicar  of 
St.  Andrew  s,  Wigan. 

Read  5th  and  19th  December  1912. 


WHEN  one  visits  our  English  cathedrals  or 
the  ruins  of  ancient  conventual  buildings, 
the  chapter-house  is  generally  pointed  out,  and  is 
found  to  be  at  least  one  of  the  most  interesting 
of  the  subsidiary  parts  of  the  place.  At  Norwich, 
Winchester,  Peterborough,  Carlisle,  Rochester,  Here- 
ford, the  chapter-houses  are  destroyed.  At  West- 
minster, York,  Lincoln,  Salisbury,  Wells,  Southwell, 
and  Chester,  they  are  particularly  striking  features 
as  one  walks  round  the  exterior  of  the  buildings.  At 
Durham,  Oxford,  and  elsewhere  they  are  less  in 
evidence,  but  not  less  interesting.  In  this  paper 
we  deal  with  chapter-houses,  not,  of  course,  in  an 
exhaustive  or  complete,  but,  necessarily,  in  a  frag- 
mentary way.  We  offer  it  only  as  "  Notes "  on 
the  subject,  which,  so  far  as  we  are  aware,  has 
not  yet  been  dealt  with,  as  well  it  might  be,  in  a 
separate  treatise.  We  must  say  at  the  outset  that 
we  have  tried  to  be  exact  in  the  matter  of  dates 
and  measurements,  but  we  are  quite  prepared  to 
have  serious  errors  pointed  out.  We  have  found 
it  most  difficult  to  obtain  information  which  was 
apparently  trustworthy,  different  writers  (equally 
authoritative)  giving  different  figures,  and  some- 
times the  same  writer  different  figures  in  different 
places  in  his  book  ! 


144         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


The  subject  of  the  chapter-house  should  be 
one  of  special  interest  to  this  society,  because  in 
Lancashire  and  Cheshire  we  have,  at  Chester  and 
Furness,  two  of  the  finest  of  the  rectangular  chapter- 
houses ;  at  Cockersand,  one  of  the  earliest  of  the, 
comparatively  speaking,  few  polygonal  houses,  and 
at  Manchester,  one  of  the  latest  of  them.  We 
have  also  the  interesting  Norman  chapter-house  at 
Birkenhead.  At  most  of  the  other  religious  houses 
in  the  two  counties,  every  trace  of  the  chapter- 
house has  vanished.  At  Whalley  Abbey  an  en- 
trance doorway  remains,  Perpendicular  in  style, 
with  an  opening  on  either  side  of  it ;  but  the  expert 
who  wrote  the  account  of  Whalley  in  the  Victoria 
County  History  of  Lancashire  is  unable  to  decide 
whether  it  is  the  doorway  into  the  chapter-house, 
or  only  into  a  vestibule  to  the  west  of  it.  The 
latter  supposition  seems  the  more  likely. 

I.   DERIVATION    AND    EARLY    USE  OF 
"CHAPTER"  AND  "CHAPTER-HOUSE" 

In  the  long  index  to  Bingham's  Origines,  the 
words  "  Chapter"  and  "  Chapter-house "  find  no 
place.  But  he  says  that  the  apsis  stood  at  the 
upper  end  of  the  chancel,  and  that  it  was  by  some 
writers  called  exedra,  a  word  that  signifies  "  any 
arched  or  spherical  building,  like  the  canopy  of 
heaven,  to  which  St.  Jerome  applies  the  name  of 
apsis."  He  says  further  that  "  Du  Fresne  thinks 
it  is  also  called  exedra  by  St.  Austin,  who  says  the 
conference  between  the  Catholics  and  Emeritus, 
the  Donatist  bishop,  was  held  in  the  exedra  of 
the  church,  which  he  interprets  the  place  where  the 
bishop  and  presbyters  had  their  usual  residence 
[i.e.  seats]  in  the  upper  end  of  the  bema  beyond 
the  altar.  But  Valesius  and  other  learned  men 
take  exedra  here,  in  the  common  sense,  for  one  of 


CHAPTER-HOUSE,  YORK 

[Reproduced  from  Fergtisson's  "  History  of Ancient  and  Medieval  Architecture" 
by  permission  of  Mr.  John  Murray) 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


145 


the  outer  buildings  of  the  church.  And  it  is  not 
easy  to  determine  so  nice  a  controversy  between 
them."  Possibly  from  this  passage  in  Bingham, 
published  between  1708  and  1722,  the  opinion  has 
arisen  that  the  apse  was  the  parent  of  the  chapter- 
house. At  any  rate  that  opinion,  which  really  finds 
but  little  support  in  Bingham,  is  very  generally  held 
by  experts.  And  as  one  stands  before  that  "  simple 
and  stern  semicircular  recess  [at  Torcello],  filled 
beneath  by  three  ranks  of  seats,  raised  one  above 
the  other,  for  the  bishop  and  presbyters  .  .  — 
those  "  stern  ledges  that  sweep  round  the  altar 
at  Torcello,"1  one  can  readily  believe  that  in  the 
early  times  before  the  eleventh  century  the  apse 
was  often  used  as  the  meeting-place  of  the  bishop 
and  his  clergy,  of  the  abbot  and  his  monks. 

The  word  "  Chapter "  is  said  in  N.E.D.  to  be 
a  later,  syncopated  form  of  chapiter,  O.F.  chapitre, 
earlier  chapitle :  L.  capitulum,  dim.  of  caput.  The 
Dictionary  quotes  from  the  Dictionary  of  Christian 
Antiquities  (I.  288/1)  the  following: 

"  From  the  last-mentioned  usage  (the  capitula  of  a  monastic 
rule)  coupled  with  the  practice  of  reading  a  capitulum  or  chapter 
of  the  Rule,  or  (as  was  St.  Augustine's  practice)  of  the  Scriptures, 
to  the  assembled  canons  or  monks,  the  assembled  canons  or 
monks  themselves  came  to  be  called,  in  a  body,  the  capitulum  or 
chapter,  and  their  meeting-place  the  chapter-house." 

A  reference  is  given  to  Ducange,  Glossarium,  and 
on  turning  to  this  we  find  the  following  (art.  Capi- 
tulum), "  Locus  in  quern  conveniunt  monachi  et 
canonici,  sic  dictum,  inquit  Papias,2  quod  capitula 
ibi  legantur."  He  explains  capitula  as  chapters  of 
the  Rule,  or  of  the  Martyrology.  He  quotes  from 
the  Vita  S.  Benedicti  Anian.,  c.  a.d.  817,  the  word 
used  thus,  "  Fratribus  vero  sibi  subjectis  omni  hora, 
in  nocturnis  scilicet,  in  capitulo,  in  refectorio  pabula 

1  Ruskin,  Stones  of  Venice :  "  Torcello." 

2  Papias  was  a  Lombard  who  compiled  a  Glossary,  c.  1050. 

K 


146         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


vitae  praebebat."  The  N.E.D.  gives  instances  of 
the  use  of  the  word  "  Chapter-house,"  c.  1 122 — O.E. 
Chron.  an.  11 16,  "  Baernda  eall  thaet  mynstre  of 
Burh,  and  eallae  tha  husas  butan  se  Captelhus  and 
se  Slaepperne"  ;  1377 — Lang.,  P.  PI.  B.  v.  174,  "  If 
I  telle  any  tales  ...  am  chalanged  in  the  chapitel 
hous";  c.  1394 — P.  PL  Crede,  199,  "  Thanne  was 
the  chaptire-hous  wrou3t  as  a  greet  chirche."  In 
1562  the  word  "Chapter."  was  used  (as  it  is  now) 
of  meetings  of  the  kings-of-arms,  and  in  1681  it 
was  used  of  meetings  of  the  Order  of  the  Garter, 
as  it  was  in  the  present  year  when  King  George 
held  a  "  chapter  "  of  the  knights  at  Windsor.1 

Archbishop  Benson2  says,  "The  name  chapter 
{capitulum)  designates  this  body  [i.e.  the  bishop's 
council],  but  it  became  fashionable  only  with  the 
popularity  of  the  monastic  orders  from  whom  it 
was  adopted."  Sub-Dean  Wordsworth3  defines 
capicium  as  "  the  chevet  or  east  end  of  the  church," 
and  capitulum  as  "  the  chevet,  or  eastern  head  of 
the  church.  In  later  times  the  name  was  applied 
to  the  chapter-house.  .  .  .  The  word  is,  of  course, 
used  also  most  commonly  for  the  chapter  or  body 
of  canons.  .  .  ."  He  quotes  from  the  Customs  of 
Lichfield  Cathedral,  "  Choir  enters  chapter  [-house] 
and  Martiloge  is  read  there."4  That  was  circa 
1 190-1250.  He  adds  a  footnote,  "  The  chapter- 
house at  Lichfield  was  built  circa  1240.  It  may 
be  questioned  whether  in  this  and  like  instances 
*  capitulum '  had  as  yet  acquired  its  connotation  of 
locality."  But  the  passage  from  the  Life  of  St. 
Benedict  (Ducange),  and  that  from  the  O.E.  Chron. 
[N.E.D.)  quoted  above  tells  against  this,  as  does 
also  the  use  of  the  word  in  the  French  Life  of 
Edward  the  Confessor,  quoted  below  on  p.  175. 

1  Daily  Mail,  June  n,  191 2. 

2  The  Cathedral,  p.  45. 

3  Notes  on  Medicevql  Services,  p.  124. 

4  J  bid.,  p.  99. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Hotises  147 

Mr.  Wordsworth  also  quotes  from  the  Treasurer's 
Inventory,  a.d.  1214-1222:  "  Item  cortine  ii  in 
capitulo," 1  and  adds  this  note,  "  Observe  this  local 
reference  to  a  '  capitulum '  before  the  chapter-house 
was  built  at  Salisbury."  But  there  was  probably 
a  chapter-house  at  Old  Sarum.  The  first  stone 
of  the  Lady  chapel  of  New  Sarum,  the  part  of 
the  cathedral  first  built,  was  laid  in  1220.  So  the 
'capitulo'  of  the  Inventory  must  have  been  that  at 
Old  Sarum,  for  it  was  a  list  of  the  things  found 
in  the  treasury  in  12 14,  and  then  received  by 
Abraham,  the  treasurer.  The  list  was  written  out 
in  1220.  It  is  unnecessary  to  say  more  as  to  the 
derivation  and  early  use  of  the  words  "chapter" 
and  "  chapter-house." 

II.  THE  CHAPTER-HOUSE 

The  chapter-house  is  the  special  home  and 
meeting-place  of  the  chapter  in  cathedral,  collegiate, 
and  monastic  foundations.  It  is  to  the  chapter 
what  the  town-hall  is  to  the  borough  or  city — the 
building  which  represents  its  dignity  and  authority. 
Consequently  one  finds  that  it  stands  scarcely 
second  to  the  church  in  beauty  of  construction  and 
in  the  reverence  with  which  it  is  treated.2  It  is 
"an  absolutely  indispensable  part  of  any  extensive 
ecclesiastical  establishment,  and  in  almost  every 
case  is  more  carefully  designed,  and  more  elabo- 
rately ornamented,  than  the  church  itself,  its  only 
inferiority  being  size." 8 

The  Chichester  Lady  chapel  (1 288-1 305)  and  the 

1  Salisbury  Ceremonies  and  Processions,  p.  176. 

2  "In  toto  corpore  ecclesiae,  praeter  ilium  ubi  altare  constituitur, 
nullus  locus  est  sanctior  Capitulo,  nullus  reverentia  dignior,  nullus 
diabolo  remotior,  nullus  Deo  proximior  Helinandus  Monach., 
qu.  Ducange,  Gloss.  Ducange  gives  instances  of  chapter-houses  in 
which  lamps  burned,  out  of  reverence,  at  all  times. 

8  Fergusson,  Handbook p.  885  ;  qu.  Lubke,  p.  277. 


148         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

Chester  chapter-house  (1240)  may  be  compared,  as 
being  similar  in  style  and  treatment,  and  nearly  equal 
in  beauty.  The  former  measures  62.2x20.7  ft., 
and  the  latter  50  x  26  -f  25  ft.,  but  before  it  stands  a 
vestibule  measuring  33.4  x  27.4+  12.9  ft.  Again  at 
Salisbury  the  chapter-house  measures  58  dia.  +  52  ft., 
and  the  Lady  chapel  68.6  x  37  x  39.9  ft.,  and  in 
elaboration  of  treatment  the  chapter-house  certainly 
takes  the  first  place.  One  must  go  to  Southwell 
and  study  the  extreme  beauty  of  its  elaborate 
ornamentation  before  one  can  rightly  appreciate 
the  place  of  the  chapter-house  in  mediaeval  Church 
thought. 

One  is  taught  the  same  thing,  though  in  a 
different  way,  by  the  approach  to  the  chapter-house. 
Not  unfrequently  there  was  a  noble  vestibule  of 
greater  or  lesser  depth ;  shallow,  perhaps,  like  that 
at  Winchester,  of  which  only  the  five  grand  western 
arches  remain  (reminding  one  of  Vezelay),  or 
deeper,  like  the  beautiful  one,  with  its  three  alleys, 
at  Chester.  Then  there  were  the  doorways  of 
vestibule  or  chapter-house  —  very  dignified  in 
Norman  times,  as  at  Fountains,  Haughmond, 
Wenlock,  Oxford,  and  elsewhere ;  the  doorway 
itself  generally  of  four  or  five  orders,  richly  orna- 
mented, and,  as  a  rule,  flanked  by  two  similar 
arches  or  windows.  Then,  in  the  later  chapter- 
houses, when  there  were  no  longer  the  lateral 
openings,  the  single  entrance  was  generally  divided 
into  two,  sometimes  very  rich  in  decoration,  as  at 
Westminster,  and  more  especially  at  Southwell  (the 
beauty  of  which  must  be  seen  to  be  believed),  or 
at  least  beautiful  in  outline,  if  less  intricate  in  detail, 
as  at  Wells. 

Again,  one  realises  the  dignity  of  the  chapter- 
house at  Salisbury,  distinguished  by  its  cloister  and 
yew  trees  ;  at  Westminster  ;  and  more  especially  at 
Lincoln,  where  the  chapter-house  stands,  a  thing 


WENLOCK  CHAPTER-HOUSE  AND  DETAIL 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  149 

of  majesty  as  well  as  of  beauty,  supported  on  its 
north,  south,  and  east  sides  by  strong  and  wide- 
spreading,  flying  buttresses,  an  "apostolic  after- 
thought," like  its  vault1  and  the  noble  cloister 
which  guards  it  on  the  west  (that  being  the  only 
proper  function  or  raison  dHre  of  this  cloister, 
since  Lincoln  was  never  a  conventual  church),  and 
approached  through  a  doorway  of  delicate  beauty 
by  an  ample  vestibule,  which  is  indeed  a  part  of  it, 
since  there  is  no  doorway,  as  at  Chester,  between 
vestibule  and  chapter-house.2  A  reference  to  the 
ground  plan  of  Lincoln  cathedral  will  show  in  a 
striking  way  what  an  important  part  of  the  build- 
ing the  chapter-house  was  considered  to  be.  A 
reference  to  the  ground  plan  of  Chester  cathedral 
(and  indeed  to  that  of  many  another)  will  make  the 
same  thing  clear. 

III.  THE  CHAPTER 

The  importance  of  the  chapter-house  is  the  result 
and  expression  of  the  importance  of  the  chapter, 
whether  diocesan  or  monastic.  The  monastic 
chapter  was  the  solemn  assembly  of  the  community 
for  worship,  deliberation,  discipline,  or  instruction. 
The  diocesan  chapter  was  the  bishop's  council  and 
the  diocesan  parliament.  "  Cathedrals,"  says 
Hooker,3  "are  glasses  wherein  we  see  the  face  of 
antiquity,"  and  no  part  of  the  cathedral  reflects  a 
clearer  image  of  olden  times  than  the  chapter-house. 
Archbishop  Benson  in  his  well-known  book  on  The 
Cathedral  (p.  112)  says  : 

"The  theory  of  episcopal  unity  is  nowhere  so  baldly  stated 
as  in  the  Ignatian  Epistles  \c.  a.d.  no].    But  by  unity  they 

1  Cf.  Journal  R.I.B.A.,  loth  Dec.  1910,  p.  97. 

2  It  is  exactly  what  one  would  expect  to  find  as  the  dignified  home 
of  "the  most  glorious  and  vastest  of  all  chapters"  (Mag.  Vit.  S. 
Hugonis,  iii.  8  ;  qu.  Benson,  Cathedral,  p.  8). 

3  Works,  vil.,  vii.  2. 


150         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

do  not  mean  isolation.  What  they  dwell  on  is  the  bishop's 
harmonious  action  with  his  presbytery »,  'the  precious  circlet  of 
the  presbytery/  'the  council  board  of  God';  that  is  practically 
the  committee  of  the  nearest  gravest  clergy." 

Elsewhere  (p.  45)  he  speaks  of: 

"The  exceeding  antiquity  of  the  cathedral  institution.  .  .  . 
It  is  not  possible  to  point  to  any  episcopal  chair  which  is  not 
at  once  seen  surrounded  by  its  1  senatus,'  its  1  presbytery,' 
'council,'  or  'cardinals.'" 

He  does  indeed  consider  it  "uncritical"  to  connect 
the  cathedral  chapters,  as  was  formerly  done,  "  in 
the  way  of  historical  descent,"  with  the  arrange- 
ments made  by  St.  Augustine  of  Hippo1  (a.d.  354— 

430) ; 

"Yet  it  would  be  equally  uncritical  to  say  that  the  example 
of  Augustine  was  not  commonly  present  to  the  minds  of  the 
societies  of  the  eighth  or  ninth  centuries."  .  .  .  "The  term 
canonici,  i.e.  '  inscribed  on  the  canon,  matricula,  or  album  of 
the  church,'  is  said  not  to  occur  before  the  sixth  century,  but 
the  associates  so  called  did  not  differ  materially  from  earlier 
societies." 

The  archbishops  book  is  worthy  of  the  most 
careful  study.  He  writes  as  an  expert  and  an 
enthusiast.  He  shows  that  the  chapter  are  the 
"  fratres  episcopi,"  his  consilium,  the  "  senate  of 
their  diocese,"  of  which  the  bishop  himself  is  the 
"principalis pars"  and  the  "oilmen"  of  their  own 
dignities.  He  points  out  that  this,  and  not  so 
much  the  maintenance  of  divine  worship  or  of 
their  many-sided  work,  is  their  raison  d'etre. 

"  What  is  '  essential '  is  briefly  that  they  be  '  the  senate  of  the 
diocese,'  whose  duty  is  '  to  aid  the  bishop  when  the  see  is  filled, 
to  supply  his  place  when  it  is  vacant.' " 2 

Again  and  again  does  he  insist  upon  and  prove 
this.    He  also  points  out  (p.  69)  that 

"  the  acts  of  a  chapter  have  no  validity  except  their  meetings  are 
held  in  the  chapter-house/'  and  that  "  the  bishop  had  no  right 


1  Serm.  i.,  ad  Pop.  Hippon. 


3  Op.  cit.,  p.  52. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  151 


to  require  their  presence  elsewhere.  When  he  summoned  them 
he  was  bound  to  meet  them  in  the  chapter-house." 

When  St.  Hugh  was  elected  in  London  to  the 
bishopric  of  Lincoln  he  refused  to  acknowledge  his 
election  until  it  had  been  freely  and  freshly  made 
in  the  chapter-house  of  the  diocese :  "  Not,"  says 
he,  "in  a  royal  palace,  or  in  a  pontifical  council, 
but  in  its  own  chapter-house  must  a  church  bishop 
be  elected."1 

And  so  we  are  able  the  better  to  understand  the 
magnificence  and  importance  of  the  chapter-houses 
of  many  of  our  cathedrals.  Far  smaller  and  simpler 
rooms  would  have  served  the  purpose  for  which  these 
were  built,  but  they  would  have  been  considered  un- 
worthy of  the  great  principle  which  the  grander 
building  so  well  expressed.  The  case  is  not  other- 
wise with  the  monasteries.  The  chapter-house 
stood  for  the  community  in  council — its  power,  its 
dignity,  its  resources,  temporal  and  spiritual.  Hence 
it  must  be  "  very  magnifical." 

IV.  COMPOSITION  OF  CHAPTER 

In  cathedral  churches  the  chapter  was  composed 
of  the  body  of  "canons,"  presided  over  by  the  dean, 
and  provided  with  certain  officers  or  "  dignitates." 
The  dean's  stall  in  the  choir  was  on  the  south  side 
(return-stalls),  and  the  precentor  occupied  the  corre- 
sponding stall  on  the  north.  The  chancellor  sat  in 
the  east  end  stall  on  the  south  side,  and  the  treasurer 
in  the  east  end  stall  on  the  north.  These  four  were 
called  the  "  Oculi  Chori."  The  precentor,  second 
to  the  dean,  had  special  charge  of  the  services,  and 
of  the  "  song  schools,"  both  of  the  cathedral  and  in 
the  diocese.  The  chancellor  was  responsible  for 
the  grammar  schools  of  the  city  and  county;  "  he 

1  Mag.  Vita  S.  Hugonis,  c.  ii. ;  qu.  Benson,  p.  69. 


152         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

was,  in  fact,  a  minister  of  education." 1  He  was 
responsible  also  for  the  preaching  and  lectures  in 
the  cathedral,  and  for  the  training  of  candidates  for 
holy  orders.  He  had  also  charge  of  the  library,  and 
was  the  custodian  of  the  muniments,  and  of  the 
seal.  The  treasurer  had  charge  of  the  cathedral 
funds.  He  was  the  "  man  of  business,"  responsible 
also  for  the  great  "  treasures  "  which  the  mediaeval 
cathedrals  possessed,  and  for  the  administration  of 
the  lavish  cathedral  and  diocesan  charities.  The 
dean  was  the  president  of  the  chapter.  At  Exeter 
there  was  no  dean  for  some  two  centuries  after  the 
cathedral  was  founded.2  The  dean's  office  was  no 
sinecure.  His  functions  "lay  in  the  general  ad- 
ministration of  the  estates,  the  holding  of  the  courts, 
and  the  visitation  of  the  numerous  churches  and 
parishes."  There  were  sometimes  complications 
between  the  dean  and  chapter,  as  at  Lincoln3  in 
1440,  where  Dean  Mackworth  (chancellor  to  the 
Prince  of  Wales)  was  called  over  the  coals  by 
Bishop  Alnwick, 

"the  last  of  many  such  trials  ...  on  nearly  all  the  articles  the 
dean  was  shown  to  have  been  the  aggressor,  and  in  the  wrong 
.  .  .  the  abuses  and  irregularities  are  described  as  of  long  stand- 
ing, and  as  having  grown  up,  says  the  judge,  1  mainly  owing  to 
the  non-residence  of  the  dean.'  Yet  nothing  can  exceed  the 
delicacy  with  which  'dominus  decanus'  is  treated."  .  .  .  [The 
dean's]  "  powers  were  always  great  but  indefinite.  .  .  .  He  was 
simply  pre-eminent.  Older  than  Grossteste  was  the  gradual 
assumption  of  that  place  with  respect  to  the  chapter,  which 
belonged  originally  to  the  bishop,  but  which  it  rarely  seemed 
worth  the  bishop's  while  to  battle  for."4 

A  very  interesting  and  amusing  canon  of  Florence 
once  told  us  of  how  the  Italian  Government  had 
confiscated,  as  a  ripe  plum,  the  revenues  of  the 

1  Benson,  Cathedral,  p.  30. 

2  Benson,  op.  at.,  155. 

3  Benson,  op.  cit.,  18. 

4  Benson,  op.  at.,  41. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  153 

deanery  of  Florence,  and  so  brought  it  about  that 
the  chapter  there  was  presided  over  by  the  senior 
canon.  He  did  not  in  the  least  regret  the  abolition 
of  the  dean,  who  was  a  tyrant,  and  had  the  power  of 
inspecting  the  lockers  of  all  the  canons  ! 1 
The  dean  of  Lincoln  in  mediaeval  times, 

11  about  30  times  a  year,  gave  a  1  honorificus  pastus '  in  his  own 
house  to  all  the  choir  and  all  the  vicars,  with  a  view  to  making 
'life  and  work  more  pleasant  to  them.'" 

He  was  expected  to  preside  at  the  feast.2  So  much 
for  the  dean.  Then  there  were  the  archdeacons, 
the  "  bishop's  eyes,"  as  they  were  called,  whose 
jurisdiction  was  exterior  to  the  cathedral,3  and  whose 
rank  in  the  chapter  differed  in  different  cathedrals. 
Then  finally  came  the  canons,  called  "  preben- 
daries," 4  if  endowed  with  prczbenda  or  estates,  each 
having  a  "  vicar"  to  act  as  his  substitute  in  choir. 

"The  prebendaries  and  officers  formed  the  chapter.  There 
was  no  line  drawn  between  little  chapter  and  grand  chapter. 
There  was  only  one  body.  Whatever  portion  of  this  met,  accord- 
ing to  rule,  in  the  chapter-house,  was  a  1  chapter.'  They  abso- 
lutely elected  their  dean,  and  nominally  their  bishop."  5 

Grosseteste  claimed  rightly  and  successfully  that 
the  bishop  was  part  and  parcel  of  the  chapter,6  but 
there  was  certain  chapter  business  with  which  he 
was  not  allowed  to  interfere. 

Such,  then,  was  the  "  chapter "  of  an  English 
cathedral,  whose  place  of  meeting  was  the  chapter- 
house, the  outward  and  visible  sign  (as  we  have 
already  seen)  of  their  office  and  dignity. 

1  The  canons  of  Florence  are  all  "  monsignori,"  i.e.  they  rank  as 
prelates,  and  wear  the  amethyst  ring.  This  privilege  was  given  to 
them  centuries  ago  by  one  of  their  number,  who  was  raised  to  the 
popedom. 

2  Benson,  op.  tit.,  40. 

3  Benson,  op.  tit.,  34. 

4  In  mediaeval  times.  Now  a  "prebendary"  is  generally  the  holder 
of  a  disendowed  canonry. 

5  Benson,  op.  tit.,  24,  25. 

6  J  bid.,  24,  note. 


154         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


V.  THE  USE  OF  THE  CHAPTER-HOUSE 

In  Dean  Church's  Life  of  St.  Anselm,  truly  a 
model  of  religious  biography,  is  an  interesting 
and  scholarly  chapter  on  the  "  Discipline  of  a 
Norman  Monastery."  He  says  (p.  51)  that  the 
chapter-house  of  a  monastery  was 

"the  place  of  business  for  the  whole  community;  and  for  its 
members,  it  was  the  place  for  mutual  instruction,  for  hearing 
advice,  maintaining  discipline,  making  complaints,  confessing 
faults,  passing  judgments,  accepting  punishment.  Every  morn- 
ing, in  ordinary  seasons,  after  the  prayers  of  the  third  hour  and 
the  morning  mass,  the  community  1  held  a  chapter.'  A  bell 
rang,  and  all  the  brethren,  whatever  they  were  doing,  gathered 
in  the  choir,  and  proceeded  to  the  chapter-house." 

For  a  careful  description  of  what  took  place  there 
we  must  refer  to  Dean  Church's  pleasant  pages.1 

The  furniture  of  the  chapter-house  was  simple. 
A  stone  bench,  sometimes  quite  plain,  sometimes 
ornamented  with  quatrefoils,  as  at  Bolton  (sometimes 
double  or  triple,  as  at  Fountains)  ran  round  the 
walls,  and  there  was  a  seat  of  greater  dignity  for 
the  president  (as  at  Canterbury,  Durham,  and  Elgin) 
— bishop,  dean  or  abbot — in  the  centre  of  the  side 
opposite  to  the  door,  with  the  crucifix  or  majestas 
over  it.    In  the  centre  was  a  pulpit  or  lectern2  to 

1  See  also  Mr.  Mackenzie  Walcott's  English  Minsters,  vol.  i.  pp.  38 
and  f.,  and  Dom  Gasquet's  English  Monastic  Life,  pp.  121  and  f. 
Fuller,  Church  History  of  Britai?i,  vol.  ii.  pp.  170  ff,  gives  an  account 
of  the  different  parts  of  an  abbey,  going  into  detail.  He  mentions  the 
gate-house,  the  refectorium,  the  locutorium  or  parlour,  oriolium,  a 
dining-room  for  monks,  "  rather  distempered  than  diseased,"  dor?ni- 
torium,  lavatorium,  scriptorium,  the  library,  cloisters,  the  different 
parts  of  the  church,  the  eleemosynaria  or  almonry,  sanctuarium, 
infirmarium,  stables,  teirum  etfortem  carcerem  (prison),  the  cow-house, 
swine-sty,  grange.  But,  curiously  enough,  he  does  not  mention  the 
capitulum  or  chapter-house.  This  is  the  more  curious  since  he  refers 
constantly  (as  to  his  authority)  to  the  book  In  vitis  viginti-trium 
abbatum  de  Sto.  Albano,  where  there  certainly  was  a  chapter-house. 

2  This  lectern  is  shown  in  situ  in  an  interesting  plate  (opposite 
p.  126)  in  Dom  Gasquet's  book.  At  Elgin  a  desk  was  part  of  the 
central  pillar. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  155 


hold  the  book  of  the  reader  of  the  Martyrology, 
or  the  splendidly-illuminated  and  covered  book  of 
the  Gospels  used  1  when  oaths  were  administered. 
The  treasurer  of  Lincoln  was  to  provide  nattas 
(mats)  for  the  chapter-house  and  vestibule  as  well 
as  for  the  choir,  and  in  1271  we  find  that  he  paid 
viijd.  for  some  in  parvo  capitulo,  i.e.  (?)  the  vesti- 
bule. These  may  have  been  for  the  floor  or  for 
the  cold  stone  seats.2 

Although  the  chapter-house  was,  as  we  have  seen, 
regarded  with  great  reverence,  it  was  rather  a  place 
for  business  than  for  worship.  Certain  prayers 
were  no  doubt  said  there,  and  it  has  been  supposed 
that  the  daily  "  Chapter  Mass "  was  offered  there, 
In  some  chapter-houses  there  may  be  traces  of  an 
altar.3  But  Sub-Dean  Wordsworth 4  quotes  the  late 
Mr.  Micklethwaite,  "  than  whom  none  can  speak 
with  higher  authority  in  matters  of  ecclesiology," 
as  saying : 

"  Missa  in  Capitulo  was  not  in  any  way  connected  with  the 
chapter-^tf^re.  The  English  secular  chapter-houses  have  in  no 
case  any  preparation  for  an  altar.  Nor  have  those  of  the 
greater  regular  orders.  I  will  not  be  absolutely  sure  about  the 
Carthusians,  because  no  English  Carthusian  chapter-house  re- 


1  Cf.  Wordsworth,  Mediceval  Services ;  291. 

2  Wordsworth,  Mediceval  Services,  pp.  193-298.  "There  was  also 
in  the  chapter-house  a  cresset  which  was  always  burning  ;  and  in  the 
dark  evenings  of  winter,  when  the  portitor  lucernce  led  the  novices  to 
supper  in  the  refectory,  or  walked  before  them  to  their  dormitory, 
he  was  directed  to  light  his  lantern  at  this  cresset,  and  to  leave  it 
there  when  his  duties  were  ended."  Stewart,  Ely  Cathedral,  p.  278. 
Cf.  Gale,  i.  105,  qu.  M.  Walcott,  Ch.  and  Convent.  Arrange  p.  152, 
"  Luminare  s.  Lampas  pendens  in  capitulo,  antequam  campana 
collationis  incipiat  pulsari,  debet  accendi,  et  continue  ardere  usque 
quo  matutinis  finitis  dormitorium  ascenderent  monachi  universi." 

3  At  Ripon  the  chapter-house  and  the  vestry  to  the  east  of  it  are  built 
over  the  Norman  crypt.  They  are  a  fragment  of  the  earlier  church. 
The  vaulting  and  columns  are,  however,  early  English,  and  the  wall 
now  dividing  the  chapter-house  from  the  vestry  is  a  later  insertion, 
and  cuts  through  the  vaulting.  The  vestry  ends  in  a  Norman  apse 
(1070-1 100).  This  may  possibly  have  been  for  an  altar.  Cf.  Builder, 
February  4,  1893,  p.  91. 

4  Mediceval  Services,  p.  190. 


156         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


mains.  The  Carthusians  do  now  put  an  altar  in  the  chapter- 
house, and  they  are  a  conservative  folk;  but,  nevertheless,  I 
think  the  custom  is  modern." 

Sub-Dean  Wordsworth  goes  carefully  into  the 
question  of  the  chapter  mass,  "  a  chief  part  of  those 
devotions  which  we  may  call  the  family  prayers 
of  the  society  of  brethren  "  ;  and  he  says,1  speaking 
of  Lincoln,  that : 

"  It  is  now  almost  universally  admitted  that  this  was  not 
celebrated  in  the  chapter-house,  where  no  altar  existed,  but  it 
was  considered  to  be  said  *  in  chapter.' "  .  .  .  "  Their  private 
meetings  for  counsel  and  correction,  followed  by  the  Chapter 
Mass  .  .  .  were  in  existence  for  some  generations  before  a 
stately  chapter-house  .  .  .  was  built  for  the  convenience  of  the 
business  meetings."  "Then,  after  the  service  of  'prime  in 
choir,'  and  the  business  meeting,  corrections,  improving  reading, 
and  office  of  Pretiosa,2  all  held  in  the  chapter-house,  the  meeting 
adjourned  to  their  united  worship  (the  Chapter  Mass)  at  the 
altar,  where  they  and  their  predecessors  had  celebrated  it  from 
the  first." 

He  considers  that  this  altar  was  in  the  apsidal  chapel 
of  St.  Peter  in  the  south-east  transept  (pp.  21,  252). 
Much  of  this  will  apply  to  other  cathedrals.  In 
some,  the  chapter  mass  was  at  the  high  altar. 

Special  business  meetings  were  held  in  Lincoln 
chapter-house  each  Saturday,3  and  at  Lichfield  each 
Friday.4    So,  too,  no  doubt,  in  other  cathedrals. 

Punishments  were  part  of  the  business,  and  at 
Durham  there  are  prison  cells  close  to  the  chapter- 
house. Sometimes  the  punishment  was  a  beating, 
as  e.g.  at  Southwell,  where  Archbishop  Walter  de 
Grey  (1215-56)  ordained  that  1 '  the  readers  of  the 
lessons  were  to  look  over  them  beforehand,  and 
to  read  audibly  and  distinctly ;  those  that  failed 

1  MedicEval  Services,  p.  188. 

2  See  Mediceval  Services,  p.  259.  It  was  "part  of  the  chapter- 
office  in  connection  with  the  service  of  prime,  which  secular  cathedral 
churches  and  some  collegiate  chapters  observed  in  common  with  the 
monastic  orders." 

3  Mediceval  Services,  p.  266. 
*  Ibid.,  p.  98. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  157 

to  be  flogged"1 — an  excellent  piece  of  discipline, 
which  might  with  great  advantage  be  revived ! 
On  the  last  morning  of  his  life  Archbishop  Thomas 
a  Becket  "  passed  a  long  time  in  the  chapter-house 
[at  Canterbury],  confessing  to  two  of  the  monks, 
and  receiving,  as  seems  to  have  been  his  custom, 
three  scourgings," 2  of  which  the  marks  were  ap- 
parent upon  his  body  when  it  was  laid  out  for 
burial.3  The  chancellor  of  Lincoln,  who  was  the 
ruler  of  the  theological  school,  arranged  the  lections 
read  in  the  chapter-house.4  He  was  also  to  preach 
"  in  capitulo "  on  Easter  Day  and  Christmas  Day 
in  Latin,  and  on  Palm  Sunday  and  on  the  Assump- 
tion in  English.  At  Hereford  there  were  sometimes 
lectures  in  the  chapter-house  attended  by  the  mayor 
and  freemen  of  the  city.  These  were  given,  some- 
what curiously,  during  the  time  of  high  mass  in  the 
choir.5 

In  addition  to  what  we  may  call  the  daily  or 
ordinary  use  of  the  chapter-house,  there  was  also 
what  we  may  call  its  occasional  use,  such  as  for  the 
election  of  the  bishop,  the  installation  of  the  bishop, 
dean,  and  canons,  concerning  which  interesting  par- 
ticulars are  given  by  Sub-Dean  Wordsworth  in 
his  Salisbury  Processions,  Again  it  was  used  for 
episcopal  visitations  of  the  chapter.  In  the  floor  of 
the  south-east  transept  of  Lincoln  cathedral  is  a  plain 
paving-stone  bearing  the  single  word  "  Grosseteste," 
It  marks  the  site  of  the  grave  of  one  of  our  greatest 
and  most  lion-hearted  mediaeval  bishops.    He  was 

1  Notes  on  the  Cathedrals,  "  Southwell,"  p.  3. 

2  Dean  Stanley  (quoting  from  Gamier),  Mem.  of  Cant.,  p.  53. 

3  Stanley,  p.  98. 

4  Benson,  The  Cathedral,  p.  31. 

6  MedicBval  Services,  p.  24.  "  On  the  first  Monday  in  Lent  an 
inventory  was  taken  of  the  books  in  the  chapter-house  by  the  Custos 
Librorum."  Wilkins,  i.  332 ;  qu.  M.  Walcott,  Ch.  and  Convent. 
Arrang.,  p.  153.  Cf.  Gasquet,  Eng.  M011.  Life,  p.  62,  who  says  that 
on  the  first  Sunday  in  Lent  the  abbot,  in  the  chapter-house,  distributed 
one  volume  to  each  monk  as  his  special  Lenten  reading. 


158         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

a  born  fighter,  fighting  with  pope  and  king  as 
well  as  with  smaller  opponents.  One  of  his  tough 
struggles  was  with  his  own  chapter,  of  which 
our  space  permits  only  the  bare  mention.  Much 
information  about  it  will  be  found  in  Mr.  F.  S. 
Stevenson's  Life  of  Grosseteste}  The  bishop 
claimed  the  ancient  right  to  "  visit "  the  dean  and 
chapter,  who  disputed  it  and  appealed  to  Rome. 
The  struggle  lasted  six  years  (1 239-1 245.)  In  the 
end  the  bishop  was  more  than  conqueror,  and 
afterwards  "  complete  peace  and  harmony  prevailed 
between  Grosseteste  and  his  dean  and  chapter 
during  the  remainder  of  his  life." 2  But  the  struggle 
was  severe  while  it  lasted,  and  especially  in  the 
earlier  stages,  and  in  all  the  long  history  of  Lincoln 
chapter-house  there  is  no  more  striking  page  than 
that  which  tells  of  the  coming  of  Grosseteste,  after 
due  notice  to  the  dean  and  chapter  to  meet  him 
there,  on  the  7th  October  1239.  "I  came,"  says 
the  bishop,  "  to  Lincoln  church  on  the  day  fixed 
for  holding  the  visitation  of  the  chapter,  but  found 
there  neither  canon  nor  vicar,  nor  any  of  the 
ministers  of  the  cathedral,  as  they  all  purposely 
withdrew  in  order  to  avoid  meeting  me."3  That 
empty  beautiful  chapter-house,  just  fresh  from  the 
hands  of  its  builder,  and  not  yet  finished  as  we 
now  know  it,  how  much  it  seems  to  tell  us !  Such 
treatment  of  the  bishop  merited  excommunication. 
But  Grosseteste  merely  prohibited  the  dean,  pre- 
centor, and  treasurer  from  entering  the  cathedral 
doors,  and  in  this  he  was  apparently  obeyed.4 
Archbishop  Benson  tells  of  other  episcopal  visita- 
tions held  in  the  Lincoln  chapter- house,  and 
especially  of  some  held  by  Bishop  W.  Barlow  in 
1690  and  by  Bishop  Wake  in  1706,  1709,  17 12, 

1  Pp.  186  ff.  and  248  ff. 

2  Stevenson,  p.  201. 

3  Ibid.,  p.  195. 

*  Benson,  Cathedral,  pp.  14  ff. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  159 

1 7 1 5  1 ;  by  Bishop  Gibson  in  17 18,  and  by  Bishop 
Reynolds  "in  1724  for  the  last  time." 

"  The  last  visitations  of  cathedrals  were  held  in  and  about  the 
first  years  in  which  Convocation  was  not  summoned  .  .  .  all 
Church  councils  slumbered  together."  2 

Sub-Dean  Wordsworth 3  gives  a  most  interesting 
account  of  the  complaints  or  abuses  reported  to 
Bishop  Richard  Beauchamp  at  his  capitular  visita- 
tion held  in  January  1475. 

Another  use  of  the  chapter-house  was  for  the 
admission  of  persons  of  position  to  the  brotherhood 
of  the  chapter.  Sub- Dean  Wordsworth  deals  with 
this  in  his  Medieval  Services  (pp.  136,  137),  and 
much  more  fully  in  his  Sarum Processions  (pp.  145  ff.). 
The  chapter  was 

"  a  community  in  which  divine  service,  Eucharistic  intercession, 
and  other  holy  works  were  done  continually/' 

Just  as  men  on  their  deathbed  were  wont  to  be 
clothed  in  the  dress  of  a  monk,  like  King  John, 
whose  body  was  found  so  habited,  when  his  tomb 
at  Worcester  was  opened  in  1797,  so  in  their  life- 
time kings  and  others  were  admitted  brothers  and 
sisters  of  the  cathedral  chapter,  and  became  "  fratres 
et  participes  omnium  suffragiorum  in  ecclesia  cathe- 
drali  .  .  .  ministrancium."  Canute  and  his  brother 
Harold  were  received  into  fraternity  at  Canterbury, 
and  Athelstan  and  others  at  St.  Gall.  Henry  I, 
the  Lion  of  Justice,  was  admitted  at  St.  Evroul 
(Normandy).4  Henry  II  was  admitted  at  St. 
Albans  in  11 84. 5  Edward  III,  the  Black  Prince, 
John  of  Gaunt,  and  others,  were  admitted  at 
Lincoln  in  1343.  John  of  Gaunt  was  also  admitted 
at  Salisbury,  together  with  his  wife  Constance,  in 

1  Cathedral^  pp.  89  fF. 

2  Ibid.)  p.  99. 

3  Salisbury  Processions,  pp.  151  ff. 

*  Freeman,  Travels  in  Normandy,  p.  164. 
6  M.  Walcott,  Eng.  Mins.,  vol.  i.  p.  »8o. 


160         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

1389  ;  so  too  in  1409  was  Henry,  Prince  of  Wales 
(afterwards  King  Henry  V) ;  likewise  Joan,  second 
queen  of  King  Henry  IV  in  1410,  and  many 
others.  Sub- Dean  Wordsworth  prints  a  most  in- 
teresting fifteenth-century  MS.  i1  "  Modus  recipiendi 
aliquam  honestam  vel  nobilem  personam  in  fratrem 
seu  sororem  ecclesie  cathedralis  Sarum."  The 
dean  and  chapter  were  to  assemble  in  the  chapter- 
house, together  with  the  vicars  choral  and  other 
ministers,  on  a  very  special  occasion.  A  comely 
cloth  or  tapestry  was  to  be  spread  on  the  floor,  and 
a  cushion  upon  it.  Then  the  applicant  was  to  be 
introduced,  and  was  humbly  and  devoutly  to  ask 
for  admission.  The  dean  and  chapter  were  then 
to  consult  and  to  vote.  Supposing  the  vote  to 
be  favourable,  the  dean  was  to  take  the  right  hand 
of  the  brother  or  sister  into  his  hands,  and,  speaking 
either  "  in  latinis,  siue  vulgar,"  to  demand  a  pro- 
mise of  fidelity  to  the  church,  which  being  given,  he 
was  to  admit  the  applicant  to  fraternity,  granting  to 
him  or  her  to  be 

"particeps  et  capax,  tam  in  vita  quam  in  morte,  omnium 
missarum,  oracionum,  jejuniorum,vigiliarum,  elemosinarum,  ceter- 
orumque  suffragiorum  omnium,  que  in  dicta  ecclesia,  et  in  cunctis 
ecclesijs  et  locis  dicte  ecclesie  subjectis,  fieri  solent  et  fient  in 
temporibus  perpetuo  duraturis."  2 

Then  the  Veni  Creator,  together  with  certain 
versicles  and  responses  and  collects,  was  to  be  said 
or  sung  over  the  kneeling  brother  or  sister,  who, 
after  a  beautiful  benediction,  was  to  rise  and  kiss  all 
the  canons,  "  fratres  suos,"  beginning  with  the  dean. 
The  brethren  and  sisters  of  the  confraternity  were 
specially  prayed  for  at  the  bidding  of  the  bedes 
at  the  Sunday  procession.3 

1  Processions \  p.  147. 

2  Ibid.,  p.  149. 

3  Jbid.t  p.  22. 


CHAPTER-HOUSE,  SALISBURY 


{Reproduced  from  Fergusson's  "  History  of  Ancient  and  Medieval  Architecture," 
by  permission  of  Mr.  John  Murray) 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  161 

Dom  Gasquet1  gives  from  the  Harl.  MSS. 
2278,  f.  6,  an  illustration  of  Henry  VI  being 
received  as  a  confrater  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds. 

Another  interesting  chapter-house  function  (at  any 
rate  at  Salisbury)  was  the  Mandatum  and  Potum 
Caritatis  on  Maundy  Thursday,  for  an  account 
of  which  we  must  refer  to  the  works  of  Sub-Dean 
Wordsworth.2  After  the  washing  of  the  altars  on 
Maundy  Thursday,  all  were  to  go  to  the  chapter- 
house and  there  to  perform  the  Mandatum  (St. 
John  xiii.  16-38  ;  xiv.  1-3 1).  The  washing  of  feet 
having  taken  place  (in  vessels  provided  by  the 
cathedral  carpenters  and  with  warm  water,  warmed 
at  the  treasurer's  cost),  new  slippers  were  given  to 
those  whose  feet  had  been  washed  by  the  dean  and 
canons,3  a  short  service  was  held,  and  the  gospel 
(from  St.  John)  was  read  by  a  deacon  of  the  second 
form,4  clad  in  a  surplice.  During  this  reading  the 
bishop,  if  present,  was  to  stand  in  the  midst  of  his 
brethren  and  to  receive  the  Potum  Caritatis  or 
Loving  Cup,  and  then  it  was  to  be  ministered  to 
each  of  the  clergy  and  others  who  were  present. 
As  soon  as  the  final  words  of  the  gospel  were 
reached,  M  Let  us  go  hence,"  all  were  to  retire 
"  peaceably"  with  thanksgiving.  Then,  at  Salis- 
bury, the  bishop's  servants  were  to  take  presents 
of  wine  and  ale  to  certain  "  qui  in  dicti  mandati 
solempnitate  suos  magnos  labores  impenderint" — 
the  succentor  having  a  flagon  of  wine  and  another 
of  ale,  whilst  most  of  the  others  had  a  little  cup 
of  each ;  the  final  direction  being,  "  Garcionibus 

1  English  Monastic  Life,  opp.  p.  126. 

2  Processions,  pp.  79-81  ;  MedicEval  Services,  pp.  184-5  5  and 
Mr.  Feasey,  Ancient  English  Holy-Week  Ceremonial,  pp.  107-13. 

3  In  the  fifteenth  century  these  cost  sixpence  a  pair. — Medieval 
Services,  p.  184. 

*  First  or  second  forms— i.e.  below  the  stalls.  "  According  to  the 
famous  Sarum  Custom-book  the  term  ■  prima  forma  \  is  assigned  to 
the  boys  of  the  choir,  and  1  secunda  forma '  to  men  whose  age  and 
deserving  had  advanced  them  to  the  middle  rank." 


1 62  Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


sacristarum,  reliquias  cyphorum  in  peluibus,"  the 
heeltaps  collected  in  basins ! 

The  quantity  of  wine  and  ale  used  on  Maundy 
Thursday  at  Lincoln  in  c.  1406  was  six  pitchers  of 
the  one  and  twenty-four  of  the  other ;  the  wine 
costing  6s.,  and  the  ale  3s.  8d.  Some  wafer  cakes 
of  wheaten  flour  were  also  used,  and  these  seem  to 
have  cost  2s.  6d.  for  the  flour,  and  io^d.  for  the 
making,  and  2s.  for  fuel.  At  Salisbury  the  bishop 
bore  the  expense,  but  at  Lincoln  the  treasurer. 

Chapter-houses  were  early  and  constantly  used 
as  places  of  sepulture.  To  go  back  to  the  earliest 
known  English  chapter-house,  the  one  built  at 
Westminster  by  Edward  the  Confessor,  Weever1 
tells  us  that  Hugolin,  chamberlain  to  that  king, 
"  (saith  M.  Camden)  was  buried  in  the  old  chapter- 
house," i.e.  clearly  the  original  one.  Weever2  also 
says  that  Sir  Thomas  Windham  was  buried  {temp. 
Henry  VIII)  in  the  chapter-house  at  Norwich. 
Hugh  Lupus  was  buried  in  the  chapter-house  at 
Chester.  In  that  of  Durham  were  laid  the  bodies 
of  bishops,  including  those  of  William  of  St. 
Carilef,  Ralph  Flambard,  Galfrid  Rufus,  and  Hugh 
Pudsey.3  The  Duke  of  Somerset,  Percy,  Earl  of 
Northumberland,  and  Lord  Clifford  were  buried 
in  1455  in  St.  Albans  chapter-house.  They  had 
fallen  in  the  famous  battle.4  In  Fountains  chapter- 
house, at  any  rate  sixteen  abbots  were  buried  from 
1 1 70  to  1 345. 5  And  so,  not  to  multiply  examples, 
it  was  in  many  of  the  chapter-houses. 

At  the  present  time  the  chapter-houses  are  used 
(over  and  above  their  proper  use)  for  meetings  of 
various  sorts,  as,  for  instance,  for  the  diocesan  con- 
ference at  Lincoln.    Many  of  them  are  said  to  be 

1  Fun.  Mon.,  p.  483. 

2  Op.  tit.,  p.  796. 

8  Greenwell,  Durham  Cathedral,  p.  40. 
*  M.  Walcott,  Eng.  Mins.,  vol.  i.  p.  180. 
5  Ross,  Ruined  Abbeys,  pp.  33,  34. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  163 

very  defective  in  their  acoustic  properties.  York 
is  said  to  be  especially  bad,  and  at  Gloucester  wires 
have  been  stretched  and  a  large  sounding-board 
erected.  But  we  must  remember  that  the  chapter- 
houses were  built  as  a  meeting-place  for  the  chapter, 
not  for  a  larger  audience,  and  that  each  speaker  and 
hearer  (except  the  reader  at  the  lectern)  was  sitting 
in  his  appointed  place  close  to  the  wall,  and  it  is 
quite  possible  that  when  this  condition  is  observed 
the  acoustics  of  the  buildings  may  not  be  so  bad, 
though  in  fairness  we  must  add  that  Sub-Dean 
Wordsworth1  says  that 

"the  order  in  chapter-meetings  is,  we  believe,  not  strictly 
kept  at  Salisbury,  on  account  of  acoustic  difficulties,  and  for 
other  reasons." 

The  chapter-houses,  more  especially  the  monastic 
ones,  were  sometimes  used  for  purely  secular  pur- 
poses.   For  instance,  at  Shrewsbury 

"the  first  English  parliament  was  held  in  1283.  Richard  II 
held  another,  guarded  by  his  Cheshire  archers."  2 

Edward  I  held  his  first  parliament  at  Lincoln,  and 
is  said  to  have  left  behind  him  the  ancient  chair 
which  served  him  for  a  throne.3  A  parliament  was 
held  at  Gloucester,  probably  in  the  chapter-house, 
in  1378.    It  is  said  that  the  monastery  was  then 

"like  a  fair,  and  the  cloister-garth  was  so  trampled  by  the 
wrestlers  and  ball -players,  that  not  a  blade  of  grass  was 
spared.  ..."  4  "  In  121 5  King  John  held  a  state  council  in  the 
chapter-house  (of  St.  Albans),  where,  shortly  after,  Falcasius  de 
Brent,5  one  of  his  marauding  mercenaries,  plundered  the  treasury, 
but,  having  been  terrified  by  a  dream,  he  voluntarily  ap- 
peared, and,  with  his  sacrilegious  troop,  received  a  substantial 
scourging." 6 


1  Processions,  p.  269.       *  M.  Walcott,  E?tg.  Mins.,  vol.  ii.  p.  204. 

s  Ditchfield,  Guide  to  Cathedrals,  p.  337. 

4  M.  Walcott,  Eng.  Mins.,  vol.  i.  p.  161. 

6  More  correctly  Breaute.    See  D.  N.  B. 

8  M.  Walcott,  Minsters,  note,  p.  83. 


164         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

Similar  scourgings  took  place  elsewhere.  Wig- 
mund,  who  united  the  office  of  Bishop  of  Man  with 
the  unlike  profession  of  freebooter  on  the  coasts  of 
Scotland,  played  the  tyrant  for  some  time  at  Furness, 
of  which  he  had  once  been  a  monk.  M  The  monks 
and  peasants  groaned  under  his  tyranny,  till  at 
length  a  mob  caught  him  in  the  chapter-house, 
mutilated  and  blinded  him,  and  he  retired  to  die  at 
Byland  Abbey." 1  The  first  Norman  abbot  of 
Glastonbury — Thurstan,  1082 — did  not  get  on  with 
his  Saxon  monks,  and  seems  to  have  treated  them 
badly.  On  one  occasion,  when  they  were  assembled 
in  the  chapter-house,  he  called  in  armed  soldiers  to 
compel  their  obedience,  and  some  lives  were  lost. 
Some  of  the  chapter-houses  have  thus  witnessed 
strange  scenes,  which,  considering  the  sanctity  of 
the  place,  must  have  been  very  trying  to  the  inmates 
of  the  houses  ;  but  none  of  them  fared  so  badly  as 
that  at  Westminster  Abbey.  It  replaced  the  older 
house  in  c.  1258.  A  little  over  a  century  later,  in 
1362,  it  was  seized  for  the  use  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  and  it  was  so  used  "  up  to  the  time  of 
Edward  VI,  who  allowed  the  members  to  sit  in 
St.  Stephen's  Chapel.  At  the  dissolution  of  the 
abbey  the  chapter-house  became  crown  property, 
and,  I  believe,  continues  to  belong  to  the  state." 
It  was  then  fitted  up  as  a  Record  Office,  and,  so  far 
as  we  are  concerned,  this  was  no  bad  thing,  for 
much  was  preserved  which  might  otherwise  have 
been  lost.  A  flat  ceiling  was  substituted  in  1740 
for  the  original  stone  vault,  and  this  probably  saved 
the  building.2  It  was  splendidly  restored  in  1865 
and  subsequent  years  by  Sir  Gilbert  Scott,  who, 
in  his  Gleanings  from  Westminster,  says  : 

"  We  have  in  the  case  of  the  chapter-house  actual  violence, 
committed  by  parliament  itself,  which  first  took  possession  of  it 


1  M.  Walcott,  Minsters,  p.  184. 

2  Cf.  Loftie,  Westminste?'  Abbey,  p.  204. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  165 

for  its  own  meetings,  and  then  mutilated  it  for  the  purpose  of 
turning  it  into  a  public  record  office,  for  which  it  was  singularly 
ill-suited." 

The  Jerusalem  Chamber,  probably  so-called  from 
the  tapestry  which  once  hung  there,  has  long  been 
the  real  chapter-house  of  Westminster  Abbey, 
and  even  that  room  was  invaded  by  the  state,  for 
there  Henry  IV  died.  Shakespere1  makes  the 
dying  king  ask  : 

Doth  any  particular  name  belong 

Unto  the  lodging  where  I  first  did  swoon  ? 

War.  Tis  called  Jerusalem,  my  noble  lord. 

K.  Hen.  Laud  be  to  God  ! — even  there  my  life  must  end. 
It  hath  been  prophesied  to  me  many  years, 
I  should  not  die  but  in  Jerusalem  ; 
Which  vainly  I  supposed  the  Holy  Land  : — 
But  bear  me  to  that  chamber ;  there  I'll  lie  ; 
In  that  Jerusalem  shall  Harry  die. 

Much  besides  has  happened  in  that  chamber. 

Perhaps  the  saddest  thing  in  connection  with  the 
monastic  chapter-houses  is  the  use  to  which  they 
were  put  at  the  Dissolution.  When  the  destruction 
of  an  abbey  was  determined  upon,  every  effort  was 
made  by  the  king's  agents  to  induce  the  convent 
to  surrender  "  voluntarily."  Roger  Pyle  was  the 
last  abbot  of  Furness.  He  had  tried  in  vain  to 
bribe  Cromwell  to  spare  the  house.  He  had  prob- 
ably fostered  the  rebellion  known  as  the  Pilgrimage 
of  Grace  in  1536,  on  account  of  which  Paslew,  the 
last  abbot  of  Whalley,  and  many  others  lost  their 
lives.  Afterwards  a  commission  was  sent  from 
Whalley  to  Furness  to  ascertain  to  what  extent  this 
convent  was  implicated.  Nothing  could  be  dis- 
covered to  criminate  them,  but  the  commissioners 
used  some  cogent  arguments  with  the  abbot,  with 
the  result  that  he  agreed  to  surrender  the  abbey, 
admitting  M  the  misorder  and  evil  lives  ...  of  the 

1  Henry  IV>  2nd  Part,  Act  iv.,  end. 


1 66         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

brethren  of  the  said  monastery."  Four  days  later 
the  commissioners  came  to  the  chapter-house.  The 
abbot,  prior,  and  twenty  monks  passed  for  the  last 
time  through  the  vestibule  into  their  beautiful  and 
sacred  house.  We  can  imagine  their  feelings  as 
they  sat  there  thinking,  before  the  shameful  business 
began,  of  happy  years  past,  and  of  dark  days  before 
them.  The  situation,  with  which  they  were  but 
too  well  acquainted,  was  then  explained  to  them 
by  the  abbot.  There  was  nothing  to  be  done  but 
to  get  the  evil  thing  over  as  soon  as  possible,  to 
make  the  last  "  act  of  chapter,"  and  to  sign  the 
Latin  deed  of  surrender  of  the  abbey  into  the  king's 
hand.  The  deed  remains.  It  was  drawn  up  by 
Sir  A.  Fitzherbert,  with  its  odious  opening  greeting 
by  "I  Roger"  to  "all  the  faithful  people  of  Christ 
to  whom  this  present  writing  may  come,"  sending 
u  health,  grace,  and  benediction  in  the  Lord."  Then 
follows  the  surrender :  <;  In  witness  whereof  we 
have,  of  our  unanimous  and  full  consent,  affixed  to 
these  presents  our  common  seal.  Given  in  our 
chapter-house  of  the  said  monastery,  on  the  9th  day 
of  April"  (1537).  One  by  one  the  monks  signed 
this  shameful  and  lying  deed,  the  convent  seal  was 
affixed  to  it,  and  the  meeting  broke  up.  About 
two  months  later  the  convent  was  dispersed  and  the 
building  destroyed,1  or  left  to  tumble  down.  As 
Wordsworth  put  it : 

"  Of  havoc  tired  and  rash  undoing, 
Man  left  this  structure  to  become  Time's  prey."  2 

It  is  altogether  a  shameful  story,  but  scores  of 
similar  ones  might,  alas  !  be  told. 

In  many  of  the  houses,  the  destruction  was  pre- 
ceded by  a  sort  of  auction  sale  of  vestments  and 

1  Cf.  Gasquet,  Henry  VIII  and  the  English  Monasteries ;  vol.  ii. 
pp. 175  ff. 

2  At  Furness  Abbey,  in  Shorter  Poems  (Everyman  ed.),  p*  665. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


1 67 


other  effects  held  in  the  chapter-house,  the  cloister, 
and  the  church.    These  were 

"  generally  looked  upon  as  things  upon  which  a  little  money  was 
to  be  raised  to  pay  the  expenses  of  the  commissioners  or  the 
wages  of  the  servants.  '  Money  to  dispatch  the  household  and 
monks/  writes  the  indefatigable  Dr.  Layton,  of  Bisham  Abbey, 
1  we  must  make  of  the  rotten  copes  and  bells ' ;  and  he  further 
says  that  they  had  already  'made  sale  of  the  old  vestments 
within  the  chapter-house.'  The  accounts  of  such  auctions  show 
that  a  few  shillings,  or  in  many  instances  only  a  few  pence, 
represented  the  sums  which  the  sacred  vestments  fetched."1 

The  Dissolution  of  the  monasteries  brought  scores 
of  beautiful  chapter-houses  to  the  ground,  and  left 
England,  at  any  rate  architecturally,  so  much  the 
poorer.  It  is  only  fair  to  add  that  occasionally  the 
conventual  buildings,  or  some  of  them,  were  treated 
with  greater  kindness,  as  e.g.  at  Chester,  or  at 
Lacock.  At  Cockersand  the  chapter-house  still 
stands,  though  greatly  injured,  owing  its  preser- 
vation to  the  fact  that  it  became  a  burial-place  of 
its  owners. 

Sometimes,  when  the  chapter-house  escaped  de- 
struction at  the  Dissolution,  it  met  the  same  fate 
somewhat  later  on,  when  the  danger  might  be 
supposed  to  have  been  past.  Thus  at  Carlisle 
the  Puritan  soldiers  destroyed  the  chapter-house, 
and  repaired  the  city  walls  with  its  stones.  At 
Peterborough  the  chapter-house  shared  the  same 
fate,  except  that  its  materials  were  sold.  At 
Winchester  the  cloisters  and  chapter-house  were 
destroyed  in  1563  by  Bishop  Home,  notorious 
for  his  destruction  of  the  "  monuments  of  art,  and 
the  ancient  rites  of  religion."  Durham  cloisters, 
New  College  and  Trinity  College,  Oxford,  suffered 
shameful  indignities  at  the  hands  of  this  "most 
zealous  and  active  Puritan,"  of  whom,  neverthe- 
less, Fuller  in  his  Worthies  quotes  with  approval 

J  Gasquet,  Henry  VIII  and  the  English  Monasteries  >  vol.  ii.  p.  418. 


1 68         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

"Mr.  Camden's  character" — "of  a  sprightly  and 
fruitful  wit."  One  can  better  understand  Bishop 
Home's  defacement  of  the  New  College  reredos, 
than  his  destruction  of  the  Winchester  chapter- 
house, "  a  noble  arcaded  oblong  room,"  measuring 
88  by  38  feet,  for  which,  surely,  even  a  Puritan 
bishop  might  have  found  some  use. 

But  of  all  the  shameful  stories  of  chapter-house 
destruction  there  is  none  more  shameful  than  that 
of  Durham,  because  there  was  no  pretence  of  prin- 
ciple behind  it.  The  interesting  old  building  had 
survived  all  the  changes  and  chances  of  this  mortal 
life  from  c.  1135,  when  it  was  built,  to  the  year 
x795»  when  a  chapter,  under  the  presidency  of 
the  dean,  Lord  Cornwallis,  ordered  it  to  be  taken 
down,  and  that  a  new  room,  warm  and  comfortable, 
should  be  erected  on  its  site !  So  the  Durham 
chapter-house  was  ruthlessly  destroyed.1  It  is  very 
satisfactory  to  be  able  to  state  that  the  nineteenth 
century  undid,  so  far  as  it  could,  the  evil  work  of 
the  eighteenth,  and  that  the  Durham  chapter-house 
has  been  rebuilt  (under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Hodgson 
Fowler)  in  memory  of  Bishop  Lightfoot,  and  has 
been  in  use  since  1895.  The  mention  of  this  re- 
building reminds  us  that  practically  every  English 
cathedral  chapter-house,  of  which  more  than  a  mere 
trace  remained,  has  been  restored,  and,  on  the  whole, 
well  restored.  The  chapter-houses  are  still  only 
a  name  at  Winchester,  Peterborough,  Ely,  Norwich, 
Carlisle,  Rochester,  and  Hereford. 

On  the  other  hand,  a  chapter-room  under  the 
enlarged  choir  has  been  built  at  Wakefield,  and  an 
octagonal  chapter-house  has  been  planned,  but  not 
yet  built,  at  Truro.  At  Liverpool  the  new  octa- 
gonal chapter-house  is  now  roofed  in,  of  which  we 
shall  have  more  to  say  presently. 

1  The  almost  incredible  account  of  its  destruction,  too  long  for  us 
to  reproduce  here,  is  to  be  found  in  Dr.  W.  Greenwell's  Durham 
Cathedral^  pp.  39-41. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


169 


VI.  THE  POSITION  OF  THE  CHAPTER-HOUSE. 

In  a  conventual  building  the  chapter-house  was 
always  connected  with  the  cloister,1  but  in  some  of 
the  cathedrals  there  were  no  cloisters.  These  were 
essential  in  the  case  of  the  conventual  building. 
Much  of  the  life  was  spent  in  them ;  they  even 
gave  a  name  to  the  life — 4 'the  cloister."  In  the 
case  of  a  non-conventual  cathedral,  they  were  more 
of  the  nature  of  a  luxury.  Canterbury,  Gloucester, 
Durham,  Chester  were  all  conventual  churches,  and 
had  cloisters.  At  Lichfield,  York,  Southwell,  Ripon, 
Manchester  there  are  no  cloisters,  though  there  are 
at  Lincoln  and  Salisbury.  At  Wells  there  is  a 
cloister  on  the  south  side  of  the  nave,  but  the  chapter- 
house is  unconnected  with  it.  Cloisters  are  a  portion 
of  the  building,  whether  convent  or  cathedral,  very 
interesting  both  architecturally  and  in  other  ways. 
They  are  found  all  over  Europe,  but  our  English 
cloisters  have  a  distinct  character  of  their  own.  No 
Norman  cloister  remains,  though,  as  at  Chester  and 
elsewhere,  there  is  Norman  work  on  the  outside 
walls.2  The  Early  English  cloisters  at  Salisbury, 
the  Decorated  at  Lincoln,  and  the  Perpendicular  at 

1  Mr.  M.  Walcott  says  that  the  earliest  plan  extant  of  an  English 
monastery  is  that  of  Canterbury,  made  c.  1130-74.  It  shows  the 
chapter-house  on  the  east  side  of  the  cloister,  which  was  on  the  north 
side  of  the  church.    Church  and  Convent.  Arrangement,  p.  113. 

2  "The  arches  and  dwarf  pillars  of  the  Dark  Entry  [at  Canterbury] 
are  remains  of  what  was  once  the  Infirmary  Cloister.  This  arcade, 
amongst  the  earliest  portions  of  this  great  series  of  buildings,  has 
some  unusual  insertions  of  about  n  80,  in  the  shape  of  twin  shafts 
with  a  twisted  or  chevron  ornament  on  them.  [The  pillars  are 
alternately  strong  single,  and  more  slender  twin  ones.]  It  has  been 
observed  that  they  bear  a  very  strong  likeness  to  those  in  the  cloisters 
of  St.  John  Lateran,  in  Rome,  and  that  they  are  held  to  have  been 
copied  from  them.  But  whence  came  the  design  of  the  originals  in 
that  Roman  Church  ?  Was  it  not  devised  from  that  meeting-ground 
of  Venetian-Gothic  and  Byzantine  art,  the  happy  hunting-ground  of 
architectural  rarities,  Dalmatia  and  the  shores  of  the  Adriatic?" 
From  a  paper  on  Canterbury  Cathedral  by  James  Dudley  Morgan 
(the  editor),  in  Architecture,  vol.  ii.,  1897,  p.  238. 


170 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


Gloucester  are  especially  noteworthy.  For  quietude 
and  peacefulness  Wykeham's  cloister  at  New  College 
has  no  equal. 

The  usual  position  of  the  cloister,  and  so  of  a 
chapter-house  connected  with  it,  was  on  the  south 
or  sunny  side  of  the  cathedral  or  abbey  church. 
The  reason  for  this  is  evident ;  it  was  the  warmest 
side.  But  that  there  were  many  exceptions  a  refer- 
ence to  the  Appendix  will  prove.  Of  our  cathedrals, 
the  chapter-house  was  on  the  north  side  at  York, 
Southwell,  Lichfield,  Lincoln,  Wells,  Chester,  Can- 
terbury, Gloucester,  St.  David's,  St.  Asaph,  and 
Bangor.  It  was  also  on  the  north  side  at  Bury 
St.  Edmunds,  Malmesbury,  Cartmel,  Waltham, 
Sherborne,  Dore,  Melrose,  Elgin,  Beverley,  Box- 
grave,  &c.  In  some  of  these  cases  there  was  a 
special  reason  for  the  northern  position,  as  e.g.  at 
Chester,  where  the  south  transept  was  the  parish 
church  of  St.  Oswald.  But  the  reason  does  not 
lie  on  the  surface  in  every  case.  At  York,  South- 
well, Lichfield,  Lincoln,  Wells,  St.  David's,  St. 
Asaph,  and  Bangor,  there  was  no  monastery,  and 
therefore  the  special  reason  for  the  southward 
aspect,  viz.  the  sun's  warmth,  was  wanting.  But 
Canterbury,  Gloucester,  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  Sher- 
borne, Malmesbury,  and  Boxgrove,  like  our  own 
Chester,  were  all  great  Benedictine  houses.  As  a 
rule,  the  chapter-house  was  on  the  east  side  of  a 
conventual  cloister  ;  with  the  calefactory  or  warming 
house  near  it ;  just  as  the  refectory  was  generally  on 
the  side  (north  or  south)  farthest  away  from  the  church. 
So  in  the  two  cases  of  non-conventual  cathedrals, 
Lincoln  and  Salisbury,  which  have  a  cloister  con- 
nected with  the  chapter-house,  the  chapter-house  is 
on  the  east  side,  and  the  cloister  stands  before  it  very 
much  in  the  same  way  that  the  quadra  porticus  or 
forecourt  stands  before  S.  Ambrogio,  Milan.  This 
adds  immensely  to  the  dignity  and  impressiveness 


SALISBURY.— GROUND  PLAN  OF  CLOISTERS  AND 
CHAPTER-HOUSE 


CHAPTER-HOUSE,  WELLS 

{Reproduced  from  Fergusson's  "  History  of  Ancient  and  Medieval  Architecture,' 
by  permission  of  Mr.  John  Murray) 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  171 

of  the  chapter-house.  A  somewhat  similar  effect  of 
dignity  is,  or  was,  produced  elsewhere  by  the  use  of 
a  vestibule.  The  vestibule  at  Southwell  is  particu- 
larly interesting.  A  beautiful  double  doorway  opens 
into  it  from  the  north  choir  aisle.  It  measures  55  feet 
long  and  10  feet  wide,  and  stands  north  and  south,  and 
at  right  angles  to  the  east  and  west  axis  of  the  chapter- 
house. It  is  roofed  with  oak  until  we  reach  the  portion 
immediately  before  the  chapter-house  door.  On  the 
west  side  it  is,  without  any  attempt  at  concealment, 
fitted  in  between  the  east  buttresses  of  the  Early 
English  chapel  of  the  north  transept.  On  the  east 
side  is  a  most  interesting  arcade  of  narrow  lancet 
arches,  supported,  like  those  at  Vezelay  and  else- 
where abroad,  but  without  parallel,  I  think,  else- 
where in  England,  by  double  columns,1  joined  at  the 
capitals  by  a  connecting  stone  running  through 
from  east  to  west,  and  carved  en  suite  with  the 
capitals  themselves.  A  wall,  useful  enough,  no 
doubt,  has  been  built  between  these  columns,  and 
windows  inserted  to  light  the  passage.  No  doubt 
this  arrangement  is  much  better  suited  to  our 
English  climate  than  the  open  cloister  could  ever 
have  been,  but,  architecturally,  the  change  is  un- 
fortunate. The  chapter-house  at  Wells,  one  of 
our  most  beautiful,  is  built  above  the  treasury.3 
A  wide  flight  of  steps  leads  up  from  the  east  aisle  of 
the  north  transept  to  the  bridge  over  the  chain  gate. 
Near  the  top  of  these  steps  other  steps,  set  at  right 
angles  to  them,  lead  up  to  the  chapter-house  door. 
The  arrangement  is  more  quaint  and  curious  than 
admirable.  Still,  as  the  steps  are  of  considerable 
width,  and  the  architectural  details  and  manage- 
ment very  good,  it  is  not  wanting  in  dignity.  At 
Manchester  the  double  chapter  -  house  doorway 
opens  into  the  south  choir  aisle,  but  it  is  set  in  a 

1  But  cf.  the  Dark  Entry  at  Canterbury— see  note,  p.  169. 

2  That  at  Westminster  is  over  a  crypt. 


172         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

somewhat  deep  recess,  the  walls  of  which  are 
covered  with  sunk  Perpendicular  panelling.  At 
Howden  the  approach  to  the  chapter-house  is  by 
a  passage  from  the  south  choir  aisle ;  at  Beverley 
Minster  it  was  from  the  north  choir  aisle  through 
an  admirable  doorway  which  still  remains.  At 
Exeter  there  is  a  doorway  direct  from  the  south 
transept,  through  the  chapel  of  the  Holy  Ghost, 
which  occupies  a  similar  position  to  the  slype  at 
Winchester.  There  is  also  a  west  door.  At  old 
St.  Paul's  there  was  a  cloister  on  the  south  side, 
and  the  octagonal  chapter-house  was  set  in  the 
middle  of  the  garth.1  This  was  very  unusual, 
but  the  same  arrangement  obtained  at  the  Bene- 
dictine priory  of  Belvoir.  St.  Mary's,  Warwick, 
was  a  collegiate  church  with  a  dean  and  five  pre- 
bendaries, and  here  the  chapter-house  (now  filled 
with  a  pretentious  tomb)  is  on  the  north  side,  apsidal 
(three-sided),  towards  the  north,  with  nine  canopied 
stone  seats,  the  president's  being  in  the  centre 
of  the  north  side. 

VII.  SHAPE. 

We  now  come  to  a  curious  and  difficult  matter, 
viz.  the  shape  of  the  chapter-house.  At  Worcester 
it  is  circular  ;  at  Margam  and  Dore  a  dodecagon 
with  central  pillar  ;  at  Lincoln  a  decagon  with  a 
central  pillar  ;  at  Salisbury  an  octagon  with  central 
pillar ;  at  Southwell  an  octagon  without  central 
pillar ;  at  Llandaff  a  square  with  central  pillar ;  at 
St.  Asaph  (formerly)  a  square  without  a  central 
pillar ;  at  Chester  an  oblong  hall ;  at  Kirkstall  an 
oblong  divided  by  pillars  into  two  alleys ;  at  Fur- 
ness  an  oblong  divided  by  pillars  into  three  alleys ; 
at  Durham  an  oblong  ending  in  a  round  apse ;  at 
Llanthony  an  oblong  ending  in  a  three-sided  apse. 

1  See  plan,  Longman,  Three  Cathedrals^  p.  29. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  173 

For  our  present  purpose  it  will  suffice  to  divide  all 
these  broadly  into  two,  viz.  rectangular  and  poly- 
gonal. 

How  are  we  to  account  for  the  difference  in 
shape  ?  Is  the  shape  the  result  of  any  principle, 
or  is  it  a  mere  matter  of  taste  or  convenience?  It 
is  sometimes  said  that  the  monastic  chapter-houses 
were  rectangular  as  a  rule,  and  those  of  the  secular 
canons  polygonal,  and  Mr.  Mackenzie  Walcott1 
gives  as  the  reason  that 

"The  polygonal  form  was  better  adapted  for  synodical  meet- 
ings convened  by  bishops,  the  rectangular  to  the  judicial 
character  of  the  building." 

This  does  not  seem  to  carry  us  far.  For  even  if  it 
were  so,  which  is  not  altogether  evident,  we  have 
to  remember  that  Lincoln  chapter-house  was  some 
years  old  before  Grosseteste  vindicated  the  lost  or 
forgotten  right  of  the  bishop  to  visit  his  cathedral 
chapter.  Moreover,  when  this  was  done,  his  rights 
in  his  cathedral  chapter-house,  and  in  those  of  all 
but  the  exempt  religious  houses,  were  the  same. 
Again,  the  proceedings  in  an  octagonal  chapter- 
house of  secular  canons  could  be  very  unpleasantly 
"judicial,"  as  for  instance  the  whippings  of  the 
careless  readers  at  Southwell.  And  here  we  are 
faced  by  the  further  difficulty  that  at  Exeter,  a 
non-conventual  cathedral,  the  chapter-house  is  rect- 
angular, as  (if  Messrs.  Bond  and  Watkins'  theory  be 
correct)  it  was  at  Lincoln,  and  is  still  at  LlandafT ; 
whilst  the  plan  was  polygonal  at  Westminster,  Wor- 
cester, Evesham,  Belvoir,  Tavistock — all  great  Bene- 
dictine houses ;  at  Margam  and  Dore — Cistercian  ; 
at  Bolton,  Bridlington,  Thornton,  Carlisle,  Kenil- 
worth — Austin  or  Black  Canons ;  at  Alnwick  and 
Cockersand — Premonstratensian  or  White  Canons, 
i.e.  at  fourteen  monastic 2  or  quasi-monastic  houses, 

1  Church  and  Convent.  Arrangement,  p.  122. 

2  And  possibly  at  Romsey,  Benedictine  nuns. 


174         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


leaving  eleven  other  known  polygonal  chapter- 
houses to  be  divided  amongst  the  cathedrals  and 
collegiate  churches,  at  York,  Lichfield,  Salisbury, 
Wells,  Lincoln,  Hereford,  Old  St.  Paul's,  Man- 
chester, Southwell,  Beverley  minster,  and  Howden, 
twenty-five  in  all.1 

The  shape  was  clearly  not  a  matter  of  district. 
If  we  rule  a  line  on  the  map  of  England  and  Wales 
(not  to  mention  Scotland  at  present)  between  Cromer 
and  Aberdovey  we  shall  find  that  twelve  "polygonal" 
chapter-houses  stood  on  the  north  side  of  the  line 
and  thirteen  to  the  south  of  it.  Again,  eleven 
"polygonal"  chapter-houses  stood  on  the  east  side 
of  a  line  ruled  from  Berwick  to  Southampton,  and 
fourteen  to  the  west  of  it.  So  we  cannot  truly  say 
that  the  polygonal  chapter-house  belonged  rather  to 
the  north  than  to  the  south  ;  to  the  east  rather  than 
to  the  west,  or  vice  versa.  When  we  come  to  the 
date  of  building  we  are  on  surer  ground,  and  we  find 
that  of  the  twenty-five  known  polygonal  chapter- 
houses in  England  and  Wales  certainly  eleven 
(possibly  more)  were  built  in  the  thirteenth  century, 
and  none  were  earlier,  excepting  Worcester  and 
(possibly)  Old  Westminster  (and  Romsey).  Here, 
again,  it  is  only  fair  to  add  that  in  the  thirteenth 
century  or  later  were  also  built  the  fine  rectangular 
chapter-houses  at  Chester,  Canterbury,  Exeter, 
Oxford,  Llandaff,  Jervaulx,  Lacock,  Netley,  Fur- 
ness,  Glastonbury,  York  St.  Mary,  Tintern,  Bileigh, 
&c.  But  it  is  true  to  say  that  the  polygonal  plan 
belongs  distinctly  to  the  thirteenth  and  two  follow- 
ing centuries. 

It  is  generally  said  that  the  keynote  (if  we  may 
use  the  expression)  of  the  polygonal  chapter-house 

1  Romsey  is  not  included,  as  it  seems  doubtful.  In  Architecture, 
1896,  p.  266,  there  is  a  plan  by  Mr.  C.  E.  Mallows,  on  which,  some 
way  to  the  south  of  the  south  transept,  he  marks  "  Position  of  chapter- 
house, probably  hexagonal  and  of  Norman  date."  But  an  expert 
writes,  "  anything  about  Romsey  must  be  a  surmise." 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


175 


had  been  struck  early  in  the  twelfth  century,  when 
the  circular  Norman  chapter-house  at  Worcester 
was  built.1 

But  it  is  at  least  possible  that  this  circular  plan 
had  been  adopted  some  sixty  years  earlier  than 
this,  when  Edward  the  Confessor  built  the  original 
chapter-house  at  Westminster  Abbey,  possibly  about 
1050.  Mackenzie  Walcott  speaks  of  this  as  "round,"2 
i.e.  "  circular,"  like  Worcester.  His  authority  for 
his  statement  is  the  French  metrical  Life  of  King 
Edward.    The  words  are:3 

Clostre  i  fait  chapitre  a  frund 
Vers  orient  vouse  et  rund 
U  si  ordene  ministre 
Teignent  lur  secrei  chapitre, 

rendered  by  Mr.  H.  R.  Luard  (the  stops  are  his) : 

He  makes  there  a  cloister,  a  chapter-house  in  front, 
Towards  the  east,  vaulted  and  round, 
Where  his  ordained  ministers 
May  hold  their  secret  chapter.4 

These  words  seem  to  afford  ample  foothold  for 
Mackenzie  Walcott's  statement  that  the  original 
Westminster  chapter-house  was  circular.  But  a 
different  view  of  them  is  taken  by  some  experts. 
Of  course  they  were  well  known  to  the  late  Mr.  T.  J. 
Micklethwaite,  F.S.A.,  a  great  authority,  who  was 
surveyor  to  Westminster  Abbey.  An  interesting 
paper  on  Westminster  Abbey  in  the  Builder  of 
6th  January  1894  is  illustrated  by  a  plan  of  the 
Confessor's  church,  drawn  by  Mr.  Micklethwaite. 
This  shows  a  rectangular  chapter-house,  ending  in 

1  1 1 18  et  seq. — Mr.  Harold  Breakespeare,  F.S.A. 

1  Ch.  and  Conv.  Arrange  p.  121.  In  his  English  Minsters ;  vol.  i. 
p.  54,  he  says,  "  The  fact  that  the  chapter-house  built  by  Edward 
the  Confessor  was  circular,  explains  why  the  1  incomparable  house 1 
which  succeeded  it  was  polygonal."    Cf.  ibid.,  p.  39. 

3  Vit.  AUd™.,  i.  2308-231 1. 

*  For  these  extracts  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  T.  P.  Gibson  of  the 
British  Museum. 


176         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

a  large  apse,  after  the  fashion  of  Durham.  There 
is  no  scale,  but  the  Chapel  of  the  Pyx  is  shown, 
which  still  remains  in  situ,  and  Mr.  Micklethwaite's 
plan  makes  the  chapter-house  as  wide  as  this  chapel. 
Turning  to  his  plan  of  the  existing  abbey  in  the 
same  number  of  the  Builder \  we  find  that  he  shows 
the  Chapel  of  the  Pyx  as  measuring  about  30  feet 
in  width.  Hence  the  old  chapter-house  would  be, 
according  to  that  datum,  30  feet  wide,  37  feet  long 
to  the  beginning  of  the  apse,  and  c.  48  feet  long  over 
all,  a  considerably  smaller  room  than  that  built  at 
Durham  in  1133-40,  which  measured  75  x  35  feet. 

The  plan  makes  this  original  chapter-house 
occupy  the  position  to  the  north  of  the  Pyx  chapel, 
now  covered  by  the  vestibule  and  part  of  the  chapel 
of  St.  Blaise.  The  apse  reaches  about  as  far  east 
as  the  middle  of  the  steps  now  leading  up  to  the 
chapter-house.  Mr.  Micklethwaite  may  have  had 
an  opportunity  of  laying  bare  the  foundations  of  the 
old  chapter-house,  but  this  seems  scarcely  possible, 
and  we  cannot  ascertain  that  he  had.  Hence  we 
may  take  his  apsidal  plan  merely  as  his  interpreta- 
tion, to  which  he  was  led  by  inference  from  other 
examples,  of  the  words  11  vaulted  and  round."  If 
he  is  right  in  this,  the  Confessors  architect  probably 
anticipated  the  Durham  architect  by  some  seventy 
years,  and  the  possible  influence  of  Torcello,  to  which 
we  refer  below,  would  seem  to  have  been  very  strong. 

We  are  glad  to  be  allowed  to  print  the  following 
from  the  Dean  of  Wells  (formerly  Dean  of  West- 
minster) : 

"The  passage  in  the  French  Life  of  St.  Edward  (written  about 
the  middle  of  the  thirteenth  century)  runs  as  follows : 

'  Clostre  i  fait,  chapitre  a  frund 
Vers  orient  vouse  et  rund.' 

There  are  two  ambiguities  here :  (1)  Does  vers  orient  go  with  its 
own  line  or  the  preceding?    (2)  Does  ru?id  mean  circular  or 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  177 


with  an  apse?  Either  interpretation  is  possible,  so  far  as  the 
words  themselves  go.  It  is,  however,  worth  while  to  note  an 
earlier  verse  which  refers  to  the  east  end  of  the  church,  and 
plainly  describes  an  apse  : 

*  Le  frunt  vers  orient  fait  rund.' 

Mr.  Micklethwaite's  comment  {Further  Notes  on  the  Abbey 
Buildings  at  Westminster,  p.  9  ;  reprinted  from  Archceological 
Journal^  March  1894)  is:  ' which  may  mean  either  that  it  ended 
in  an  apse,  or  that  it  was  completely  round  like  that  at  Worcester. 
I  think  the  former  is  the  more  likely/ 

"I  am  in  agreement  with  this  opinion,  which  fully  satisfies 
the  use  of  rund  in  the  document,  and  I  find  some  support  in  the 
fact  that  at  Jumieges,  which  was  in  several  points  the  type  of 
St.  Edward's  Westminster,  the  Norman  chapter-house  was  a 
rectangle  with  an  apse  towards  the  east.  It  is  possible  that  this 
building  may  not  be  earlier  than  1100;  but,  if  it  was  not  the 
first  chapter-house,  it  is  likely  that  the  type  would  remain  even 
if  the  structure  were  rebuilt. 

a  In  any  case  we  must  look  to  Norman  abbeys  for  guidance 
as  to  Westminster ;  and  we  must  remember  that  the  statement 
of  the  thirteenth-century  writer  of  St.  Edward's  Life  is  not 
evidence  of  what  St.  Edward  himself  built,  but  of  what  had 
been  built  by  the  time  the  Norman  abbey  was  completed.  It  is 
quite  likely  that  the  chapter-house  was  not  built  before  the  time 
of  Abbot  Gilbert  Crispin"  [108 2-1 120]. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  both  the  Dean  and  Mr. 
Micklethwaite  allow  that  the  words,  which  give  us 
our  only  information  about  the  Confessor's  chapter- 
house, will  well  bear  the  interpretation  that  it  was 
circular,  but  they  incline  rather  to  think  that  it  was 
apsidal,  because  other  chapter-houses  of  similar 
date  were  apsidal  on  plan.  Another  expert  goes 
so  far  as  to  say  that  the  Confessor's  architect  was 
quite  unlikely  to  build  a  circular  chapter-house, 
when  all  others  of  that  date  were  rectangular  with 
an  apse.  But,  if  this  line  be  taken,  how  are  we  to 
account  for  the  existence  of  the  Worcester  circular 
chapter-house?  If  the  Norman  house  at  West- 
minster was  not  circular,  there  certainly  was  no 
circular  chapter-house  in  existence  in  11 18.  By 
parity  of  reasoning  the  architects  then  were  very 

M 


178         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

unlikely  to  build  a  circular  house  at  Worcester,  and 
yet  they  did  it,  and  the  Confessor's  architect  was 
at  least  as  likely  to  do  it  at  Westminster  about 
1050.  We  will  not  say  he  did  do  it ;  only  that  it 
is  not  unlikely  that  he  did.  In  that  case  the 
Westminster  chapter-house  was  the  first  "  poly- 
gonal "  chapter-house  in  England,  preceding  Wor- 
cester by  some  sixty  years,  just  as  Worcester 
preceded  Lincoln  by  some  107  years,  none  other 
except  rectangular  houses  having  been  built,  unless 
that  at  Romsey  was  polygonal.1 

We  do  not  wish  to  be  dogmatic,  but  we  feel  that 
it  is  perfectly  reasonable  to  believe  that  the  Con- 
fessor's chapter-house  was  circular,  standing,  like 
Worcester,  on  the  east  side  of  the  cloister,  and 
vaulted  very  much  after  the  fashion  of  the  Chapel 
of  the  Pyx. 

Supposing  this  to  be  so,  we  may  go  on  to  ask 
how  the  architect  came  to  build  it  circular.2  In 
choosing  his  plan  he  probably  had  not  much  in  the 
way  of  precedent  in  Normandy,  and  probably 
nothing  in  England,  the  Westminster  chapter- 
house being  the  first  of  which  we  have  any  record 
here.  The  first  Norman  chapter-house  is  said 3  to 
have  been  built  at  Fontenelle  (c.  966),  by  Herleve, 
wife  of  Duke  Robert  of  Normandy.  What  its 
shape  was  we  are  not  told.  What  round  buildings 
were  there  in  England  at  that  date  to  suggest  a 
circular  plan  ?    Fergusson 4  writes  : 

"Strange  to  say,  considering  how  common  the  circular  form 
was  in  the  countries  from  which  our  forefathers  are  said  to  have 


1  See  note,  p.  174,  and  cf.  p.  237,  note  7. 

2  At  St.  Gall  there  was  no  chapter-house  ;  see  plan  in  Walcott's 
Ch.  and  Convent.  Arrange  p.  112.  Lubke,  Ecclesiastical  Art,  p.  103, 
says  that  "The  wing  of  the  cloister  next  to  the  church  serves  as  the 
chapter-house."  St.  Gall  was  a  Benedictine  abbey,  designed  about 
a.d.  820.    Cf.  p.  247,  Note  B. 

3  M.  Walcott,  Ch.  and  Con.  Arr.,  p.  121. 
*  Hist,  of  Arch.,  ii.  18 1-2. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  179 


emigrated,  it  never  took  root  in  England.  .  .  .  There  are  in 
Norfolk  and  Suffolk  some  forty  or  fifty  churches  with  round 
west  towers,  which  seem  undoubtedly  to  be  mere  modifications 
of  the  west  round  nave  of  the  Scandinavian  churches.  .  .  .  These 
Norfolk  churches  with  round  towers  may  consequently  be  looked 
upon  as  safe  indexes  of  the  existence  of  Scandinavian  influences 
in  the  east  counties.  ...  It  can  scarcely  be  doubted  that  round- 
naved  and  round-towered  churches  existed  in  the  east  counties 
anterior  to  the  Norman  Conquest ;  but,  if  any  still  remain,  they 
have  not  been  described.  The  earliest  that  are  known  were 
erected  during  the  Norman  period." 

Notice  this  last  sentence — the  Norman  architects 
built  some  circular  towers.  Further,  there  was  at 
Canterbury,  the  metropolitan  see-town,  in  the  Con- 
fessor's time,  to  the  east  of  the  cathedral  then  exist- 
ing there,  a  round  building,  of  which  Fergusson  1 
says  : 

"  Outside  the  original  church  of  St.  Augustine  to  the  eastward 
— at  what  distance  we  unfortunately  are  not  told — Cuthbert,  the 
eleventh  archbishop,  about  the  year  750  erected  a  circular  church, 
'  as  a  baptistery,  and  in  order  that  it  might  serve  as  the  burying- 
place  of  future  archbishops'  (Angiia  Sacra,  \o\.  ii.  p.  75),  thus 
combining  the  two  rites  in  a  ceremonial  church  apart  from  the 
basilica,  exactly  as  was  done  in  Italy  during  the  Romanesque 
age.  It  is  by  no  means  improbable  that  the  eastern  termination 
of  the  present  cathedral,  known  as  '  Becket's  Crown/  stands  on 
the  site  of  the  old  baptistery,  and  retains  its  dimensions  •  but  it 
is  difficult  to  prove  this,  so  completely  have  all  the  features  of 
the  church  been  altered  by  subsequent  rebuildings." 

This  old  circular  baptistery  was  standing  in  the 
Confessor's  time,2  and  it  may  have  given  his 
architect  the  idea  of  the  circular  plan.3  But,  as 
the  Dean  of  Wells  rightly  points  out  in  his  letter 
already  quoted,  we  must  remember  that  Edward's 

1  Hist,  of  Arch.,  ii.  p.  127. 

3  St.  Augustine's  church  at  Canterbury  was  standing  at  the  time 
of  the  Norman  Conquest.  Eadmer  says  "  the  whole  was  consumed 
[by  fire],  as  well  as  the  church  of  blessed  John  Baptist,  wherein  the 
remains  of  the  archbishops  were  buried."  This  was  in  1067.  Mr. 
G.  G.  Scott  says  {Hist,  of  Eng.  Ch.  Arch.,  p.  101),  "this  was,  no 
doubt,  a  baptistery,  and  was  situated  to  the  east  of  the  church," 
built  by  Cuthbert  (the  eleventh  archbishop),  740-50. 

3  Cf.  note  at  end  of  Appendix. 


180         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


architect  was  a  Norman.  King  Edwards  mother 
was  Queen  Emma,  sister  to  Richard  the  Good, 
Duke  of  Normandy  (996-1026).  Edward  was 
born  in  1004,  and  from  1013  to  1040,  i.e.  from  his 
ninth  to  his  thirty-sixth  year,  he  was  for  the  most 
part  living  in  exile  at  the  Norman  court.  His 
uncle  died  in  1026,  so  that  from  nine  to  twenty-two 
Edward  was  under  his  uncle's  influence.  Now 
this  uncle  was  a  great  builder  of  churches  and 
monasteries.  "  According  to  the  Chronicles  of 
Fontenelle,  bishops  and  clergy,  abbots  and  monks 
came  from  all  parts  "  to  visit  him.1  Amongst  others 
was  S.  Guillaume,  abbot  of  S.  Benigne  in  Dijon, 
a  Lombard,  born  961,  and  a  friend  of  the  patriarch 
Orso,  who  restored  the  church  at  Torcello  with  its 
circular  apse. 

"  It  was  here  probably  that  S.  Guillaume  was  interested  in  the 
[Comacine]  Masonic  Guild,  and  recognising  its  power  as  an  aid 
to  mission  work,  would  have  joined  it."  2 

He  was  invited  to  Normandy  by  Duke  Richard  II 
to  "  found  monasteries  and  erect  buildings."  He 
went,  and  there  he  stayed  for  twenty  years,  founding 
forty  monasteries,  and  restoring  old  ones. 

"  He  had  many  of  his  Italian  monks  trained  to  continue  the 
work  he  had  begun.  These  propagated  such  love  and  taste  for 
art  in  those  rude  and  bold  Normans  that  stone  buildings  multi- 
plied there,  and  when  William  of  Normandy  conquered  England 
the  style  passed  over  with  him."  3 

But  the  style  came  to  England  before  the  Norman 
Conquest.  Edward  the  Confessor  brought  it.  He 
would  probably  know  S.  Guillaume  well.  He  was 
fifty-two  years  old  when  Edward  was  nine  years,  and 
seems  to  have  been  a  forceful  character,  likely  to 
acquire  a  stronginfluence  over  a  boy  of  Edward's  tem- 
perament.   Anyway  it  is  certain  that  the  architect  of 

1  Leader  Scott,  Cathedral  Builders ',  p.  158. 

2  Leader  Scott,  op.  tit.,  p.  122. 

3  Chron.  S.  Benigni  Divion.,  qu.  Leader  Scott,  op.  tit.,  p.  123. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  181 

the  Confessor's  Westminster  abbey  was  brought 
over  from  Normandy.  He  was,  we  may  take  it, 
one  of  S.  Guillaume's  companions  or  disciples.  He 
would  be  quite  used  to  circular  or  polygonal  baptis- 
teries and  tombs,  such  as  those  at  Ravenna1  and 
elsewhere,  and  the  suggestion  of  the  circular 
chapter-house  at  Westminster  would  be  a  not  un- 
likely one.2  Of  course  we  frankly  admit  that,  but 
for  the  lines  in  the  Life  of  Edward  already  quoted, 
we  should  rather  have  expected  to  find  a  chapter- 
house like  that  at  Durham,  because  of  S.  Guil- 
laume's acquaintance  with  Torcello,  especially  if 
the  apse,  in  which  that  cathedral  terminated,  was 
used  (as  many  think)  as  the  chapter-house  there. 
We  admit  the  force  of  this  argument,  which  will 
certainly  be  used  against  us,  but  we  still  hold  that, 
the  words  in  the  Life  of  Edward  being  what  they 
are,  there  is  no  reason  why  the  Confessor's  chapter- 
house at  Westminster  should  not  have  been  circular. 
At  any  rate,  whatever  its  shape,  it  is  a  building  of 
the  greatest  interest  to  chapter  -  house  students, 
because  it  was  the  first  of  which  we  have  any  record 
in  England.  Against  its  circularity  the  argument 
that  for  sixty  years  there  were  no  others  of  that 
shape  would  be  a  strong  one,  were  it  not  for  the 
certain  fact,  already  mentioned,  that  for  some  107 
years  the  Worcester  circular  chapter-house  found 
no  imitators.  The  earliest,  apparently,  of  the  poly- 
gonal shape  was  that  at  Lincoln,  unless  it  was  pre- 
ceded by  that  at  Cockersand,  and  that  these  were 
polygonal-shaped  and  not  circular,  is  probably  due 
to  the  fact  that  they  were  built  in  the  thirteenth 

1  Baptistery  and  tomb  of  Theodoric. 

2  Professor  E.  A.  Freeman,  speaking  of  Pisa,  says :  "  The  round 
form  doubtless  comes  from  Ravenna ;  but  the  Pisan  tower  is  a 
Ravenna  tower  glorified.  At  Ravenna,  as  in  East  Anglia,  the  round 
tower  form  may  have  been  adopted  in  order  to  avoid  the  necessity  of 
ashlar  quoins  in  a  building  of  brick  or  flint.  At  Pisa,  as  in  Ireland, 
the  form  was  chosen  out  of  deliberate  preference,  and  the  preference 
was  a  wise  one." — Historical  and  Architectural  Sketches^  p.  114. 


1 82         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


century  instead  of  the  eleventh  or  twelfth.  For 
with  the  thirteenth  century  had  come  the  beautiful 
and  scientific  Early  English  style,  which  meant 
"  the  substitution  of  voids  for  solids,  and  windows 
for  wall."  1 

"Such  construction,  of  course,  revolutionised  Romanesque 
practice,  which  had  been  to  rely  wholly  on  walls  for  the  stability 
of  the  vault.  Now  reliance  was  almost  wholly  on  the  pier  with 
its  paraphernalia  of  buttresses,  flying  buttresses,  pinnacles.  In 
the  nave  of  a  Gothic  church  in  its  final  development  all  the 
windows  might  be  taken  away ;  also  the  end  walls  beneath  the 
windows  of  the  aisles  and  the  clerestory,  and  the  spandrils  of 
the  pier  arcade :  it  might  be  reduced  to  a  mere  skeleton,  consist- 
ing of  four  rows  of  stone  posts  .  .  .  and  on  those  posts,  with  the 
winds  of  heaven  blowing  through  them,  the  vaults  both  of  nave 
and  aisles  would  still  stand  secure  ...  a  church  so  constructed, 
with  the  voids  so  much  in  excess  of  the  solids,  was  very  light  in 
appearance.  ...  It  was  an  'aerial  immateriality,'  something 
spiritual,  incorporeal.  .  .  .  This  unsubstantiality  of  skeleton  con- 
struction was,  however,  largely  counteracted  by  opacity  of  glass. 
How  essential  to  Gothic  design  is  stained  glass  may  be  seen  by 
visiting  any  church  which  has  now  but  white  glass."  "  The  con- 
struction of  the  chapter-house  of  Salisbury  is  precisely  the  same 
as  that  of  the  clerestories  of  Amiens,  Beauvais,  St.  Denis,  Metz. 
In  all  five  the  wall  between  the  windows  is  reduced  to  a  pier; 
and  the  wall  ribs  of  the  vault  serve  also  as  the  arches  of  the 
window.'' 2 

This  discovery  of  the  Gothic  method  made 
vaulted  polygonal  chapter-houses  possible.  It  was 
used  cautiously  at  Lincoln,3  in  a  somewhat  tenta- 
tive way.  The  windows  are  simply  two  lancets  side 
by  side,  with  a  lozenge  opening  above  them  on  the 
exterior,  suggestive  indeed  of  what  was  to  come 
later  on,  but  invisible  in  the  interior.4  When  the 
style  was  older,  and  the  builders  were  more  sure  of 

1  Bond,  Gothic  Architecture,  p.  56. 

2  Bond,  op.  cit.y  55  ff. ;  cf.  Mr.  G.  G.  Scott,  Hist,  of  Eng.  Ch. 
Arch.,  p.  141. 

3  Also  at  Cockersand. 

4  Messrs.  Bond  and  Watkins  think  that  the  Lincoln  chapter-house 
was  not  vaulted  at  first,  but  had  a  flat  roof.  The  flying  buttresses 
were  certainly  added  later ;  cf.  Journal  R.I.B.A.,  10th  Dec.  1910, 
p.  97. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  183 

their  methods,  the  window  was  made  to  fill  the  space 
between  the  buttresses,  as  e.g.  at  Salisbury,  Wells, 
Westminster,  York,  Southwell,  Howden,  &c.  The 
Decorated  chapter-houses  at  Southwell  and  York 
belong  to  the  earlier  period  of  the  style,  before  the 
geometrical  had  given  place  to  the  flowing  window- 
tracery.  Curiously  enough  we  have  in  England  no 
octagonal  chapter-houses  of  the  period  when  they 
used  such  tracery  as  delights  the  eye  in  the  Lady 
Chapel,  or  in  Prior  Crawden's  Chapel,  at  Ely. 
The  nearest  approach  to  this  is  at  Elgin,  in  Scot- 
land, where  the  lovely  ruined  octagonal  chapter- 
house, with  its  flowing  tracery,  lifts  its  strong,  if 
mute,  protest  against  the  barbarity  which  destroyed 
it,  and  leaves  it  in  ruins.1  If  only  Alan  de  Wal- 
singham  had  built  an  octagonal  chapter  -  house 
at  Ely  to  match  his  Lady  Chapel  there!  The 
tracery  of  the  Liverpool  chapter-house  windows  is 
fashioned  on  flowing  lines,  and,  like  the  windows  in 
the  Lady  Chapel,  they  make  one  think  of  those  of 
Prior  Crawden's  Chapel.2 

There  may  be  another  reason  why  so  many 
polygonal  chapter-houses  were  built  in  the  thirteenth 
century.  In  that  century  the  Arthurian  legend,  as 
we  have  it  now,  was  popularised  by  the  metrical 
romances.  Men  learnt  about  the  Round  Table,  at 
which  the  king  sat  surrounded  by  his  twelve  most 
valiant  knights.3    What  could  be  better  than  the 

1  The  rectangular  chapter-house  at  Valle  Crucis  had  three  windows 
in  its  east  wall  with  reticulated  tracery.  See  Builder \  July  i,  1899, 
p.  14. 

2  Some  of  the  thirteenth-century  rectangular  chapter-houses  were 
built  on  Gothic  principles,  e.g.  Chester  and  Furness. 

3  The  earliest  legends  of  Arthur's  exploits  go  back  as  far  as  the  sixth 
or  seventh  centuries,  though  no  existing  MS.  is  older  than  the  twelfth 
century.  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth,  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph  1152,  d.  11 54, 
published  a  Chronicle,  which  professed  to  be  merely  a  translation 
from  an  older  work.  But  this  Chronicle  "is  really  nothing  more 
than  a  masterpiece  of  the  creative  imagination  working  freely  on 
materials  found  in  Gildas,  Nennius,  and  such  chroniclers,  as  well 
as  early  legends  now  difficult  to  trace."    Layamon's  Brut  (early  in 


184         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


circular  or  polygonal  (which  was  practically  the 
same)  plan  for  a  chapter-house,  in  which  met  the 
"  precious  circlet  of  the  presbytery," 1  which  might 
well  remind  men  of  the  words  so  exactly  fitted  to 
serve  as  a  guiding  principle  in  chapter-life,  "One 
is  your  Master,  even  Christ,  and  all  ye  are  brethren  " 
(St.  Matt,  xxiii.  8)  ?  This,  together  with  the  fact 
that  the  plan  lent  itself  to  very  beautiful  archi- 
tectural treatment,  may  well  account  for  the  poly- 
gonal chapter-houses  of  the  thirteenth  and  following 
centuries.  At  any  rate  these,  which  are  essentially 
English,  came  largely  into  vogue,  and  it  is  inter- 
esting to  notice  that  the  chapter-houses  became 
polygonal  when  the  churches  themselves  became 
square-ended.  Our  Norman  churches  ended  in  an 
apse2  or  chevet  {i.e.  an  apse  with  a  processional 
path,  and,  generally,  radiating  chapels  round  it). 
Several  of  the  Norman  chapter-houses,  e.g.  Bristol, 
Durham,  Reading,  ended  in  an  apse.  This  was 
then  a  natural  ending.3  When  Durham  chapter- 
house was  made  to  end  in  an  apse,  the  church  and 
every  chapel  in  it  was  apsidal.  But  when  Salisbury 
polygonal  chapter-house  was  built,  the  church  and 
its  chapels  had  already  received  a  rectangular 
termination.  It  seems  as  though  the  square-ended 
church   and   the   polygonal    chapter-house  came 

thirteenth  century)  was  a  paraphrase  of  an  older  translation  of  Geoffrey's 
work,  and  "Robert  of  Gloucester's  Chronicle  (1271)  was  a  fresh- 
rhymed  paraphrase  of  the  same,  which  being  in  the  native  tongue 
helped  to  make  the  legends  invented  by  Geoffrey  widely  known." 
So  men  learnt  about  the  Round  Table.  Cf.  Chambers's  Encyclopedia, 
vol.  i.  p.  462,  and  vol.  v.  p.  138. 

1  Ignatius,  Ep.,  qu.  Benson,  Cathedral,  p.  112. 

2  "  Almost  all  the  great  churches  erected  under  the  stimulus  of  the 
Norman  immigration  exhibit  the  apsidal  form,  but  no  sooner  had 
the  Conquest  become  gradually  tided  over,  and  the  conquering  race 
had  begun  to  coalesce  with  the  conquered,  than  the  square  east  end 
began  slowly,  but  steadily,  to  gain  upon  its  foreign  rival.  By  the 
thirteenth  century  its  triumph  was  complete." — G.  G.  Scott,  Hist,  of 
Eng.  Ch.  Arch.,  p.  131. 

3  Quite  apart  from  the  question  of  the  earliest  place  of  meeting  for 
the  chapter,  as  possibly  in  the  apse  at  Torcello  and  elsewhere. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  185 

together,  and  through  much  the  same  adventures, 
to  be  the  distinguishing  and  lasting  feature  of  our 
English  cathedrals. 

It  is  not  easy  to  trace  any  principle  at  the  root  of 
the  shape  of  chapter-houses.  It  seems  to  have  been 
very  much  a  matter  of  taste  or  convenience,  or  site 
or  expense.  Chester  and  Oxford  were  rectangular; 
Lichfield  was  polygonal.  All  were  of  the  same 
date,  c.  1 240.  Why  the  difference  in  plan  ?  Salis- 
bury and  Canterbury,  again,  were  of  about  the 
same  date,  c.  1263,  yet  one  is  polygonal  and  the 
other  rectangular.  Why  ?  If  it  be  suggested  that 
the  rectangular  houses  were  conventual  and  the  poly- 
gonal ones  not,  then  compare  the  following,  all  con- 
ventualand quasi-conventual  houses :  Durham  ( 1 1 33- 
1140),  Bristol  (1155-70),  and  Reading  (c.  1 121-25), 
were  apsidal;  Fountains  (1153-70)  was  rectangular; 
Worcester  (11 18  et  seq.)  was  circular;  Cockersand 
(c.  1225)  and  Alnwick  were  polygonal;  Dale  and 
Bileigh  (c.  1200)  were  rectangular.  All  these  were 
conventual  or  quasi-conventual  houses,  and  the  four 
latter  were  Premonstratensian  houses.  Why  the 
difference  in  plan  ?  So  too  Lincoln  and  Exeter 
are  of  about  the  same  date,  c.  1225,  and  both  are 
cathedrals  of  the  Old  Foundation,  without  convents 
attached.  Why  should  the  chapter-house  at  Lin- 
coln be  polygonal  and  that  at  Exeter  rectangular  ? 
Messrs.  F.  Bond  and  W.  Watkins1  are  of  opinion 
that  the  present  Lincoln  chapter-house  replaced  an 
earlier  one  built  by  St.  Hugh's  architect,  Geoffry 
de  Noiers.  In  their  plan  of  St.  Hugh's  cathedral 
they  show  every  one  of  the  chapels  apsidal-ended. 
But,  where  now  stands  the  northernmost  chapel 
of  the  north-east  transept,  they  show  an  oblong 
building,  measuring  c.  45  x  25  feet,  with  a  door- 
way opening  into  the  north-east  transept.  The 
foundations  of  this  building  may  yet  be  seen  in 

1  Journal  R. LB. A.,  26th  November  1910. 


1 86         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

the  turf  outside.  It  is  said  to  have  been  pulled 
down  when  the  present  apsidal  chapel  was  built 
by  Essex  in  1772.  This  oblong  building  Messrs. 
Bond  and  Watkins  believe  to  have  been  St.  Hugh's 
chapter-house,  and  they  think  that  the  north  end  of 
the  north-east  transept  served  as  vestibule  to  it. 
Their  reasons  seem  good  ones,  but  for  these  we 
must  refer  to  their  interesting  paper.  If  they  are 
right  in  their  conjecture,  we  have  here  an  instance 
of  the  replacing  of  a  rectangular  chapter-house  by 
a  polygonal  one.  More  room  was  probably  wanted, 
but  this  was  supplied  at  Chester  about  the  same 
time  or  a  little  later,  without  any  change  of  plan. 
Why  was  the  change  made  at  Lincoln  ?  We 
cannot  account  for  it  merely  by  suggesting  that 
it  was  due  only  to  the  change  of  style,  because 
Chester  chapter-house  is  Early  English  as  well  as 
that  of  Lincoln.  A  change  of  plan,  similar  to  this 
supposed  change  at  Lincoln,  may  have  taken  place 
also  at  Salisbury.  Mackenzie  Walcott1  says  that 
the  chapter-house  at  Old  Sarum  was  oblong.  This 
is  most  likely.  Mr.  Walcott  gives  as  his  authority 
a  reference  to  Ecclesiologist,  iii.  o.s.,  40.  Mr.  G.  G. 
Scott2  says  that  the  cloister  at  Old  Sarum  was 
"  situated  to  the  north  of  its  nave."  From  a  private 
letter,  lately  received  from  a  member  of  the  Salis- 
bury chapter,  we  learn  that 

"the  excavations  of  the  Cathedral  (i.e.  of  Old  Sarum)  and  its 
precincts  were  covered  with  turf  until  this  Whitsuntide,  and  the 
excavations  have  not,  I  believe,  shown  any  foundations  (so  far) 
which  would  confirm  Mr.  G.  G.  Scott's  statement."  3 

But  supposing  there  was  an  oblong  chapter-house 
at  Old  Sarum  on  the  north  side,  the  rectangular 
form  was  not  continued,  any  more  than  the  northern 
position,  when  the  present  chapter-house  at  New 

1  Ch.  and  Conv.  Arrange  p.  65. 

2  Hist,  of  Eng.  Arch.,  p.  142, 

3  There  must  have  been  a  chapter-house  there  ;  see  p.  147. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  187 


Sarum  was  built  on  the  south  side  of  the  cathedral 
in  1263-73,  but  was  forsaken  in  favour  of  the  poly- 
gonal. 

The  octagonal  chapter-house  at  Cockersand  with 
its  central  pillar,  its  vault,  and  charming  details, 
seems  to  have  been  one  of  the  first  to  be  built 
of  this  shape.  It  was  probably  in  building  at  much 
the  same  time  as  that  of  Lincoln.  There  are  some 
striking  resemblances  between  some  of  the  features 
of  Cockersand  and  some  of  those  of  Lincoln.  It 
was  colonised  from  Croxton  in  Leicestershire,  and 
it  was  built  on  a  wild,  sandy,  and  out-of-the-way 
site  on  the  Lancashire  coast.  How  came  Cocker- 
sand to  be  one  of  the  pioneers  in  this  matter  ?  The 
canons  did  not  bring  the  plan  with  them  from 
Croxton,  which  was  much  more  in  the  world,  for 
the  chapter-house  there  was  rectangular.  Where 
did  they  get  it  from  in  these  early  days  ?  Where 
did  the  architect  of  Lincoln  get  his  plan  from  ? 

It  is  easier  to  ask  such  questions  than  to  reply 
to  them.  ,  Fergusson1  says  that  in  early  Norman 
times  the  chapter-houses  were  generally  rectangular 
rooms,  25  feet  or  30  feet  wide,  by  about  twice  that 
extent  in  length. 

"  So  convenient  and  appropriate  does  this  original  form  appear, 
that  it  is  difficult  to  understand  why  it  was  abandoned,  unless 
it  was  that  the  resonance  was  intolerable." 

The  resonance  may  have  been  intolerable  in  the 
rectangular  chapter-houses,  as  it  seems  to  be  at 
Gloucester  to-day,  if  one  may  judge  from  the 
stretched  wires  and  the  sounding  board  which 
disfigure  it.  But  the  resonance  of  some  of  the 
polygonal  houses,  both  of  those  with  central  pillars 
and  of  those  without  them,  is  also  intolerable.  At 
Lincoln,  Salisbury,  and  York,  we  have  heard 
serious  complaints.    The  resonance  seems  inevit- 

1  Hist,  of  Arch.,  ii.  p.  172. 


1 88         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


able.  Those  who  have  visited  the  baptistery  at 
Pisa  will  remember  the  remarkable  resonance 
there.1 

Some  of  the  rectangular  houses  were  plain  oblong 
halls  as  e.g.  Winchester,  Durham,  Bristol,  Glou- 
cester, Norwich,  Canterbury,  Oxford,  Chester,  and 
Exeter.  Others  were  divided  into  two  alleys  by  a 
single  row  of  pillars,  e.g.  Lacock,  Kirkstall,  Dale, 
Basingwerk,  Bileigh,  Newstead,  Ripon,  &c.  Others 
were  divided  into  three  alleys  by  a  double  row  of 
pillars,  as  at  Furness,  &c.2  Some,  as  e.g.  Llandaff 
and  Glasgow,  had  a  single  central  pillar.  Concerning 
Llandaff,  Professor  Freeman  says  : 

"  The  effect  is  not  pleasing,  being  that  of  a  square  playing  at 
a  polygon  .  .  .  but,  viewed  historically,  there  can  be  little  doubt 
but  that  we  have  there,  not  a  confusion  of  the  two  types  [the 
rectangular  and  the  polygonal],  but  a  genuine  example  of  transi- 
tion between  them  ...  it  is  exactly  the  same  arrangement  as 
in  the  great  staircase  at  Christ  Church,  though  that,  perhaps  from 
its  greater  size  and  different  use,  does  not  in  the  same  way  suggest 
the  polygon."  3 

If  the  first  Westminster  chapter-house  was  circular 
and  vaulted,  it  probably  had  a  central  pillar.  Cer- 
tainly the  Worcester  chapter-house  had  ;  it  is  there 
still.  The  central  pillar  and  a  more  or  less  intricate 
vault  became  a  feature  of  the  polygonal  chapter- 
houses, and  we  find  it  at  Cockersand,  Lincoln, 
Salisbury,  Westminster,  Lichfield,  Wells,  Elgin, 
Evesham,  &c. 

1  Pisa  baptistery  is  ioo  feet  in  diameter,  and  the  dome  6o  feet  in 
diameter. 

2  The  chapter-houses  with  three  alleys  generally  belonged  to  the 
Cistercian  Order,  e.g.  Beaulieu  (Hants),  Neath,  Netley,  Jervaulx, 
Buildwas,  Fountains,  Furness,  Tintern,  and  Valle  Crucis.  But  there 
were  only  two  alleys  at  Kirkstall  and  Basingwerk,  and  an  open  hall 
without  pillars  at  Sawley  and  Cleeve.  At  Margam  and  Dore  the 
chapter-house  was  polygonal.  All  these  were  Cistercian  houses. 
There  were  three  alleys  at  Bayham,  which  was  a  Premonstratensian 
house. 

3  Llandaff  Cathedral,  1850. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  189 


Mackenzie  Walcott 1  says  that 

"the  ribs,  with  arches  like  the  bright  curves  of  a  fountain, 
branching  from  a  central  pillar,  and  converging  upon  its  capital, 
represented  the  relations  of  the  cathedral  to  the  diocese,  with  a 
body  of  clergy  connected  with  it  through  their  prebends,  and 
sitting  as  a  circle  of  assessors  about  the  bishop,  the  capitulum 
with  their  caput." 

The  central  pillar  is  absent  at  Southwell,  York 
(wooden  vault),  Howden,  Manchester. 


VIII.  CHAPTER-HOUSES  ON  THE 
CONTINENT. 

Our  subject  would  be  incompletely  handled  were 
we  to  omit  all  mention  of  chapter-houses  abroad. 
We  have.,  however,  space  for  only  a  short  mention 
of  them.  Fergusson 2  says  that  "  chapter-houses  are 
as  rare  in  Germany  as  in  France,  and  those  that  are 
found  are  not  generally  circular  in  either  country."  3 
The  English  editor  of  Liibke's  Ecclesiastical  Art 
in  Germany  (p.  277)  quotes  from  Fergusson's  Hand- 
book (p.  885): 

"  On  the  Continent  it  is  true  there  are  chapter-houses  to  be 
found,  generally  square  rooms  with  wooden  roofs,  and  not 
remarkable  for  their  architecture." 

In  his  History  of  Architecture  (vol.  ii.  p.  172), 
Fergusson  speaks  again  of  the  chapter-house  as 

"almost  exclusively  national  (i.e.  English).  There  are,  it  is 
true,  some  *  Salles  Capitulaires '  attached  to  Continental  cathe- 

1  English  Minsters,  vol.  i.  p.  38. 

2  Hist,  of  Arch.,  vol.  ii.  p.  81.    Cf.  Notes  C  and  D,  p.  247. 

3  This  is  in  the  second  edition,  dated  1874.  Mackenzie  Walcott  in 
his  Church  and  Convent.  Arrangement,  p.  39,  makes  the  statement 
in  almost  the  same  words.  Fergusson's  first  edition  was  published 
1865-76,  and  the  work  appeared  first  as  a  "  Handbook  :;  in  1855.  Mr. 
Walcott's  book  is  undated.  But  on  p.  64,  note  3,  he  quotes  from 
"  G.  G.  Scott,  Proc.  R.I.B.A.,  i860."  He  also  refers  on  several  occa- 
sions to  Fergusson.  So  that  we  shall  probably  be  safer  if  we  take  the 
dictum  about  foreign  chapter-houses  to  be  Fergusson's,  quoted  without 
acknowledgment,  but  endorsed  by  Mr.  Walcott. 


190         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

drals  or  conventual  establishments,  but  they  are  little  more  than 
large  vestry-rooms,  with  none  of  that  dignity  or  special  ordinance 
that  belongs  to  the  English  examples." 

He  goes  on  to  try  to  find  a  reason  for  this. 
But  we  should  fall  into  error  were  we  to  conclude 
that  there  are  no  fine  chapter-houses  abroad.  Pos- 
sibly the  apse  of  the  churches  (cf.  Torcello)  was  first 
used  for  the  meetings  of  the  bishop  and  clergy. 

"  In  the  ninth  century  the  alley  (of  the  cloister)  next  the 
church  was  used  as  a  chapter-house  [e.g.  St.  Gall,  c.  820].  In 
966,  Herleve,  wife  of  Duke  Robert  of  Normandy,  built  a  separate 
chamber  for  the  purpose  at  Fontenelle." 1 

Mr.  Walcott  mentions  a  good  number  of  foreign 
chapter-houses,  and  so  does  Mr.  Fergusson.  It  is 
difficult  to  understand  how  the  more  highly  organised 
conventual  life  could  be  carried  on  without  them. 
But,  instead  of  pursuing  this  further,  we  will  glance 
at  the  plan 2  of  the  Cistercian  monastery  at  Maul- 
brunn  in  Germany,  and  there  we  find  on  the 
north  side  of  the  church  in  the  east  alley  of  the 
cloister  (c.  18  feet  wide)  a  chapter-house  measuring 
50  feet  x  25  feet  (i.e.  1250  square  feet  as  against 
1300  square  feet  at  Chester).  In  the  west  wall  are 
four  openings,  and  in  the  east  wall  two  windows. 
A  circular  staircase  is  in  the  north-east  angle,  and 
in  the  south-east  corner  an  altar  apse,  c.  15  feet  in 
diameter.  In  the  width,  from  north  to  south,  are 
three  pillars,  which  support  an  elaborate  vaulted 
roof  and  divide  the  room  into  two  alleys.  This 
is  evidently  a  building  of  importance,  and  not  a 
mere  vestry-room. 

There  is  another  notable  chapter-house  at  Vezelay 
in  France,  which  demands  a  fuller  description.  Of 
the  famous  Romanesque  church  of  Vezelay  we  have 
no  time  to  speak — that  "  splendid  church  of  the 

1  M.  Walcott,  Ch.  and  Conv.  Arr.y  p.  121. 

2  Liibke,  Eccles.  Art  iti  Germany 3  p.  106. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  191 

Benedictines  at  the  height  of  their  power,"  dedicated 
to  St.  Mary  Magdalene,  "  typically  monastic,  typi- 
cally Romanesque,"  and  especially  interesting  to  us 
Englishmen  from  the  fact  that  on  Whitsunday,  1 166, 
before  a  great  concourse  of  people,  our  archbishop, 
Thomas  a  Becket,  driven  from  his  see  and  (lately) 
from  the  Cistercian  House  of  Pontigny, 

"pronounced  his  sentence  of  excommunication  against  the 
chief  offenders,  read  the  Pope's  condemnation  of  the  Constitu- 
tions of  Clarendon,  and  warned  in  a  voice  choked  by  sobs  his 
sovereign  and  his  old  friend  of  the  sentence  which  awaited  him." 

Jutting  out  from  the  south  transept  is  the  chapter- 
house of  Vezelay,  which  was  probably  standing, 
newly  built,  at  the  time  of  Becket's  visit,  and  in 
which  he  probably  joined  in  the  devotions  and 
deliberations  of  his  Benedictine  hosts.  It  is  ap- 
proached from  the  church  by  a  cloister  some  1 5  feet 
in  width,  and  it  measures  46  x  36  feet — 1656  square 
feet  against  the  1300  square  feet  of  the  Chester 
chapter-house,  and  the  1024  square  feet  of  that  at 
Exeter.  It  is,  however,  less  in  size  than  those  at 
Canterbury,  Durham,  and  Gloucester,  and  than 
those  formerly  existing  at  Peterborough,  Win- 
chester, Norwich,  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  &c.  It  dates 
from  the  twelfth  century,  a  little  earlier  than  the 
reconstructed  choir.  Its  plan  is  rectangular,  and, 
like  that  at  Maulbrunn,  it  is  divided  into  two  alleys 
by  a  couple  of  pillars,  which,  together  with  two 
smaller  pillars  in  each  angle  and  six  strong  corbels 
built  into  the  walls  in  the  intervening  spaces,  sup- 
port the  quadripartite  vaults,  the  ribs  being  richly 
moulded.  The  pillars  are  incrusted  with  "  mosaics, 
intended  without  doubt  to  hide  the  defects  of  the 
stone."  The  room  is  lighted  by  three  large  round- 
headed  windows  in  its  eastern  wall.  On  the  western 
side,  adjoining  the  cloister,  is  a  range  of  five  hand- 
some arches  of  equal  width  (about  7  feet).1  The 

1  There  were  five  similar  but  quite  plain  arches  at  Winchester. 


192         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

middle  arch,  which  is  somewhat  higher  than  the 
others,  is  the  doorway  to  the  chapter-house.  The 
arches  are  richly  and  heavily  moulded,  with  a  carved 
hood-mould  over  each,  and  are  of  two  orders.  They 
are  supported  by  strong  piers  with  engaged  columns  ; 
the  abaci  are  large  and  the  carved  capitals  deep, 
and  the  bases  rest  upon  the  low  wall  (3  feet  thick) 
which  alone  separates  the  chapter-house  from  the 
cloister.  An  opening,  glazed  or  otherwise,  on  either 
side  of  the  chapter-house  door  is  common  enough 
in  England.  We  have  a  good  instance  at  Chester 
(before  both  the  vestibule  and  the  chapter-house). 
But  the  wide  openings  at  Vezelay  make  the  chapter- 
house there  much  less  private  than  any  of  our 
English  chapter-houses-  At  the  present  time  the 
room  is  filled  with  benches  which  face  the  altar 
standing  beneath  the  central  east  window,  and  it  is 
apparently  used  only  as  a  chapel.  How  long  the 
altar  has  stood  there  we  have  no  means  of  knowing. 
The  alley  of  the  cloister,  which  remains,  was  rebuilt 
in  the  thirteenth  century,  and  has  been  restored  by 
Viollet-le-Duc.  The  roof  is  vaulted,  or,  at  least, 
thick  and  richly  moulded  quarter-circular  ribs  stretch 
from  the  wall  (at  intervals  of  about  9  feet)  to  some 
fluted  piers,  which  stand  free,  but  are  supported  by 
heavy  and  lofty  outside  buttresses,  each  with  a 
corresponding  pier  in  its  face.  Between  each  but- 
tress are  three  small  Romanesque  arches  supported 
by  double  columns,  which  rest  upon  a  low,  thick 
basement  wall.  The  cloister  is  covered  by  a  roof 
of  heavy  curved  tiles,  and  above  the  chapter-house 
is  an  upper  hall,  lighted  on  its  east  side  by  several 
round-headed  windows. 

We  must  mention  one  more  foreign  chapter-house, 
the  most  noted  of  them  all,  though  of  the  thousands 
of  annual  visitors  to  the  "  Spanish  Chapel "  of  Santa 
Maria  Novella  at  Florence  probably  but  few  realise 
that  it  was  a  chapter-house.   Yet  for  over  200  years 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  193 

it  served  that  purpose,  for  which  it  was  built  in 
1355.  In  1567  Cosimo  I,  who  worked  such  irre- 
parable havoc  at  Santa  Maria  Novella,  gave  it  to 
the  fellow-countrymen  of  his  Spanish  wife,  Eleanor 
of  Toledo,  and  it  was  thenceforward  known  as  the 
"  Spanish  Chapel."  The  story  of  the  most  interest- 
ing church  of  Santa  Maria  Novella  has  been  well 
told  by  the  Rev.  J.  Wood  Brown  in  a  handsome 
monograph  published  in  1902.  The  Dominicans 
came  into  the  possession  of  the  church  in  122 1.  In 
1244,  probably,  a  new  chapter-house  was  built,  but, 
through  site  exigencies,  it  was  detached  from  the 
rest  of  the  monastery.  Shortly  before  1308  Baldas- 
sare  Ubriachi  built  the  convent  another  new  chapter- 
house, which  gave  upon  the  Great  Cloister,  and  was 
known  as  "  Capitolo  del  Nocentino,"  from  its  dedi- 
cation to  the  worship  of  the  Infant  Jesus  by  the 
three  kings.  This  building  is  still  marked  by  a 
sculptured  scene  on  its  lintel  representing  the  visit 
of  the  three  kings  to  Bethlehem.  Within  half  a 
century  this  chapter-house  proved  to  be  too  small, 
and  soon  after  1348  (the  awful  plague  year  at 
Florence)  a  wealthy  childless  Florentine  merchant, 
Mico  Guidalotti  by  name,  found  the  money  for  a 
third  chapter-house,  which  Fra  Jacopo  Talenti 
built  upon  a  somewhat  awkward  site,  given  by  the 
convent,  on  the  south  side  of  what  is  now  known  as 
the  Green  Cloister.  Soon  after  the  completion  (at 
the  cost  of  850  florins)  of  the  building  in  1355 
Guidalotti  died,  but  he  left  money  (325  florins)  for 
its  adornment,  which  was  later  on  accomplished 
(as  "  all  Florence,  in  Michael  Angelo's  time,"  be- 
lieved) by  Taddeo  Gaddi  and  Simone  Memmi.1 
The  building  was  intended  to  serve  a  double 

1  Mr.  Leader  Scott  (Cathedral  Builders,  p.  278)  says  that  "the 
Spanish  Chapel  at  S.  Maria  Novella  is  another  unspoiled  and  entire 
specimen  of  the  profuse  use  of  fresco  by  the  (Masonic)  Guild."  We 
give  this  for  what  it  is  worth. 

N 


194         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


purpose,  viz.  that  of  a  chapter-house  and  also  of  a 
chapel  of  the  Blessed  Sacrament.  The  altar  of 
Corpus  Christi  stands  in  a  deep  recess  in  the  longer 
side,  opposite  to  the  door,  which  opens,  without  any 
vestibule,  upon  the  cloister  alley.  It  has  on  either 
side  of  it  an  exquisite  window  of  fourteenth-century 
Gothic,  with  three  twisted  columns,  one  in  each 
jamb  and  one  in  the  centre ;  the  centre  one  resting 
on  a  crouching  lion,  which  Mr.  Leader  Scott 1  con- 
siders as  the  "  distinctive  hall-mark  of  the  guild  of 
Florentine  masons,"  and  he  thinks  that  it  "  serves 
to  mark  the  fact  that  the  architects,  Fra  Sisto  and 
Fra  Ristoro,  .  .  .  were  members  of  the  Masonic 
Guild."  But  Mr.  Wood  Brown  (p.  63),  whilst  ad- 
mitting that  Fra  Ristoro  and  Fra  Sisto  furnished 
the  design  for  the  church  of  Sta.  Maria,  says  that 
they  left  Florence  for  Rome  in  1279,  and  that  Fra 
Jacobo  Talenti  built  the  chapter-house  in  1350-55. 
The  windows  were  filled  in  with  elaborate  iron- 
work screens  by  Fra  Salvatore,  the  Spanish  Am- 
bassador to  the  court  of  Tuscany  at  the  opening  of 
the  eighteenth  century.  The  cloister  alley  is  of 
ample  width,  covered  by  a  simple  quadripartite 
vault  with  massive  chamfered  ribs.  The  arches  of 
the  cloister  are  wide  ones  of  black  and  white 
marble,  and  are  supported  by  octagonal  pillars, 
which,  again,  rest  upon  the  thickset  dwarf  wall 
which  marks  off  the  alley  from  the  garth. 

Ruskin  {Mornings  in  Florence)  devotes  his  fourth 
and  fifth  mornings,  under  the  titles  "  The  Vaulted 
Book "  and  "  The  Strait  Gate,"  to  the  Spanish 
Chapel.  He  takes  you  first  to  the  Duomo,  and 
bids  you  appreciate  one  single  bay  of  the  vast  nave, 
approximately  60  feet  square,  and  he  tells  you  that 
you  ought  to  think 

"that  the  most  studied  ingenuity  could  not  produce  a  design 
for  the  interior  of  a  building,  which  should  more  closely  hide  its 


Cathedral  Builder s,  p.  278. 


CHAPTER-HOUSE,  BRISTOL 


[Reproduced from  Fergusson's  "  History  of  Ancient  and  Medieval  Architecture," 
by  permission  of  Mr.  John  Murray) 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  195 

I  extent,  and  throw  away  every  common  advantage  of  its  magnitude 
I  than  this  of  the  Duomo  of  Florence." 

Then  he  takes  you  to  our  Spanish  Chapel.  There 
he  expects  you  to 

I  "  be  surprised  at  the  effect  of  height," 
Hi  and  to  find  it 

I  "literally  one  of  the  grandest  places  you  ever  entered  roofed 
I  without  a  central  pillar.  You  will  begin  to  wonder  that  any 
I  human  being  ever  achieved  anything  so  magnificent." 

I  This  building,  however,  measures  only  57  feet  x  32 
I  feet  [1924  square  feet  as  compared  with  2625  square 
I  feet  at  Durham].    He  hopes  that 

I  "  you  will  need  no  further  conviction  of  the  first  law  of  noble 
1  building,  that  grandeur  depends  upon  proportion  and  design — 
not,  except  in  a  quite  secondary  degree,  on  magnitude." 

There  is  a  sturdy  pillar  in  each  corner  of  the 
i  room,  from  which  spring  four  massive  vaulting 
I  ribs,  with  "  the  simplest  of  all  profiles — that  of  a 
I  chamfered  beam."  The  general  effect  is  not  alto- 
;  gether  unlike  that  of  the  westward  bay  of  the  Norman 

chapter-house  at  Bristol,  allowing  for  differences  of 
f  size  and  shape.    But,  in  the  place  of  the  arcading 

and  interlacing  arches  at  Bristol,  at  Sta.  Maria  every 

inch  of  the  space  is  covered  with  Gaddi's  and 

Memmi's  frescoes. 

"  The  room  has  four  sides  with  four  tales  told  upon  them  ;  and 
the  roof  four  quarters,  with  another  four  tales  told  on  those,  and 
each  history  in  the  sides  has  its  corresponding  history  in  the  roof." 

Ruskin  devotes  sixty-two  pages  of  his  book  to  the 
description  of  these  frescoes,  and  to  those  pages,  and 
also  to  Mr.  Wood  Brown's  volume,  we  must  refer 
those  who  desire  further  information  about  the 

"  most  noble  piece  of  pictorial  philosophy  and  divinity  existing 
in  Italy  "  j  "  one  of  the  rarest  buildings  in  Italy  for  the  student  of 
mediaeval  doctrine." 1 


1  E.  Gardner,  Florence,  p.  366. 


196         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


The  frescoes 

"  set  forth  the  Dominican  ideal,  the  Church  and  the  world  as  the 
Friars  Preachers  conceived  of  them,  even  as  Giotto's  famous 
allegories  at  Assisi  show  us  the  same  through  Franciscan 
glasses." 

It  adds  much  to  the  interest  of  the  building  as  a 
chapter-house  if  we  remember  that  its  decoration 
was  probably  designed  by  the  man  to  whose  sug- 
gestions it  owed  its  being,  Fra  Jacopo  Passavanti, 
the  noble  Florentine  scholar  and  divine,  who  was  at 
that  time  prior  of  Sta.  Maria  Novella,  and  a  great 
friend  and  possibly  the  director  of  Guidalotti. 

"  Deeply  read  in  Holy  Scripture  and  a  master  of  fluent  and 
elegant  Tuscan  of  the  golden  age,  he  was  among  the  first  to 
propose  a  complete  and  uniform  version  of  the  Bible  in  the 
Italian  language  ...  of  his  personal  piety  there  cannot  be  the 
least  question.1  He  survived  his  friend  Guidalotti  almost  two 
years ;  long  enough  to  fulfil  the  duties  laid  upon  him  in  1355, 
and  to  plan  that  intellectual  scheme  which  constant  tradition  has 
asserted  that  he  furnished  to  the  artists  as  the  ground  of  their 
work  here.  It  is  difficult  to  suppose  that  anyone  but  a  practised 
theologian  and  preacher  could  have  arranged  the  succession 
and  relation  of  ideas  set  forth  on  these  walls,  and  no  one  was 
more  fit  or  likely  to  have  undertaken  the  task  than  Passavanti 
himself."2 

If  this  be  so,  we  have  in  the  Spanish  Chapel  the 
ideal,  as  it  appeared  to  a  scholarly  and  devout 
mind  in  the  fourteenth  century,  of  what  an  Italian 
conventual  chapter-house  should  be. 

Thus,  whatever  truth  there  may  be  in  Fergusson  s 
dictum  quoted  above,  it  is  certain  that  there  are  at 
any  rate  some  foreign  chapter-houses  which  must 
be  allowed  a  high  place  in  any  list  of  such  buildings. 

IX.  LOCAL  CHAPTER-HOUSES. 

There  are  five  ancient  chapter-houses  of  import- 
ance  in    Lancashire   and  Cheshire — Birkenhead, 
1  Wood  Brown,  p.  142.  8  Ibid.,  p.  150. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  197 


Chester,  Manchester,  Cockersand,  and  Furness. 
Of  Cockersand  we  must  presently  speak  more 
fully.  The  other  four  have  been  so  often  de- 
scribed that  it  is  not  necessary  to  say  much  about 
them,  yet  they  must  be  mentioned.  With  regard  to 
Furness  we  cannot  do  better  than  transcribe  the 
excellent  words  of  that  great  expert,  Mr.  St.  John 
Hope.1 

,c  The  chapter-house  immediately  adjoins  the  south  transept. 
With  the  exception  of  the  vault,  which  fell  in  the  eighteenth 
century,  it  is  quite  perfect,  and  is  an  extremely  fine  example  of 
its  kind.  It  is  entered  from  the  cloister  by  a  richly-moulded, 
round-headed  archway  of  four  orders,  with  slender  jamb-shafts. 
This  is  the  central  of  an  arcade  of  three,  all  of  the  same  size 
and  design.2  The  only  attempt  at  carving  is  the  dog-tooth 
ornament  on  the  hood-mould;  the  rest  of  the  effect  depends 
entirely  on  the  mouldings.  Each  arch  was  subdivided,  but  the 
innermost  order  and  the  dividing  shaft  have  in  every  case  been 
broken  away.  The  central  arch  opens  into  the  vestibule  of 
the  chapter-house,  a  vaulted  passage  with  a  trefoiled  arcade  on 
each  side  standing  on  a  bench  table.  The  capitals  of  the  arches 
are  of  marble.  The  northern  arch  opens  into  a  room  about  13  feet 
square,  covered  by  a  barrel  vault.  From  marks  on  the  walls  it 
was  probably  the  book  closet  or  library.  The  south  arch  opens 
into  a  similar  room,  but  with  a  pointed  and  higher  vault.  It  was 
probably  also  a  book  closet,  for  by  the  time  the  chapter-house 
was  built  the  monastic  libraries  had  begun  to  grow.  The  chapter- 
house is  60  feet  long  by  45  feet  wide,3  and  of  four  bays,  divided 
into  three  alleys  by  two  rows  of  clustered  columns,  which  also 
supported  the  vaulting.  Round  the  walls  the  vaulting  ribs  sprang 
from  triple  groups  of  filleted  shafts  rising  from  moulded  corbels, 
but  on  the  east  side  the  shafts  are  replaced  by  foliated  corbels. 
Between  the  vaulting  shafts  there  is  in  each  bay  an  arcade  of  two 
pointed  arches,  with  an  ornamental  roundel  in  the  head.  In  one 
compartment  on  the  north,  three  on  the  east,  and  two  on  the 
south,4  these  arches  are  pierced  by  lancet  windows,  which  appear 
externally  as  coupled  lights  with  jamb-shafts.  The  buttresses 
between  the  windows  are  thin,  and  of  no  great  projection,  with 
the  angles  widely  chamfered.  All  the  details  of  the  chapter- 
house are  of  great  beauty,  and  worthy  of  the  closest  study. 

1  Builder,  July  6,  1895. 

2  Cf.  Fountains. 

3  Vestibule,  18  feetx  15  feet. 

*  i.e.  all  at  the  east  end  ;  the  other  walls  are  against  buildings. 


198         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


Despite  the  round-headed  arches  on  the  cloister  side,  the  work  is 
fully-developed  Early  English  of  a  date  c.  1240." 

There  was  a  room  over  the  chapter-house,  possibly 
the  scriptorium,  or  a  dorter. 

Chester. — This  chapter-house  is  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  of  those  of  the  rectangular  plan.    It  may 
be  compared  with  that  at  Oxford,  of  about  the 
same  date  and  of  somewhat  similar  dimensions. 
The  Chester  house  measures  50  x  26  +  33  ft*i  with  a 
charming  vestibule  measuring  33.4x27.4  +  12.9  ft. 
The  date  may  be  put  as  c.  1240,  when  Furness 
also  was  in  building.    It  replaced  an  earlier  one  of 
smaller  size.    The  exterior  has  been  very  much  re- 
stored.   So,  too,  has  the  interior  below  the  windows. 
There  is  now  no  sign  of  a  bench  table  except  on 
the  west  wall,  though  one  runs  round  the  vestibule. 
In  all  probability  the  chapter-house  was  originally 
provided  with  one,  as  the  Oxford  house  still  is.  The 
fireplace  in  the  north  wall  was  inserted  some  years 
ago,  in  the  place  of  one  which  was  older,  but  not,  of 
course,  coeval  with  the  building.     It  is  now  pro- 
posed to  do  away  with  this  altogether.    There  is  a 
small  unobtrusive  square-headed  doorway  in  the 
south-east  corner,  from  which  a  few  steps  lead  up 
to  a  narrow  walking-way  at  the  bottom  of  the 
windows.    It  is  said  that  this  used  to  lead  to  the 
dorter.     The  entrance  west  door  has  a  window 
on  either  side  of  it,  and  there  is  a  three -light 
window  in  the  wall  above  it.    The  chapter-house 
is  divided  into  three  bays,  in  each  of  which  is  a 
group  of  three  tall  lancets,  but  there  is  no  window 
in  the  west  bay  on  the  south  side,  because  this  is 
against  another  building  ;  and  in  the  corresponding 
bay  on  the  north  side,  for  a  similar  reason,  there 
are  only  two  lights  instead  of  three.    There  are  five 
lights  in  the  east  wall.    A  delightful  feature  of  the 
side  windows  is  the  series  of  detached  triplet  shafts, 
standing  opposite  to  each  of  the  mullions,  to  which 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  199 

they  are  tied  half-way  up.  The  walking  way  passes 
between  mullions  and  shafts.  The  vaulting  springs 
from  triple  shafts,  somewhat  resembling  those  at 
Furness,  but  with  carved  capitals,  and  resting  on 
carved  brackets  at  the  level  of  the  string  course 
under  the  windows.  There  is  a  centre  vaulting-rib 
which  is  lacking  at  Oxford.  The  room  is  used  as 
the  library,  and  the  book-shelves  were  formerly 
placed  on  the  north-east  and  south  walls.  They 
now  stand  out  from  the  walls  at  right  angles  to 
them.  At  the  east  end  is  a  great  carved  oaken  pew, 
originally  placed  in  the  nave  of  the  cathedral  by 
Bishop  Bridgeman  in  1637.  The  vestibule  is  a 
charming  room  of  three  bays  each  way,  the  pillars 
having  no  capitals,1  the  mouldings  running  uninter- 
ruptedly from  the  base  to  the  vault.  In  the  south 
wall  are  two  deep  recesses,  as  though  intended  for 
presses.  The  west  doorway  from  the  cloister  and 
the  windows  on  either  side  of  it  have  been  much 
restored.  There  is  also  a  south  doorway  leading 
into  the  cathedral,  and  a  north  one  leading  into 
the  "  Maiden  Aisle  "  or  slype.  The  dorter  was  over 
the  vestibule,  and  Mr.  G.  G.  Scott  is  now  making 
some  much-needed  restoration  in  that  part  of  the 
cloisters.  Several  interesting  discoveries  have 
been  made,  which,  however,  do  not  come  within 
the  purview  of  this  paper.2 

Manchester.—  This  is  a  small  octagonal  chapter- 
house with  a  diameter  of  only  18  feet.  Its  present 
design  is  probably  due  to  Bishop  Stanley  (1485- 
1520),  and  the  entrance  is  probably  his  work.  Four 
steps  in  a  deep  recess  in  the  south  choir  aisle,  the 
sides  and  soffit  of  which  are  covered  with  Perpen- 
dicular panelling  in  stone,  lead  up  to  the  double 
doorway  of  four  orders,  with  lateral  shafts  having 

1  Cf.  the  chapter-house  at  Buildwas,  or  the  vestibule  at  Wtst- 
minster,  where  the  pillars  have  capitals. 
a  See  Chester  Courant,  Oct.  23,  19 12. 


200        Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


moulded  and  battlemented  caps.  Above  the  doors 
the  wall  is  carved  with  sunk  Perpendicular  panelling 
like  that  on  the  sides.  Within  the  doors  is  a  small 
intervening  space  before  the  entrance  to  the  octagon. 
This  is  without  central  pillar,  and  is  lighted  by  four 
Perpendicular  windows  set  on  the  outer  side,  the 
other  three  sides  being  merely  filled  with  sunk 
tracery.  There  is  a  fireplace  to  the  right  of  the 
entrance,  and  a  seat  runs  round  five  of  the  other 
sides,  a  chair  for  the  bishop  or  dean  being  set  in 
the  south  side,  opposite  the  entrance  on  the  north. 
The  space  between  the  seat  and  the  window  bottoms 
is  panelled  in  oak,  and  the  roof  is  a  modern  oak 
vault,  from  the  centre  of  which  hangs  a  chandelier. 
A  door  now  opens  from  the  chapter-house  into  the 
library,  which  is  situated  to  the  west  of  it.  It  will 
thus  be  seen  that  the  arrangements  in  this  small 
chapter-house  are  quite  modern.  The  steep  conical 
roof  is  entirely  modern,  and  "  it  is  uncertain  whether 
such  a  roof  originally  existed." 1    The  first  warden, 

"  Huntington,  seems  to  have  built  a  chapter-house  here,  which, 
according  to  some  evidence  quoted  in  Mr.  Worthington's  book 
on  the  cathedral,  was  octagonal  as  at  present.  The  foundations, 
however,  of  part  of  a  square  building  are  said  to  have  been  found 
here,  and  are  claimed  as  Huntington's  chapter-house,  and  it  can 
only  be  said  that,  no  further  investigation  being  at  present  pos- 
sible, the  question  must  be  left  a  contested  point."  2 

The  Manchester  chapter-house  is  interesting  partly 
on  account  of  its  small  size,  and  also  as  being  one 
of  the  few  chapter-houses  built  in  Perpendicular 
times,  and  the  only  one  now  remaining  in  use.  The 
destroyed  house  at  Whalley  was  another,  and  also 
that  at  St.  Bartholomew's,  Smithfield  ;  the  finest 
remaining  in  England  being  that  at  Howden,  which 
is  octagonal.,  like  Manchester,  but  25  feet  in  dia- 
meter. The  Carlisle  chapter-house  was  built  between 

1  Builder,  April  I,  1893,  p.  252. 

2  V.C.H.  Lancashire,  vol.  iv.  p.  190. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  201 

1 284  and  1327.  It  was  also  an  octagon,  with  a  conical 
roof  shown  in  a  view  taken  in  Queen  Elizabeth's 
time.  It  had  a  vestibule,  and  measured  £.28  feet  in 
diameter.  The  Elgin  chapter-house  was  rebuilt 
c.  1462-76.  It,  too,  was  octagonal  (diameter,  c. 
33  feet  and  a  central  pillar)  with  vestibule,  and  is 
very  interesting.  In  Perpendicular  times  several 
large  chapter-houses  were  renewed  in  their  upper 
parts,  as  e.g.  Canterbury,  Worcester,  Exeter,  and 
Gloucester. 

Birkenhead  Priory  (Benedictine)  has  been  dealt 
with  in  papers  read  before  this  Society  by  Mr.  Charles 
Aldridge  (20th  March  1890),  and  Mr.  A.  M. 
Robinson  (Trans.  1904),  and  also,  on  a  larger 
scale,  by  Messrs.  Mason  and  Hunt  in  a  volume 
published  by  J.  H.  Parker  in  1854.  From  this 
latter  (p.  11)  we  quote  the  following  description 
of  the  chapter-house : 

"  It  is  an  oblong  building  of  two  stories,  the  lower  story  vaulted 
with  stone,  and  by  far  the  most  ancient  part  of  the  priory.  The 
arches  of  the  vaulting  are  semicircular,  with  rounded  ribs,  between 
which  a  huge  horse-shoe  arch  stretches  in  the  centre  from  side  to 
side,  the  stones  of  which  are  plain,  square,  and  massive,  and  rest 
upon  solid  piers,  with  Early  Norman  capitals.  A  screen  has  been 
formerly  fixed  into  deep  incisions  made  in  the  sides  of  these  piers, 
and  has  divided  the  room  into  equal  parts.  The  western  division 
or  ante-room  communicated  with  the  church  [?]  by  an  arch  now 
filled  up,  and  with  the  quadrangle  by  a  doorway  between  two 
windows  yet  remaining.  The  inner  apartment  or  chapter-room 
is  lighted  by  these  windows,  two  of  which  are  in  the  style  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  but  the  third,  on  the  eastern  [surely  south] 
side,  is  coeval  with  the  rest  of  this  part,  being  short,  narrow,  and 
round-headed." 

The  room  is  roofed  in  two  bays  (quadripartite 
vaulting).  The  wall  piers  from  which  springs  the 
round  transverse  arch  in  the  middle  of  the  roof 
are  each  made  up  of  three  round  engaged  columns.1 
There  is  no  evidence  to  show  when  the  incision 


1  Cf.  some  at  Wenlock  chapter-house. 


202         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

was  made  for  the  screen,  but  we  may  be  sure  it 
was  long  after  the  chapter-house  was  built,  and 
that  this  was  originally  intended  to  be  a  single 
room.  It  measures  only  38  feet  6  inches  by  18  feet. 
The  chapter-house  is  on  the  north  side  of  the  church. 
It  probably  dates  from  soon  after  the  foundation  of 
the  priory  c.  1 1 50,  and  the  upper  story,  possibly  a 
scriptorium,  was  added  c.  1420,  or  when  the  Perpen- 
dicular windows  were  inserted  in  the  chapter-house. 
Buck's  view  of  1727  shows  the  west  door  of  the 
chapter-house  with  the  window  on  either  side  of  it 
much  as  they  are  at  present,  but  there  is  no  trace 
of  them  in  the  view  in  King's  Vale  Royal,  1656, 
which  shows  only  a  blank  wall.  That  is  probably 
a  mistake.  The  building  is  in  a  neglected  condition 
at  the  present  time,  but  it  is  a  treasure  which  ought 
carefully  to  be  preserved.  It  should  at  least  be 
cleaned  out,  and  have  the  windows  made  good.  If 
the  remains  of  the  fittings  of  the  post- Reformation 
chapel  could  be  cleared  away,  the  broken  boards  of 
the  floor  removed,  and  the  vault  and  walls  freed 
from  the  colour-wash  which  disfigures  them,  the 
place  would  immediately  look  more  like  itself.  It 
would  make  a  charming  chapel  for  daily  service, 
but  it  is  greatly  to  be  hoped  that,  if  any  4 'restora- 
tion" should  be  attempted,  it  will  be  thoroughly 
conservative,  as  was  the  work  done  by  the  Society, 
under  the  supervision  of  the  late  Mr.  E.  W.  Cox, 
in  1897. 

Cockersand. — The  chapter-house  at  Cockersand 
deserves  a  special  mention  here.  It  is  compara- 
tively but  little  known.  Hundreds  of  men  who 
have  seen  Chester,  Birkenhead,  Furness,  and  Man- 
chester have  never  even  heard  of  Cockersand,  and 
yet  in  some  ways  Cockersand  is  far  and  away  the 
most  interesting  of  the  five.  It  is  the  only  building 
which  remains  of  the  Premonstratensian  abbey 
which  once  ranked  third  in  revenue  of  all  the  Lanca- 


PLAN  OF  COCKERSAND  CHAPTER-HOUSE 

Scale  8^  feet  to  i  inch. 
Mr.  T.  W.  Barrow,  1903-4. 


204        Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

shire  religious  houses.  A  hermit's  cell  (Hugh  the 
Hermit)  and  lepers  hospital  was  established  on  the 
same  site  some  ten  years  before  the  abbey  was 
founded  in  1190,  on  a  spit  of  land  between  the 
rivers  Lune  and  Cocker,  and  most  writers  speak 
of  the  barren  character  of  the  site.  Leland  says 
it  stands  "  veri  blekely  and  object  to  al  Wynddes,"1 
and  Dr.  Whitaker2  says  he  would  add  to  Leland, 
"  object  to  all  waves."  He  says  that  the  waves 
sometimes  wash  out  the  dead  from  the  cemetery 
and  leave  their  bones  to  whiten  on  the  neighbouring 
beach.  He  speaks  of  the  "  dull  and  cheerless  " 
precincts,  "hardly  consistent  with  the  ordinary  com- 
fort even  of  monastic  seclusion."  But  in  all  prob- 
ability, though  Cockersand  must  always  be  a  dull 
place  on  a  rainy  or  foggy  day,  there  are  many 
worse  places  on  a  fine  one.  Across  the  rich  moss- 
land  behind  the  abbey  rise  the  hills  beyond.  What 
is  now  Fleetwood  and  Blackpool  lies  to  the  left  as 
you  look  out  to  sea,  and  Heysham  and  Morecambe 
to  the  right,  and  on  a  clear  day,  right  across  the 
dancing  waters  of  Morecambe  Bay,  are  visible  the 
fascinating  mountains  of  Lakeland.  The  Cocker- 
sand  canons  could  generally  lift  up  their  eyes  to 
the  hills.  On  many  days  in  the  year  nothing 
could  be  pleasanter.  It  is  sometimes  spoken  of  as 
very  out-of-the-way.  It  is  certainly  out-of-the-way 
now,  nearly  an  hour's  walk  from  Glasson  station, 
where  there  are  daily  only  four  trains  from  and  to 
Lancaster.  But  in  all  probability  it  was  much  more 
in  the  world  in  earlier  days.  Lancaster  was  a  place 
of  considerable  importance,  and  Cockersand  was  only 
about  six  miles  distant  from  it.  As  a  matter  of  fact 
it  was  much  more  in  the  world  than  was  Furness, 
and  consequently  the  objection  that  the  Lancaster 
stalls  (which  a  long  tradition  connects  with  Cocker- 

1  Qu.  Baines,  Lancashire,  iv.  542. 

2  History  of  Richmondshire,  pp.  334  ff. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  205 


sand)  could  scarcely  have  come  from  such  an  out- 
of-the-way  place  as  Cockersand,  and  were  much 
more  likely  to  have  come  from  Furness,  falls  to 
the  ground.  Dr.  Whitaker,  writing  in  1823,1  says: 
"  I  should  be  happy  to  mention  the  stalls  of  Lan- 
caster Church  as  among  the  spoils  of  Cockersand  ; " 
but,  though  he  thought  it  not  at  all  improbable, 
he  decided  that  "it  can  at  this  time  be  merely 
matter  of  conjecture."  He  was  less  cautious  with 
regard  to  the  Mitton  screen,  and  there  he  probably 
made  a  mistake.  One  thing  is  certain,  that  the 
convent  which  built  the  Cockersand  chapter-house, 
in  the  thirteenth  century,  was  quite  capable,  unless 
it  had  greatly  deteriorated  in  the  interval,  of  build- 
ing the  Lancaster  stalls  in  the  fourteenth.  Good  as 
is  the  stall  work,  the  chapter-house  is  quite  as  good 
in  its  way. 

A  very  interesting  account  of  the  convent  is  to 
be  found  in  vol.  ii.  of  the  Victoria  County  History 
of  Lancaster  by  Professor  Tait.  But  he  does  not 
deal  with  the  buildings.  Dr.  Whitaker  {History 
of  Richmondshire)  has  an  interesting  account  of 
both  convent  and  buildings.  Dugdale,  Monasticon, 
prints  several  charters.  The  Chetham  Society  has 
reprinted  the  Chartulary  of  Cockersand  Abbey, 
with  valuable  notes,  by  Mr.  William  Farrer.2 

Bishop  Tanner  (Notitia  Monastica,  1744)  gives 

1  History  of  Richmondshire. 

2  "  The  Chartulary,  or  Register  of  Charters,  and  other  legal  instru- 
ments belonging  to  the  Abbey  of  Cockersand,  is  a  volume  containing 
166  leaves  of  parchment,  measuring  8  in.  by  \  \\  in.,  written  on  both 
sides  of  the  leaf  in  very  clear,  bold,  round  handwriting,  of  the  style 
usual  to  the  thirteenth  century.  We  learn  from  an  introductory 
paragraph  on  folio  $b  that  the  volume  was  compiled  by  Brother 
Robert  de  Lachford  during  the  years  1267-8,  and  in  the  first 
instance  contained  abstracts  of  all  the  charters  of  the  house  extant 
in  the  former  year."  There  were  later  entries.  "  It  is,  however, 
noticeable  that  very  few  belong  to  a  later  period  than  the  end  of 
the  thirteenth  century."  But  many  other  charters,  &c,  must  have 
existed  at  the  Dissolution  in  1539;  William  Farrer,  Chartulary  oj 
Cockersand  Abbey,  pp.  xv,  xvi. 


206         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

many  references  to  sources  of  information  about 
Cockersand,  but  gives  no  information  about  the 
buildings.  Baines1  has  a  short  account  of  the 
place.  The  late  Mr.  W.  O.  Roper  wrote  a  paper 
on  Cockersand,2  which  is  especially  interesting  on 
account  of  a  long  quotation  from  the  Duchy  of 
Lancaster  Records,  Misc.  bundle  G,  No.  10,  the 
report  of  the  visitors  of  1537.  In  the  Architectural 
Review  of  June  191 1  is  yet  another  paper  on 
Cockersand  by  Mr.  Alfred  W.  Clapham.  Both 
Mr.  Roper  and  Mr.  Clapham  give  a  ground  plan 
of  the  chapter-house  (Mr.  Roper's  is  incorrect  in  the 
matter  of  the  vaulting)  and  its  surroundings,  and 
both  mark  upon  the  plan  a  vestibule  to  the  west 
of  the  chapter-house.  At  present  this  can  be 
merely  a  matter  of  conjecture.  A  little  careful 
excavation  might  soon  settle  the  point.  Dr. 
Whitaker  speaks  of  the  chapter-house  as  "  indeed 
a  gem,"  and  he  is  perfectly  right.  So  far  as  the 
exterior  goes  the  interest  is  to  a  great  extent  gone, 
for  the  building  has,  on  its  north,  south,  and  east 
sides,  been  recased  with  stone,  and  cement  has  also 
been  largely  used.  The  west  front  has  escaped  to 
a  great  extent,  but  it  is  not  altogether  easy  to  read 
its  riddle.  It  lessens  in  thickness  some  5  feet  from 
the  ground.  In  the  centre  of  it  is  an  archway, 
circular  headed  and  moulded,  much  weather-worn, 
with  nook  shafts  on  either  side,  of  which  only  the 
capitals  are  now  to  be  seen.  This  archway  has 
been  walled  up  and  a  door  inserted  in  the  centre 
of  it.  Through  this  we  pass  into  a  building,  which 
in  all  important  matters  is  as  perfect  as  when  its 
builders  completed  it  nearly  seven  centuries  ago. 
The  windows  have  been  greatly  altered,  so  that 
it  is  impossible  to  say  what  they  originally  were. 
On  the  north  side  the  window  has  still  a  trefoil 

1  Hist,  of  Lanes. ,  vol.  iv.  542. 

3  Trans.  Lanes,  and  Chesh.  Antiquarian  Society \  vol.  iv.  1886. 


208 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


head,  which  Mr.  Clapham  speaks  of  as  of  very 
doubtful  date.  It  was  much  tampered  with  when 
the  Dalton  monument  was  inserted  in  1819.  But 
it  was  there  in  18 18,  as  appears  from  a  drawing  in 
vol.  v.  of  the  Antiquarian  Cabinet^  published  in 
that  year.    Dr.  Whitaker,1  writing  in  1823,  says: 

"The  windows,  though  broader  than  those  generally  seen  in 
the  lancet  style,  are  undivided  by  mullions;  but  each  arch 
encloses  a  broad  trefoil." 

This  was  a  mistake.  Then,  as  now,  the  trefoil 
head  was  to  be  found  in  one  arch  only.  It  may 
originally  have  been  in  all,  and  probably  was,  and 
it  is  possible,  or  even  probable,  that  it  is  only  a 
part  of  the  inner  arch  of  the  window,2  and  that  the 
window  itself  was  either  a  single  lancet  or  double 
lancets  under  one  arch.3  The  present  exterior  walls 
afford  no  clue.  Each  window  had  two  shafts  on 
either  side  —  one  engaged,  which  is  there  still 
(printed  on  plan),  and  one  round,  free.  Of  these 
latter  only  the  capitals  and  the  buried  bases  remain. 
The  window  arches  are  richly  moulded.  The  two 
shallower  recesses  on  either  side  of  the  entrance 
were  probably  always  only  recesses.  There  were 
windows  in  the  other  five  sides  of  the  octagon. 

1  Hist,  of  Richmondshire. 

2  That  might  well  be  so,  since  the  walls  are  3  feet  thick,  and  the 
trefoiled  arch  is  set  only  about  18  inches  from  the  face  of  the  inner 
wall,  thus  leaving  plenty  of  room  for  the  splay  of  the  window,  which 
would  be  set  near  to  the  face  of  the  outside  wall.  In  his  Gothic 
Architecture  (pp.  512,  513)  Mr.  F.  Bond  deals  with  this  rear  arch,  or 
Scoinson  arch,  as  Professor  Willis  called  it.  He  says  that  much  care 
was  given  to  it.  Sometimes  it  was  chamfered,  sometimes  richly 
moulded,  the  mouldings  sometimes  being  made  to  die  into  the 
jambs,  sometimes  descending  to  the  sill,  sometimes  stopped  by  a 
corbel,  and  sometimes  supported  by  a  shaft.  He  mentions  that  in 
the  north  aisle  of  the  choir  of  Worcester  (thirteenth-century  work) 
the  arch  is  cusped.  Cf.  the  central  light  of  east  window  of  Hereford 
Lady  Chapel  (Fergusson,  Hist,  of  Arch.,  ii.  15).  If  we  are  right  in 
our  conjecture,  at  Cockersand  we  have  a  particularly  rich  arrange- 
ment, the  arch  mouldings  being  very  intricate,  and  supported  by  two 
shafts,  and  the  trefoiled  arch  in  addition  to  these. 

8  Compare  a  window  at  Stone. 


WINDOW  AT  STONE 


0 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  209 


Mr.  Clapham  describes  the  "fine  vaulted  roof 
springing  from  the  central  column,  and  forming  on 
plan  four  quadripartite  bays."    He  says  : 

"  This  arrangement  is  very  unusual,  as  it  throws  the  window 
openings  out  of  the  true  centre  of  the  vaulting  cells  above  them. 
There  is,  however,  no  apparent  awkwardness  in  the  result.  The 
central  pier  is  formed  of  eight  clustered  and  engaged  shafts, 
keeled  on  the  outward  face  and  having  each  a  moulded  cap, 
the  bell  of  which  is  ornamented  with  the  stiff-leaf  foliage  of  the 
Early  English  period.  The  vaulting  ribs,  consisting  of  three 
main  members,  divided  by  deep  hollows,  are  all  of  similar 
section,  except  the  wall  ribs,  which  are  formed  with  a  simple 
hollow  only.  At  the  intersections  are  foliage  bosses,  four  in 
number,  of  excellent  workmanship." 

The  hood-moulds  of  the  window  arches  spring  from 
heads,  as  at  Stone  and  elsewhere,  some  of  which  are 
much  mutilated,  and  from  these  heads  down  to  a  stop 
in  the  base  runs  a  hollow  chamfer,  as  at  Lacock,  which 
has  a  good  effect.  The  heads  are  all  those  of  males, 
with  one  exception.  There  is  a  family  likeness 
amongst  them,  the  good  square  chin  being  especially 
noticeable,  and  also  the  ear-flaps  with  which  most 
of  their  head-coverings  are  provided.  It  is  possible 
that  some  of  them  may  represent  the  heads  of  some 
of  the  canons  living  in  the  abbey  at  the  time  they 
were  cut.  On  the  whole,  though  by  no  means 
rude,  the  heads  are  less  artistic  than  the  four  foliage 
bosses  of  the  roof  and  the  cap  of  the  central  pier. 
These  are  very  graceful.  Mixed  with  the  foliage 1 
on  the  central  pier  are  three  heads,  admirably  cut. 
The  two  on  the  south  side  are  looking  down,  and 
the  one  on  the  north  side  looks  straight  out,  as  if 
proud  of  the  beautiful  curl  of  hair  which  lies  upon 
his  forehead.  The  triple-shafted  (two  shafts  round, 
and  the  middle  one  pointed  on  plan)  angle  piers 
and  the  shafts  of  the  window  arches  have  moulded 

1  There  seems  to  be  a  different  character  in  the  foliage  on  the 
north  side  of  the  cap  from  that  on  the  south  side.  Cf.  the  illustrations 
of  the  two. 

O 


210         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

caps,  of  which  the  mouldings  are  at  times  some- 
what irregular,  as  though  worked  by  rule  of  thumb 
rather  than  by  accurate  measure.  The  entrance 
arch  is  very  simply  moulded.  The  whole  interior 
is  of  glorious  red  sandstone,  which,  however,  has 
been  thickly  covered  with  a  grey  wash,  imaginary 
joints  being  put  in  in  a  brown  colour.  This  is,  of 
course,  a  great  disfigurement,  but  it  is  quite  possible 
that  it  may  have  helped  to  preserve  the  place.  At 
any  rate  it  has  furnished  an  easy  surface  for  hundreds 
of  names  of  visitors  scribbled  upon  it.  Not  many 
names  have  been  cut  into  the  stone.  Some  of  the 
carving  and  fine  moulded  work  has  suffered  badly, 
partly  at  the  hands  of  visiting  ruffians,  and  partly, 
no  doubt,  simply  from  natural  decay.  Some  of  the 
vaulting  on  the  east  side  seems  badly  shaken,  and 
should  be  carefully  attended  to  at  once.  If  it  were 
allowed  to  fall,  or  to  become  still  more  decayed, 
the  misfortune  from  the  antiquarian  and  architec- 
tural point  of  view  would  be  considerable.  For  the 
building  is,  to  quote  yet  again  Dr.  Whitaker's 
words,  u  indeed  a  gem,"  of  which  all  possible  care 
ought  to  be  taken.  It  is  a  beautiful  thing  in  itself, 
and  it  is  especially  interesting  as  being,  in  all 
probability  at  any  rate,  one  of  the  earliest  of  our 
few  polygonal  chapter-houses,  and,  I  think,  the 
only  unused  one  which  still  retains  its  vault.  The 
round  entrance  arch  tells  of  an  early  date.  The 
three  great  arches  before  the  Furness  vestibule  are 
round,  but  they  are  undoubtedly  Early  English  and 
not  Norman,  for  they  have  the  dog-tooth  moulding. 
The  Cockersand  arch  lacks  this.    It  is  true  that 

"  the  round  arch,  so  characteristic  of  the  Romanesque,  lingered 
on  in  some  districts,  as  in  Rutland  and  the  adjoining  parts  of 
Northamptonshire  and  Leicestershire,  long  after  the  detail  of  the 
Early  English  work  had  been  generally  adopted,  and  it  is  found 
in  conjunction  with  mouldings  and  foliage  of  the  thirteenth 
century.1 


1  Day,  Gothic  Architecture,  p.  6. 


COCKERSAND.— ENTRANCE  ARCH  AND  SPRINGING  OF  ARCH 
NEAR;   ALSO  OF  ARCH  OF  RECESS  ON  N.  SIDE 


COCKERSAND.— FEMALE  HEAD  AND  CAPITALS  OF 
NOOK-SHAFTS 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  211 

But  the  Cockersand  arch  looks  earlier  than  the 
other  work,  and,  especially  since  the  west  wall  in 
which  it  stands  is  as  wide  as  the  whole  building, 
inclines  one  to  wonder  whether  the  original  inten- 
tion was  to  build  a  rectangular  house,  of  which  the 
western  wall  was  actually  begun.  We  have  seen 
at  Liverpool  the  foundation  of  a  rectangular  house 
put  in,  and  there  altered  to  carry  an  octagon.  So 
it  might  have  been  at  Cockersand.  The  date  of 
the  foundation  of  the  abbey  is  11 90,  and  in  all 
probability  the  buildings  were  begun  before  many 
years  had  elapsed.  But,  unfortunately,  with  the 
exception  of  the  chapter-house;  all  the  buildings 
have  been  swept  away,  so  that  in  trying  to  fix  the 
date  of  the  chapter-house  we  can  get  no  help  from 
them.  Neither  is  there,  so  far  as  we  can  ascer- 
tain, any  documentary  evidence.  We  are  therefore 
thrown  back  upon  the  building  itself,  and  it  inclines 
us  to  think  that  it  cannot  be  later  than  Lincoln 
chapter-house,  with  which  in  its  mouldings  and 
carving  it  has  much  in  common.  That  would  give 
us  c.  1225  as  the  date  of  its  commencement.  This 
is  a  not  unlikely  date  when  we  take  into  con- 
sideration the  fact  that  the  thirteenth  century,  and 
especially  its  earlier  half,  was  a  time  of  great  pros- 
perity for  Cockersand.  Its  possessions  increased 
as  the  years  went  on.  Dr.  Whitaker 1  gives  a  list, 
from  the  Coucher-book  preserved  at  Thurnham 
Hall,  made  by  James  Skypton,  the  cellarer  in 
1 501,  from  which  it  appears  that  in  that  year  the 
abbey  had  no  less  than  487  tenants,  rendering  per 
annum  204  capons,  442  hens,  and  £222,  12s.  ofd. 
in  money.  It  had  also  350  nativi  or  bondmen. 
The  copy  of  its  Chartulary,  transcribed  and  edited 
by  Mr.  Farrer,  fills  seven  volumes  of  the  Chetham 
Society's  Publications,2  and,  on  looking  over  these, 

1  Hist,  of  Richmondshire,  p.  332. 

8  Vols,  xxxviii..  xxxix..  xl„  xliii.,  Ivi.,  lvii.,  Ixiv.,  N.S. 


212         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

one  cannot  but  notice  the  number  of  gifts  which 
came  to  the  abbey  in  the  first  half  of  the  thirteenth 
century  : 

"The  grants  of  land  made  each  year  after  this  date  [12 15] 
reached  a  very  considerable  number,  probably  forty  or  fifty, 
until  the  Statute  of  Mortmain  in  1279  put  a  check  upon  the 
gift  of  land  to  religious  houses.  The  Register  speaks  eloquently 
of  the  sentimental  piety  of  the  Lancashire  people  of  the  thirteenth 
century." 1 

So  that  they  might  well  be  able  to  afford  to  begin 
to  build  this  lovely  chapter-house  as  early  as  1225. 
If  we  are  right  in  our  conjecture,  the  interest  of 
the  building  is  largely  increased.  Cockersand  was 
an  offshoot  from  Croxton  in  Leicestershire,  where, 
as  we  have  already  seen,  the  chapter-house  was 
rectangular.  How  came  this  out-of-the-way  abbey 
in  the  north  to  be,  with  Lincoln  in  the  east,  one 
of  the  first  to  adopt  the  polygonal  plan  ?  Was 
there  any  connection  between  the  two?  Is  it  at  all 
possible  that  they  had  the  same  architect  ?  At  any 
rate  the  Cockersand  chapter-house  remains  with 
its  surpassing  interest.  The  chapter- house  at 
Furness  may  have  been  in  building  at  the  same 
time  or  somewhat  later,  but  there  the  plan  is 
rectangular.  The  diameter  of  the  Cockersand 
house  is  c.  30  feet,  just  that  of  Bolton,  built 
c.  1 272-1 327,  and  also  an  octagon.  It  was  thus  but 
a  small  building  as  compared  with  Lincoln  (diameter 
60  feet +  42  feet)  or  Salisbury  (diameter  58  feet +  52 
feet),  or  Westminster  (diameter  60  feet-f-*:.  54  feet). 
Its  diameter  is  rather  less  than  that  of  Southwell, 
though  that  was  38  feet  11  inches  in  height.  It 
was  wider  than  the  narrower  width  of  the  oblong 
octagon  at  Lichfield  (44  feet  10  inches  x  26  feet  8 
inches),  and,  like  Lichfield,  it  had  an  upper  story, 

1  Chartulary,  Introduction,  vol.  i.,  part  1,  p.  xiv. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  213 

which  was  used  as  the  scriptorium.1  In  internal 
height  the  Cockersand  chapter-house  more  nearly- 
approached  that  at  Lichfield  than  any  other  of  the 
other  great  examples  mentioned.  Lichfield  is  23 
feet  high,  and  Cockersand  was  about  16  feet.  We 
are  very  glad  to  be  able  to  give  this  measurement. 
Hitherto  all  writers  on  Cockersand  have  been 
content  to  point  out  that,  in  consequence  of  the 
use  of  the  house  as  the  burial-place  of  the  Dalton 
family,  the  present  floor  of  the  building  is,  unfortu- 
nately, much  higher  than  it  originally  was.  But 
until  the  level  of  the  real  floor  is  ascertained  it  is 
impossible  to  know  the  proportions  of  the  place 
as  it  was  when  in  use.  One  only  feels,  as  one 
enters  the  building  now,  that  one  is  in  a  building  the 
beauty  of  which  has  been  greatly  lessened  by  the 
untoward  raising  of  its  floor  level.  Dr.  Whitaker 
(History  of  Richmondshire)  put  it  that 

"the  proportions  and  beauty  of  the  interior  are  in  a  great 
measure  lost  by  the  elevation  of  the  floor  occasioned  by  successive 
interments." 

One  feels  that  at  once.  We  therefore  asked 
permission  of  Mr.  Dalton  to  make  a  few  careful 
excavations.  This  was  most  kindly  granted,  and 
on  Monday,  November  11,  19 12,  we  spent  some 
five  hours  in  the  chapter-house.  The  time  was  all 
too  short,  but  we  were  able  to  sink  three  wide 
holes,  one  to  the  base  of  the  central  pier,  one  to 
the  bottom  of  the  wall  by  an  angle  pier,  and  one 
to  the  threshold  of  the  entrance  archway.  We 
began  with  this  latter.  Seventeen  inches  below  the 
surface  we  came  to  the  base  of  the  nookshaft. 
Six  inches  lower,  that  is  23  inches  from  the  surface, 
we  reached  the  level  of  the  threshold,  a  stone 
5  inches  thick  being  placed  under  the  nookshaft. 

1  Roper,  "Cockersand  Abbey,"  in  Trans.  Lanes,  and  Chesh.  Ant. 
Society,  vol.  iv.  In  1527  the  scriptorium  had  52  books  in  it,  and  there 
were  54  more  in  an  aumbry  in  the  cloister. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  215 

At  the  central  pier  we  found  the  beginning  of 
the  base  18  inches  below  the  present  surface. 
Seventeen  inches  lower  we  reached  the  underside 
of  the  stone  (4I  inches  thick)  on  which  the  pier 
stands,  and  there  we  found  water.  The  original 
floor  level  was  probably  about  the  top  of  this 
foundation  stone,  i.e.  c.  31  inches  below  the  present 
surface,  and  this  must  be  added  to  the  13  feet  or 
thereabouts  of  the  present  height,  thus  making  the 
real  height  nearly  16  feet.  We  found  the  bases 
of  the  angle  pier  and  window-shafts  only  a  few 
inches  beneath  the  present  surface,  and  we  followed 
the  wall  down  to  about  3  feet  8  inches  in  all.  We 
had  hoped  for  the  help  of  an  architect  friend  to 
measure  and  sketch  our  discoveries,  but,  through 
a  sudden  attack  of  illness,  he  was  prevented  from 
coming.  We  had  therefore  to  do  the  best  we  could 
without  him,  and  the  work  below  the  angle  pier 
was  too  much  for  us  in  the  time  we  had  at  our 
disposal ;  more  digging  was  necessary.  That,  in 
detail,  must  therefore  be  left  for  future  excavation, 
but  in  all  probability  further  digging  will  reveal  a 
bench-table  running  round  the  building — we  found 
what  seemed  to  suggest  this — and  also  masonry 
of  some  depth  below  the  windows  and  the  bases 
of  the  angle  piers.  The  bottom  of  the  windows 
was  less  than  3  feet  from  the  floor.  We  much 
regret  that  we  have  to  leave  this  part  in  this  vague 
way.  But  it  was  a  great  satisfaction  to  see  the 
beautiful  central  pier  with  its  perfect  proportions 
once  more  laid  bare  after  being  buried  for  some 
centuries.  It  went  to  one's  heart  to  shovel  in  the 
fine  red  earth  again,  and  to  replace  the  flags.  One 
can  only  hope  that  ere  long  the  buried  work  may 
again  be  laid  bare  for  all  to  see.  Anything  like 
u  restoration  "  of  this  architectural  "  gem  "  would 
be  quite  out  of  place.  But  the  floor  might  be 
taken  down  to  its  original  level  and  cemented  ;  the 


216         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


whitewash  cleared  away  from  the  walls  (with 
great  care  lest  the  carvings  and  mouldings  might 
be  injured) ;  heavy  plate-glass  inserted  in  three 


COCKERSAND  CHAPTER-HOUSE 

Scale  about  one-Jifth  full  size. 
Mr.  T.  W.  Barrow,  1903-4. 

windows  instead  of  the  present  wooden  shutters 
(one  window  lacks  this  protection),  so  as  to  exclude 
the  weather  and  unauthorised  visitors,  and  yet  to 
admit  the  light ;  the  vaulting  carefully  attended 
to  and  repaired  ;  and  finally  a  new  door  inserted 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  217 

in  the  place  of  the  present  imperfect  one — if  these 
improvements  could  be  carried  out,  and  the  cost 
of  them  could  not  be  great,  reverence  for  the 
dead  who  lie  beneath  the  surface  could  be  better 
maintained,  and  the  beauties  of  this  very  beautiful 
building  would  be  better  seen  and  appreciated.  The 
chapter-house  owes  much  to  the  fact  that  it  was 
used  as  the  burial-place  of  the  Dalton  family.  But 
for  that  it  might  easily  have  shared  the  fate  of  the 
rest  of  the  buildings,  or  of  its  sister  Premonstra- 
tensian  chapter-house  at  Alnwick,  which  is  said 
to  have  been  circular  and  25  feet  in  diameter,  but 
which  has  been  so  entirely  destroyed  that  its  very 
plan  is  a  matter  of  dispute.  The  Dalton  family 
have  preserved  for  us  this  treasure  so  far,  and 
we  owe  them  a  debt  of  gratitude.  This  would  be 
immensely  increased  if  the  improvements  we  have 
just  indicated  could  be  carried  out.  The  building 
is  so  great  a  county,  and  indeed  national,  treasure 
that  every  care  ought  to  be  taken  of  it.  When 
it  is  remembered  that  in  all  England  and  Wales 
there  were  only  some  twenty-five  of  these  circular 
or  polygonal  chapter-houses,  of  which  number  fifteen 
have  been  destroyed,  and  only  nine  others  are  as 
perfect  as  Cockersand,  one  can  better  estimate  the 
real  preciousness  of  the  chapter-house  here. 

The  detailed  plans  which  we  have  been  fortunate 
enough  to  obtain  to  illustrate  the  construction  of 
this  chapter-house  are  prize  drawings  by  Mr.  T.  W. 
Barrow,  formerly  of  Lancaster,  and  now  of  London. 

We  propose  to  give  in  an  appendix  the  leading 
particulars  of  some  of  our  chapter-houses,  which 
is  all  we  have  space  for.  We  will  conclude  this 
paper  with  some  remarks  upon  the  new 

Liverpool  Chapter- House. — It  is  one  of  the 
proud  distinctions  of  Liverpool  Cathedral  that  it 
will  start  life  with  its  Lady  chapel  and  chapter- 
house completed.     Not  unfrequently  has  it  hap- 


2i8         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

pened  that  our  cathedrals  have  had  to  wait  for 
many  years  for  these  subsidiary,  but  important 
buildings.  At  Liverpool,  as  at  Salisbury,  the  Lady 
chapel  was  the  portion  of  the  building  first  finished. 
But,  whereas  at  Salisbury  the  chapter  had  to  wait 
some  forty-eight  years  longer  for  their  chapter- 
house, at  Liverpool  probably  only  an  interval  of 
some  five  years  will  elapse  between  the  opening 
of  the  Lady  chapel  and  that  of  the  chapter- house. 
Moreover,  just  as  no  important  Lady  chapel, 
before  that  at  Liverpool,  was  built  in  England 
after  Henry  VI Is  Chapel  at  Westminster,  so  the 
Liverpool  chapter-house  is  (so  far  as  we  know)  the 
first  important  Gothic  chapter-house  erected  since 
that  at  Manchester  was  built  in  the  fifteenth  cen- 
tury. The  Lady  chapel  at  Liverpool  will  always 
stand  in  the  first  rank  of  Lady  chapels.  The 
chapter-house  will  probably  not  rank  anything  like 
so  high  amongst  English  chapter-houses.  And 
yet  it  will  be  a  noble  building,  and  worthy  of  its 
dedication,  and  of  its  position.  It  is  at  the  north- 
east corner  of  the  cathedral,1  and  is  approached 
from  the  north  choir  aisle,  or  from  the  ambulatory 
behind  the  high  altar,  through  a  small  vestibule. 
It  stands  upon  the  song  school,  just  as  at  Wells 
the  chapter-house  stands  upon  the  treasury,  and  it 
is  the  gift  of  the  Freemasons  of  the  province  of 
West  Lancashire,  given  in  memory  of  the  first 
Earl  of  Lathom,  their  former  grand  master.  The 
foundation-stone  was  laid  with  great  masonic  pomp  on 
July  17,  1906,  by  H.R.H.  the  Duke  of  Connaught. 
Its  final  cost  will  exceed  ,£10,000,  and  it  will  be, 
practically,  finished  in  191 3.  It  is  built,  like  the 
rest  of  the  cathedral,  of  local  red  sandstone  of  good 
colour.    It  is  octagonal  in  shape.    The  first  inten- 

1  Cf.  the  position,  exactly  similar,  of  the  chapter-house  at  Glasgow 
cathedral,  and  that  at  Elgin  cathedral.  Fergusson,  Hist  of  Arch., 
vol.  ii.  pp.  208,  211,  214. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  219 

tion  was  to  build  an  oblong  chapter-house,  and  the 
foundations  for  this  were  put  in.  But,  in  conse- 
quence of  a  happy  afterthought,  possibly  like  one 
at  Lincoln,  the  octagonal  shape  was  chosen  instead, 
for  which  we  have  every  reason  to  be  thankful. 
The  building  will  have  a  marble  floor,  2  feet  6 
inches  above  the  level  of  the  nave  floor,  and  a 
stone  bench  table  runs  round  the  walls,  after  the 
ancient  manner,  to  form  a  seat  for  the  canons. 
The  proportions  are  unusual,  the  diameter  being 
31  feet,  and  the  height  to  the  centre  of  the  dome 
61  feet.  The  Wells  chapter-house  is  62  feet  high, 
but  it  is  55  feet  in  diameter.  The  Southwell 
chapter-house  is  31  feet  in  diameter,  but  only 
38  feet  1 1  inches  high.  The  height  and  diameter 
at  York  are  67  feet  10  inches  and  57  feet;  at 
Westminster,  c.  54  feet  and  60  feet ;  at  Salisbury, 
52  feet  and  58  feet;  and  at  Lincoln,  42  feet  and 
60  feet.  The  Wells  chapter-house  is  the  nearest 
to  that  at  Liverpool  in  height,  but  its  width  is  only 
about  7  feet  less  than  its  height,  whereas  at  Liver- 
pool the  height  is  nearly  twice  the  width.  But 
one  great  characteristic  of  the  Liverpool  cathedral 
will  be  its  height,  though  in  consequence  of  the 
width  of  the  arches  of  the  arcade,  the  choir  may 
not  look  its  real  height.1  There  is  no  doubt  that 
the  chapter-house  will  look  lofty  enough ! 

Standing  on  the  floor  and  looking  up  we  see  that 
a  strong  and  well-moulded  arch  is  carried  to  and 
from  each  of  the  blank  walls  of  the  octagon,  each 
being  parallel  with  the  window-pierced  walls,  and 
several  feet  clear  of  them.  These  four  arches  spring, 
31  feet  from  the  floor,  from  the  face  of  the  wall 
without  the  intervention  of  any  carved  springers.2 

1  Cf.  Ruskin,  Mornings  in  Florence,  pp.  91-93. 

2  Cf.  those  in  the  Glastonbury  kitchen  (Pugin,  Excunples,  2nd  series), 
where,  however,  there  are  double  the  number,  and  they  spring  from 
the  angles  to  the  centre  of  the  roof,  and  have  more  the  character  of 
vaulting  ribs. 


220         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

They  first  form  a  square,  and  then  carry  a  circle, 
the  pendentives  being  built  up  with  slabs  of  stone. 
The  narrow  space  above  the  arches,  and  between 
them  and  the  outside  walls,  is  treated  after  the 
same  fashion.  At  the  circle  the  vault,  if  vault  it 
may  be  called,  opens  to  allow  of  a  walking-way,  the 
circle  being  22  feet  in  diameter,  53  feet  above  the 
floor.  A  traceried  balustrade,  4  feet  in  height, 
guards  this  walking  way,  which  is  over  3  feet  wide, 
and  is  on  much  the  same  level  as  another  outside. 
This  circular  walking-way  recalls  to  the  mind  the 
whispering  gallery  in  the  dome  of  St.  Paul's,  to 
compare  a  small  thing  with  a  great  one  ;  or  perhaps 
in  the  other  direction  comparison  might  be  made 
with  the  hole  in  the  centre  of  the  vault  of  the 
octagonal  prior's  kitchen  at  Durham,  or  with  that 
in  the  Glastonbury  kitchen.  Above  this  circular 
walking -way,  and  visible  through  the  opening, 
61  feet  from  the  floor,  is  a  flattened  dome,  which 
will  be  of  reinforced  concrete,  and  left  plain  for 
painting  or  mosaic  decoration.  On  the  exterior 
the  steep  conical  roof  covered  with  copper,  like  the 
Lady  chapel,  rises  to  a  point  ending  in  a  finial, 
the  top  of  which  will  be  92  feet  from  the  floor  of 
the  song  school. 

We  observe  in  this  chapter-house  several  de- 
partures, more  or  less  serious,  from  the  English 
tradition. 

(1)  The  walking- way  in  the  dome  may  or  may 
not  be  architecturally  and  artistically  an  improve- 
ment on  such  a  dome  as  we  have  at  York  or 
Southwell,  generally  considered  to  be  the  last  word 
in  chapter-house  roofing,  but  it  suggests  the  pos- 
sibility that  others  than  members  of  the  chapter 
may  be  able  to  hear  its  deliberations,  and  this 
somewhat  destroys  the  sense  of  the  privacy  which 
is  essential.  It  is  true  that  there  were  generally  in 
our  early  rectangular  monastic  chapter-house  un- 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  221 


glazed  window-like  openings  on  either  side  of  the 
door,  and  it  is  supposed  they  were  intended  to 
enable  visiting  members  of  the  order,  for  whom 
there  was  not  room  within  the  chapter-house,  to 
take  part  in  the  proceedings  ;  but  no  stranger  could 
approach  unperceived  (as  he  might  very  well  do  at 
Liverpool,  if  he  knew  the  tricks  of  the  wall  passages), 
for  before  the  proceedings  in  the  monastic  chapter- 
house began,  "  one  of  the  custodians  of  the  cloister 
went  round  to  see  that  all  the  doors  were  so  closed 
and  fastened,  that  no  one  could  enter  the  monastery 
precincts  during  the  time  of  the  chapter.1  The 
privacy  of  the  chapter-house  was  most  carefully 
maintained.  As  soon  as  the  abbot  said  Loquamur 
de  ordine  nostro,  the  novices  and  any  stranger 
religious  had  to  retire.  "  About  all  that  was  trans- 
acted in  this  part  of  the  daily  chapter  the  strictest 
silence  was  enjoined  .  .  .  the  secrets  of  the  religious 
family  are  its  own,  and  all  loyal  sons  would  desire 
to  keep  them  inviolate."2  There  is  every  reason 
to  believe  that  the  practice  in  cathedral  chapter- 
houses was  much  the  same  ;  at  any  rate  in  none 
of  our  polygonal  chapter-houses  do  the  side  open- 
ings occur,  and  when  once  the  door,  or  doors  (for 
they  were  generally  double)  were  shut,  the  outside 
world  was  entirely  excluded,  and  the  privacy  was 
absolute.3 

(2)  Again,  in  our  English  polygonal  chapter- 

1  Gasquet,  English  Monastic  Life,  p.  122.  At  Ely  "the  Parliator 
was  appointed  to  keep  the  chapter-house  door,  and  received  a  fee 
from  the  treasury,  which  was  charged  against  the  priory  in  the 
following  form  :— '  Soluti  parliatori  ex  conventions  pro  hostio  capituli 
tempore  quo  conventus  fuerit  in  capitulo  custodiendo  perann.  iiijs.'"  ; 
Treasurer's  Roll,  2  Hen.  VI,  1st  September  1423  ;  31st  August  1424  ; 
quoted  by  Stewart,  Ely  Cathedral,  p.  277. 

2  Gasquet,  op.  cit.,  p.  123. 

3  Cf.  a  quotation  in  Benson,  Cathedral,  p.  24.  u  Quinquaginta  et 
sex  canonici  cum  capite  suo  (sc.  bishop)  corpus  et  capitulum  con- 
stituunt ;  negotia  ecclesiae  et  secreta  [».£.]  tractant."  Cf.  also  the  line 
quoted  above  from  the  French  Life  of  King  Edwai'd,  "  where  his 
ordained  ministers  may  hold  their  secret  chapter." 


222         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

houses,  and  indeed  in  most  of  the  rectangular  ones, 
there  is  a  window  in  every  side  which  stands  free 
to  the  light.  The  "old  men,"  as  Pugin  lovingly 
calls  them,  did  not  hesitate  to  leave  a  window  out, 
or  to  block  one  up  where  a  window  would  have 
been  of  no  use.  We  have  a  near  instance  of  this 
at  Chester,  where  there  is  no  window  in  the  west 
bay  on  the  south  side,  and  there  is  a  two-light 
window  instead  of  a  three-light  in  the  corresponding 
bay  on  the  north  side.  An  even  better  example 
may  be  found  in  the  fragments  which,  alas,  alone 
remain  of  the  lovely  octagonal  chapter-house  at 
Thornton  Curtis.  There  four  sides  of  the  octagon 
are  blind,  though  covered  with  exquisite  tracery 
corresponding  with  the  windows,  because  buildings 
abutted  on  the  chapter-house,  and  made  windows 
useless.  So  no  windows  were  put.  But  wherever 
light  could  be  obtained  a  window  was  inserted. 
"  Light,  more  light "  seemed  to  be  the  motto  of 
the  ancient  chapter-house  builders,  and  they  filled 
their  many  windows  with  lovely  glass,  so  that  the 
chapter  might  do  its  work,  as  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury  at  a  Royal  Academy  dinner  lately 
suggested  it  would  be  well  for  others  to  do  theirs, 
in  the  presence  of  beautiful  things.  At  Liverpool 
every  other  wall  of  the  octagon  is  left  blank,  and 
the  blank  space  will,  in  the  interior,  be  filled  with  a 
large  shield  of  arms.  The  four  windows  (sills  13  feet 
3  inches  from  the  floor)  in  the  other  sides  are  ample 
ones  of  two  wide  lights,  four  figures  with  canopies 
being  carved  on  the  mullions,  and  the  building  will, 
no  doubt,  be  well  lighted,  though  very  little  light 
can  enter  by  the  window  over  the  entrance  door. 
The  "  old  men"  would  probably  have  blocked  this 
window,  or  have  filled  the  lower  part  of  it  with 
canopied  niches  and  statuary  as  they  did  at  Howden. 
But  they  would  certainly  have  put  a  window  into 
the  two  quasi-northern  sides  which  are  now  blank, 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  223 

and  they  would  have  done  well.  The  Liverpool 
arrangement  will  be  novel  in  England,  and  any- 
one coming  fresh  from  Lincoln  or  York  may  be 
pardoned,  if  he  hesitates  before  he  pronounces  it 
an  improvement.  Much  as  we  love  a  blank  wall  in 
its  proper  place,  we  cannot  admire  it  here,  either 
inside  or  out. 

(3)  Another  departure  from  precedent  is  to  be 
found  in  the  treatment  of  the  space  (9  feet  6  inches 
high)  between  the  bench  table  and  the  windows. 
This  is  left  quite  plain,  and  is  intended  to  be 
covered  by  oak  panelling  similar  to  that  already 
placed  in  the  vestries.  This  space  in  the  polygonal 
chapter-houses  was  generally  filled  in  with  canopies, 
or  quasi-canopies,  and  the  result,  often  very  beauti- 
ful and  decorative  in  itself,  was  practically  a  separate 
stall,  allotted  to  each  member  at  his  introduction 
into  the  chapter.  At  Bristol,  Durham,  and  in  other 
Norman  chapter-houses  an  arcade,  or  at  least  a 
series  of  niches,  runs  round  the  walls.  At  Worcester 
there  is  a  series  of  perfectly  plain  round-headed 
arches  above  the  seat.  Above  these  again  runs 
Norman  arcading  with  intersecting  heads,  forming 
seven  tall  narrow  arches  in  each  bay.  Right 
through  these  run  alternate  bands  of  green  and 
white  freestone.  Dr.  James,  President  of  St.  John's 
College,  Oxford,  in  a  most  interesting  paper  read 
before  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society,1  states 
his  belief  that  these  arches  were  once  filled  with 
figures  painted,  and  that  a  series  of  pictures,  types, 
and  three  antitypes  to  each  were  formerly  painted  in 
medallions  on  the  wall  above.  As  the  art  of  chapter- 
house building  improved,  the  treatment  of  this 
space  became  a  more  marked  feature.  Lincoln  has 
an  arcade,  the  arches  being  richly-moulded  lancets, 
much  marked  with  the  dog-tooth.  At  Thornton 
each  side  of  the  octagon  is  divided  into  three  bays, 

1  Comm,t  vol.  x.,  No.  3. 


224         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 

each  filled  in  with  traceried  heads,  and  each  being 
subdivided  into  two,  so  as  to  give  six  seats.  There 
are  here  no  pillars  except  in  the  angles,  but  there 
is  great  richness  and  the  indication  of  separate 
seats.  At  Salisbury  the  arcade  arches  are  cinque- 
foiled,  and  over  them  is  a  series  of  sculptured 
Scripture  scenes.  There  is  a  trefoiled  arcade  at 
Westminster,  the  wall  within  being  covered  with 
fresco  paintings  representing  scenes  from  the 
Apocalypse.  There  is  a  cinquefoiled  arcade  at 
Wells,  with  a  crocketed  hood-mould  or  canopy 
above,  and  a  buttress  between.  The  arcade  at 
Southwell  is  a  dream  of  beauty.  At  York  there 
are  projecting  canopies  with  much  beautiful  carving, 
and  the  bench  table  is  divided  into  separate  seats. 
In  the  later  chapter-house  at  Howden  the  sides  are 
divided  into  ogee-arched  recesses  which  are  panelled 
with  intricate  tracery  work  of  great  beauty.1  These 
instances  will  suffice  to  show  how  strong  was  the 
feeling  that  that  particular  portion  of  the  building 
should  be  rich,  and  that  the  separate  seat  of  each 
member  of  the  chapter  should  be  marked,  so  pre- 
serving the  valuable  thought2  of  the  individuality 
of  each  member  still  retained.  "  A  dean  succeeds 
to  the  government  of  a  chapter,  say  rather,  to  the 
guiding  of  an  untameable  beast.  It  is  hard  and 
difficult  to  govern  a  small  house,  but  great  chapters 
are  so  much  the  worse,  because  there  are  as  many 
opinions  as  there  are  individuals." 3  But  however 
this  may  be  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  dean, 
we  shall  most  of  us  agree  that  the  individuality 
of  each  member  of  a  chapter,  or  indeed  of  any 
other  body,  should  be  carefully  preserved.  "  To  be 
an  individual  is  the  inevitable,  and  in  most  cases 

1  Bond,  Gothic  Architecture^  p.  137. 

2  Cf.  1  Cor.  xii.  7  ff.,  n.b.,  the  oneness  of  the  body  and  the  indi- 
viduality of  the  members. 

3  Roderic  of  Zamora  ap.  Van  Espen,  quoted  by  Benson,  Cathedral, 
p.  42. 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  225 

the  unenviable  lot  of  every  child  of  Adam.  Each 
one  of  us  has,  like  a  tin  soldier,  a  stand  of  his 
own."1  In  no  place  more  than  in  a  chapter  is  this 
individuality  more  valuable.  It  has  been  said  that 
' 'cathedral  chapters  should  be  the  gathering  to- 
gether of  men  who  sacrifice  themselves  as  individuals 
to  a  corporate  ideal." 2  That  may  be,  but  their 
individuality  should  not  be  sacrificed  for  them. 
The  truer  ideal  is  to  be  found  in  some  words  of 
Mr.  Benjamin  Kidd,  quoted  in  the  same  number 
of  the  Guardian,  which  may  be  applied  to  a 
cathedral  chapter  and  its  members :  "  The  most 
vigorous  social  systems  are  those  in  which  are 
combined  the  most  effective  subordination  of  the 
individual  to  the  social  organism,  with  the  highest 
development  of  his  own  personality."  The  old 
chapter-house  arrangements  emphasised  this  indi- 
viduality, but  it  will  find  no  outward  expression  in 
the  Liverpool  chapter-house.  There  the  canons 
will  sit  cheek  by  jowl,  side  by  side  on  a  common 
seat,  like  children  in  an  old-fashioned  infant  school. 
Perhaps  it  may  not  be  too  late  to  make  good  this 
defect.3 

(4)  A  still  more  serious  departure  from  the  old 
tradition,  and  one  which  unfortunately  is  now  irre- 
mediable, is  to  be  found  in  the  insertion  in  the  side 
of  the  octagon  to  the  left  of  that  containing  the 
bishop's  seat  of  a  doorway  (pleasing  in  itself,  but 
measuring  3  feet  inches  over  all,  and  glorified 
enough  to  serve  as  the  canopy  of  the  president's 
seat),  to  the  circular  stair  giving  access  to  the  walk- 
ing-way. A  reference  to  the  plan  of  the  Salisbury 
chapter-house 4  will  show  that  every  foot  of  the 
stone  bench  was  allotted  to  a  canon,  the  higher 

1  Birrell,  A  Rogues  Memoirs. 

2  Archdeacon  W.  H.  Hutton.    See  Guardian,  September  27,  1912. 

3  The  question  of  expense  ought,  surely,  not  to  block  ihe  way,  when 
,£17,000  is  to  be  spent  on  the  organ,  or  possibly  £20,000. 

4  Wordsworth,  Processions,  p.  137;  cf.  p.  269. 

P 


226         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 

officials  sitting  on  either  side  of  the  bishop.  At 
Salisbury  the  chapter-house  is  58  feet  in  diameter, 
and  each  side  of  the  octagon  measures  £.25  feet, 
and  holds  seven  canons.  At  Liverpool  the  diameter 
is  only  32  feet,  and  each  side  is  13  feet.  The  sides 
will  therefore  hold  fewer  canons,  and  there  are 
fewer  to  be  held.  But  the  main  objection  to  the 
doorway  is  that  it  breaks  the  continuity  and  the 
unity  of  the  seat,  and  so  disturbs  the  sense  of  the 
unity  of  the  body,  the  brethren  dwelling  together 
in  unity,  which  is  so  good  and  joyful  a  thing. 
There  is,  it  is  true,  a  small  unobtrusive  square- 
headed  doorway  in  the  extreme  east  of  the  south 
wall  of  the  rectangular  chapter-house  at  Chester, 
from  which  a  few  steps  lead  up  to  the  walking-way 
at  the  bottom  of  the  windows.  But  at  the  rect- 
angular chapter-house  at  Gloucester  the  staircase 
to  the  library  has  its  door  outside  the  chapter- 
house. The  same  may  be  said  with  regard  to 
Southwell,  Lincoln,  York,  Westminster,  Wells, 
Worcester,  and  Llandaff.  In  all  these  cathedrals 
there  are  circular  stairways  leading  to  a  room  over 
or  near  the  chapter-house ;  but  nowhere  else  in 
England  would  it  be  possible  to  find  an  arrange- 
ment like  that  at  Liverpool,  which  is  the  more  to 
be  regretted,  because  it  is  so  entirely  unnecessary. 
The  impression  made  on  the  mind,  as  one  looks  at 
it,  is  that  its  only  raison  d'ttre  was  to  give  the 
architect  an  excuse  for  building  an  external  turret, 
somewhat  similar  to  one  at  Wells,  which,  however, 
is  quite  unobtrusive.  There  is  also  a  humble 
square  turret  at  the  south-west  angle  of  the  Exeter 
chapter-house,  holding  a  staircase,  which  starts  from 
the  extreme  west  end  of  the  south  wall.  Admirable 
as  this  Liverpool  turret  may  be  in  itself  (and  it  is 
very  satisfactory  as  an  external  addition),  it  is  dearly 
purchased  at  the  cost  of  the  interruption  of  the 
"precious  circlet  of  the  presbytery"  within.  To 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses         22 7 

many  this,  like  the  absence  of  any  suggestion  of  the 
individuality  of  the  members  of  the  chapter,  will 
seem  a  trifle.  Others  will  appreciate  the  point,  and 
regret  the  departure  from  ancient  English  precedent. 

But  however  that  may  be,  the  Liverpool  chapter- 
house will  be  a  noble  building.  Its  vestibule  is 
entered  from  the  ambulatory  through  a  good  door- 
way boldly  treated,  the  heavy  bull-nosed  member 
of  the  arch  being  evidently  intended  for  carved 
enrichment.  The  vestibule  itself  measures  about 
16x28  feet.  To  the  left  is  a  window,  and  to  the 
right,  through  a  couple  of  arches,  descend  the  stairs 
to  the  song  school.  The  entrance  doorway  from 
the  vestibule  into  the  chapter-house  is  quite  in 
accordance  with  the  old  English  tradition,  so  far  as 
its  exterior  side  goes.  The  "  old  men  "  would  have 
enriched  its  inner  side,  instead  of  leaving  it  quite 
plain  and  severe.  But  they  could  scarcely  have 
improved  upon  the  exterior  side,  the  well-moulded 
doorway  in  three  orders,  with  its  ogee  hood-mould, 
the  spandrils  being  filled  with  sunk  tracery-work, 
and  the  dignified  canopied  niches  and  figures  on 
either  side  reminding  one  of  those  at  Howden. 
When  filled  with  an  oaken  door,  which  will  probably 
be  a  rich  one,  the  tout  ensemble  will  be  thoroughly 
good.  And  the  whole  building,  in  spite  of  what 
seem  to  us  its  faults,  will  be  dignified  and  solid 
and  good.  There  will  be  nothing  trivial  about  it. 
At  present  the  scaffolding,  both  inside  and  out,  is 
much  in  the  way,  but  there  is  ample  promise  that 
the  chapter-house,  as  viewed  from  outside,  will  be 
quite  worthy  of  its  place,  and  will  group  admirably 
well  with  the  magnificent  east  end  of  the  cathedral 
and  the  Lady  chapel. 


228 


APPENDIX 

In  this  appendix  we  give  particulars  about  some  of 
our  chapter-houses,  arranged  in  alphabetical  order. 
The  information  is,  in  places,  fragmentary,  but, 
where  we  have  had  only  a  fragment  of  information, 
we  have  put  it  in  for  what  it  is  worth.  We  have 
tried  hard  to  be  accurate,  but  we  have  already  (on 
p.  143)  spoken  of  the  difficulty.  We  shall  gladly 
welcome  any  help,  which  our  readers  may  be  able 
to  give  us,  to  make  this  appendix  fuller  or  more 
accurate.  We  may  say  with  Fuller  {Church  Hist., 
vol.  ii.  pp.  227-8) :  "  What  I  have  omitted  I  cannot 
yet  attain."  .  .  .  "  I  should  be  thankful  to  him  who 
would  inform  me  of  .  .  .  what  hitherto  I  cannot 
procure."  We  may  also  add  with  him  (p.  163): 
"  So  much  for  the  several  dates  .  .  .  wherein  if  we 
have  failed  a  few  years  in  the  exactness  thereof,  the 
matter  is  not  much.  I  was  glad  to  find  so  ingenuous 
a  passage  in  Pitzaeus.  .  .  .  In  tantd  sententiarum 
varietate  veritatem  invenire  nec  facile  est,  nec  multum 
refert."  To  save  space  we  have  used  the  follow- 
ing abbreviations  : 

B.  =  Benedictine.  A.C.  =  Austin  or  Black  Canons.  P.  =  Premon- 
stratensian  or  White  Canons.  Coll.  =  Collegiate  Church.  Cath. 
O.F.  =  Cathedral  of  the  Old  Foundation.  CI.  =  Clugniac.  C.  =  Cis- 
tercian. Car.  =  Carmelites.  A.N.  =  Augustine  Nuns.  *  =  a  Mitred 
Abbey.  Nor.  =  Norman.  E.E.  =  Early  English.  Dec.  =  Decorated. 
Per.  =  Perpendicular.  Rect.  =  rectangular.  Sq.  =  square.  Oct.  = 
octagonal.  N.  =  north  side,  S.  =  south  side  (of  church — in  speaking 
of  the  position  of  chapter-house),    cent.  =  central.    Vest.  =  vestibule. 


Cloister. 

o                                     o     °^        jl,  : 
<u           ^                    <u             *^    r.  w 
^  :  c      :     v     «  M  :     *  £  :  :        x    no  :  :  o 

Position. 

Above  library, 
N.  of  choir. 

0. 

s. 
s. 

N.,  in  cent,  of 
cloister. 

N. 

N. 

S. 

N. 
S. 
S. 

s. 

Size. 

Feet. 
c.  25  dia. 
<r.  30  x  19 

13x17 

44  x  24 
48x39 

38  x  17 
<r.  20 
36  x  18 
38.6x18 

30  dia. 
Vest.  42  x  13 
21  x(?) 

43  (orig.  72)  x 

25  +  26. 
Vest.  13x27 

Shape. 

Circular. 
Rect. 

Rect. 
2  alleys. 

Rect. 
Rect.  3  alleys. 
Oct. 

Rect. 
Oct. 
Rect.  2  alleys. 
Rect. 

Oct., 
cent,  pillar. 
Rect. 

Decagon. 
Rect.,  prob. 
had  apse. 

Style. 

Early  Dec. 
E.E. 

E.E. 
E.E. 

E.E. 
E.E. 
Nor. 
Per.  additions. 

Dec. 

Nor. 

E.E. 
Trans.  Nor. 

Date. 

Rebuilt  by 

Scott. 

End  of 
13th  cent. 

c.  1230 

c.  1 1 50. 
Per.  additions 

c.  1420 
c.  1 272-1 327 

1120 

1155-70 

Order, 
&c. 

•*       ...      .;=!..        cj      •  •  fJO-5 
Pnrt     O     rA     PhUM       :  0  Ph  pq         ~-     pq  pq  2<   ,  % 

CJ                                            O                   <i               <  <  cj 

Name. 

Alnwick  .... 

Basingwerk    .    .  . 

Battle  

Bayham  or  Beaulieu 
(Sussex) .... 
Beaulieu  (Hants)  . 

Berwick  .... 
Beverley  .... 

Birkenhead    .    .  . 

Boxgrove  .... 
Bridlington    .    .  . 

No. 

>-i  M       co      rj-m     vON      0OO\O«            N       con-  «-rivO 

Cloister. 

Feet. 

IOI  x  90 
157  sq. 

143  sq. 

144  sq. 
c .  96  x  90 

no  sq. 

On  S. 
c.  78  sq. 

Position. 

N. 
N. 
S. 
S. 
N. 

S. 

N.,  prob.  orig. 
on  S.  side. 
S. 
N. 

N. 
S. 
S. 

s. 

N. 

Size. 

•    1^  M 
.                                           N                       CO  • 

^  N  CO  to  o       co     ^                    «  +  ^-Jf   .       X       +  . 

£xxx^:x    00        :     x'Sfo":     0     d:  :: 

O  fONX       co      M  J                 OvcO_l_  *•* 
OtOn       ON        .in                     X     •   '  vO 

vO                   'JO                    O  tn               ^"  ON 
>                    »*»  1) 

>  « 

Shape. 

Rect.  3  alleys. 
Rect. 
Rect. 

Rect. 

Oct. 

Rect. 
Rect. 

Rect.,  no 
alleys. 
Oct. 

Rect.  2  alleys. 

Style. 

Nor. 
Nor. 
Trans.  Nor. 
E.E. 
E.E. 
Per. 
Dec. 

Nor. 
E.E. 

E.E. 

E.E. 
Nor.  and  Per. 
alterations. 
E.E. 

Date. 

m              oojm           0        £:     c     ^  0 

fON             r}-  r'-)      ^  iJ                 rj-            7       4)        f)  O 

:  -  «  i  :     M  g     1   '      '•  N       vo    u     2  :     *»  : 

Order, 
&c. 

CI. 

c. 

B.* 

C. 

C. 

B. 
Cath. 
A.C. 
Cath. 

A.C. 

CI. 
B. 
Cath. 

Cath. 
O.F. 
C. 

P. 
C. 

P. 
A.C 

• 

Name. 

Bromholm  .... 
Buildwas  .... 

Calder  ...... 

Canterbury    .    .  . 

Cartmel  .... 
Castleacre  .... 

Chichester .... 

Cockersand    .    ,  . 
Combe  Smite .    .  . 

Dale  

Dorchester    .   .  . 

No. 

f^OO  0s  0  **  N       co          rj-      U"»\0           t>*     OO       OO       **  N 
t_  _  _  M  N  N        M              N        M  r»             r>        M        IN  CO  COCO 

&  25?     ST  5? 

CO 

O 

ON 


o  :  o  o    o      :      :  o 


cr 

a4 

o 

O 

o 

co 

co  co 


CO 

co 

^'5  2^ 


CO  CO      CO  CO 


CO 


CO 


as  N  M  x 


Q  to  . 

>  ^ 


>->  M  co 

XX  X 


cr 

.  to 
.5  O 

CO  . 


M 

►H  O 

d  x  y» 

^  CO  on 
O    .  •  <N 

X 

vi  to 

> 


+  x 

X 

NO  g 
nS> 


rSl 

au  u 


o 


u  u 


«     £  6  « 


g 
u 


O  +2 
5  o 

o  r3 
Q  ^ 
u 


u 

Pd 


r3  co 


>■>  co 
<U  ;„ 

^  £  S  too 


O 


o 

«.  G 

w  * 


M    d  C 

.  u   ;  u 


rG      '  >G 


T3 
co  I 


4io^S  c  9 

I    l       O  o  l 

OO0  ON  CO 
M  <N  ^  I  ,G 

_    HH    M  VO    "~>  >- 


UUUU  U 


o 
Q 


.  u "    .  . 

rG  +3 

rG  CJ  CO  O 

S  c  c  a 
£  ^3  »3  -o  ^ 

C  3  3  3  3 

QQQQQ 


00 


CO 


G 

o  2 


P  W 


130  ^ 

G  G 

WW 


w 


o>  O 


co 

X 


a 


£;    c/2    2    cow    in    m    m         mmmmm  £00 


.  CO 


n  r  x  «  X  j 

X  -  ^  N 


CO 


CO 


GO 


~  2  «  CO   .  M    .  ro^ 

x     x  «  :  x  •  v  x 


*2 

NO 


(1)  c  J 

<->  rt  o 
3$ 


P-      o  op-Q.  u 


o  ™ 

c  ~ 

r  &. 

u  4-1 

OS 

u 


a  u 
o 


u  £  u  o 
o  D  o  a 


o 
WW 

to      ,  ;  co 

coW  c 

rt  >- 

H  H 


„  o 


5 


v6  i  w  n„  : 


3  *ts 


2"  v» 


ceo 

N  +2  <o 


■£     U.:UU  • 

c3  <iu<i<u 


o  a  o 


. 

C 

1-s 

•PS 

EE 


,J3 

be  *  o  E-3 


.  en 

°  S 

-J -J 


6 
Z 


O     O      »-i      r»  m  to    so  co  o  O  |-1  m  mTj- 

tJ-      vo      vr>  in      m      ir>      in      lt>  ur>vO  VO  vO      vO  vO 


o 

ON  <U 

x  § 

2  z 


"  :  o 

•  00 


X 


cr  in 


98^ 


& co    g    g    to  -w    £coco  co 


£  CO  CO  CO  CO     CO     co  co  co 


CO 

N  co  .  rJ  o 

mxJxhXo 

ts  co      fOX  X 

X   4J  'rfj  CO  3" 

O  en       tn  N  efl  nO 
<U  O  <U  <U 

^■>^>  > 

"3-   


:  t3 
00 


.  bo 

co 


CO 

cr  cr  v 

•  U)   1/1  A 
CO 


X 
rj- 
co 


+■»  c$  .         ir„.T3      172  j_J  Co 

a  _  bo     of)  ^  4;  PhUh-i 
o      <u  Q  <u  o*  a>  (/> 


«  c3  j4 

>rs  is 


1/1   (/)  U) 

ju  ju   ^  a.  . 

13 13 13  tj  ,2  tj 
co  co  n  <u  a5 

+J  4J  +5  p4  M 

u  u  u 
<u  <u  o  <f 
P>fv>  p>  co 


w  w  w  w 


J-4 

o 

W  cQ 

u 

H 


o 


0  e  S  "9 

.  S  rt  >-<  i 

0 

10 

CO 

vO 
CO 

ent. 

ON 
ON 

0 

... 

c.  mid 
13th  c 
<r.  1225 
late 
c.  125c 

i      •  T 

CO 

Tt- 

II 

C.  II 

:  u 
:  £ 

CO 

:  on 

*  CO 
CS 

C.  12 

*   *  r>» 

O 

1— 1 

~    ■£   6   -5  u 


*  3^ 


•  O  •  -5  CJ  rS  — * 


PQ  CJ      rt^cd^nJ      j;     pq  pQ  ,9  ca  U        UUU  j«  d  j  ciuWfq  at 
uOu°u    <    ^    nJ  ^  <  u^U 


*  rS 

u 


s  2 

o  £ 


c 
o 


«5  a  a? 

111 

cj 


B 
J? 

bo 
j-i 
a 


a;  o  d  a)  0 


^3 

.  .  00 

o 

JZ  "U 

*c3  <u  '<u 
PU  Ph  Ph 


tnvO  tv.00  O  O  h  n  rn  r}- 
vOvO      vO      nO      vO       t^.      rv.t^.t^  t^. 


lovO  t^CO  On  O  —  W  co 
NNNNN      CO  COCOCO 


Cloister. 

in 

.to                 t^to                 <U                          CT      W            <D            o  rri 

Position. 

s. 
s. 

N. 

s. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 

N.  of  choir 
N.,  E.  of  N. 

Transept. 
S.  in  cent,  of 
cloister. 

Size. 

Feet. 
80x40  +  40 

36.6  X  26 

34.8  x  18.8 
64  x  32J 

45  x  26. 
Vest.  26  x  24, 

3  alleys, 
(was)  19  x  16.6 

25  x  20 

32.6  dia. 
(Longman) 

Shape. 

Oct. 
Rect.  with 
apse  and 

windows. 
Rect. 
Rect.  5 
alleys,  apse 
width  of  3 
alleys. 
Rect.  2  alleys. 

Rect. 

Possibly 
hexagon. 
... 

Rect. 

Rect. 
Rect. 

Oct. 

Style. 

E.E. 
Nor. 

E.E. 

Nor. 
Nor. 
Prob.  Nor. 

E.E. 

Dec. 
Early  Dec. 

Date. 

1 165-1286 
c.  1121-25 

13th  cent. 

1 1 19-39 
c.  11 15 

1236  (Vest.), 
c.  1317-28 

1328-47 
1332 

Order, 
&c. 

C. 
B.* 

A.  C. 
C. 

Coll. 
Cath. 

B. 
Cath. 

B.  N. 

B.* 
Cath. 
Cath. 

Cath. 
Cath. 

Cath. 
O.F. 

Name. 

Pluscardine    .    .  . 
Reading  .... 

Rievaulx  .... 

Ripon   

Rochester  .... 
Romsey  .... 
St.  Albans     .    .  . 
St.  Andrews  .    .  . 

St.  Asaph  .... 
St.  David's    .    .  . 

St.  Paul's  .... 

No. 

Tt-u-»               vO  t>-               CO       O      O                               CO  m 
COCO                  COCO                  CO       CO                   O       O            O  O  0 

go  « 


cr1  <u 
in  C 
O  o 


-  00  • 


ON  . 

on  cr 

v-  in 


C7"  9*> 
V)  —i 

•  o  x 
•oo  0 

N*  2 


CD 

.  b 

:  o 


g  £  o 

x 

■hs  Q 
o  o 


in 


CD  .  <N 
.  CO 


co    co    co|z;co  co^; 


co    £  S5  co  co  Z  E  & 


CO 


if  5  8 

CN  « 
'r0  ±5,  X 


00  CD 


in 


CN  CN 

X  X 


oo  v 
4-  ^ 


,B 

£  CO 

8  ~« 


H3  "O 


cr 
:  co 

•  o 

CO 


O  <D  CD 

o  u& 


£  3^  O 


cd  : 


B 

CD  u 
U  £  a 

r  &<.B 
ti  U 
O 


in 
JD 

•  "rt 
I  co 

tJ 
CD 


6  a^'^i 

>  rt  in  •  3  3 
+j  U  j  J  . 


CO 


W  : 
W  * 


CD  <D 

WW 


•  CD 


CO 

I 

CO 
vO 


:  I 


uo 


(D 
CO 


C3 


co 

•  >.  >  * 

«  CD  — 

BUD'S  S  a> 

O  in  in  o  ^ 

<U  ,3  rfj  B  O 

CO  CO  CO  CO  CO 


v  3 

2  58 

in  ^ 

Cj  CD 


o 

XX 

H 


in 

3  3 
O 


CD  g  5  CD'S 

.2  s 


'  CO 


M  OO  h 

ON  ON  O  O 


co 

O  O 


<o  r^co  on  o  N 
O  O  O  O  ~  ~ 


X 


bo  —  rf 
<v  >  ** 

1-1    W    rt  y 

o 


CO 


II  I  + 
^  co  vo 

£  ~  X 


:  o 


CO 


«  ^  x  CO 


O  > 


CO 
CO 

X 


°  ^  ^ 

+ 

Ny  fi  X 

VO     ^  ^LTl 

*  c*  j  x  * 

CO 

•5  j5 


ill? 


O  <3 
C  ?3 


a> 

w 

w 


O  a) 


a 
a> 

Q 

>> 

W 


CO 


Site 


u 


*. 


U-5 


-a 

i 


(DOW 

o  nd  o 
.S      S  o 

S  &  & 


C 

o 


fl  in  O^J'Q 


237 


NOTES 

These  notes  refer  for  the  most  part  to  less-known  chapter-houses, 
concerning  which  it  is  sometimes  difficult  to  procure  information. 

N.B. —  The  numbers  refer  to  the  chapter-house  of  the  same  number. 

3.  Basingwerk. — The  two  round-headed  arches  remaining  form  the 
entrance  from  vestibule  to  chapter-house,  a  small  building,  but  with 
elaborate  detail  and  dignified  groining,  showing  its  importance.  See 
paper  by  Ed.  Hodkinson,  Transactions,  Chester  Archaeological  Society 
Journal,  vol.  xi. 

4.  Battle. — Traces  of  vestibule  left  with  three  arches. 

5.  Bayham. — Chapter-house  divided  into  three  divisions  by  a  double 
line  of  three  arches.  One  of  these  arcades  remains  in  situ.  These 
arcades  crossed  the  building  from  N.  to  S.  near  the  centre,  and  were 
about  8  ft.  apart.  The  columns  are  circular,  with  plain  moulded 
capitals,  and  the  arches  are  plainly  chamfered. 

7.  Belvoir. — Nichols,  Hist,  of  Leicestershire,  London,  1795,  v°l-  n* 
part  i.  pp.  73  ff.,  gives  an  account  of  Belvoir  priory,  and  the  1846  edition 
of  Dugdale  (Mon.,  iii.  p.  288)  speaks  of  this  as  so  full  that  nothing 
needed  to  be  added  to  it.  Nichols  quotes  from  an  old  Register  a 
statement  that  in  the  chapter-house  at  Belvoir  were  buried  the  bodies 
of  the  founder,  Robertus  de  Todeney  (who  began  building  in  1076), 
his  son,  and  two  others.  He  mentions  other  matters  connected  with 
the  history  of  the  priory.  Then  he  says  :  "  From  these  hints,  com- 
pared with  an  actual  and  attentive  view  of  the  ground  in  its  present 
state,  a  laborious  tracing  of  the  foundations  (which  are  almost  every- 
where covered),  removing  the  earth,  and  the  information  obtained  on 
the  spot,  we  have  endeavoured  to  form  the  annexed  plan,  fig.  30." 
He  was  a  careful  antiquary.  He  dug  amongst  the  ruins  in  May  1791. 
His  plan  (no  scale  attached)  shows  an  octagonal  chapter-house  in  the 
centre  of  a  cloister  garth  (like  old  St.  Paul's)  on  the  N.  side  of  the 
nave  of  the  church.  The  four  graves  are  marked.  He  says  that 
"  the  chapter-house  is  fixed  to  the  N.  of  the  body  of  the  old  church 
by  the  coffins  still  remaining  of  the  founder,"  &c.  Nichols  saw  the 
founder's  coffin,  of  brown  stone,  opened  in  1792.  He  gives  a  sketch 
of  it  open  and  closed,  and  also  the  inscription  on  the  cover.  The 
plan  shows  the  door  into  the  chapter-house  in  the  W.  side  of  the 
octagon,  the  seven  other  sides  having  in  each  a  window,  apparently 
a  narrow  one.  He  does  not  give  any  date  of  the  building,  or  indica- 
tion of  its  style.  Apparently  he  took  it  for  granted  that  the  founda- 
tions he  discovered  were  those  of  the  original  chapter-house  of  c.  1076. 
If  this  was  so,  the  octagon  was  older  than  Worcester  (11 18  et  seq.), 


238         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


and  the  first  known  chapter-house  of  that  shape.  The  fact  might 
have  some  bearing  upon  the  point  raised  on  pp.  175  fT.,  and  might  be 
compared  with  the  possibilities  at  Romsey  (see  p.  174,  note\ 

9.  Beverley  Minster. — Exquisite  double  E.E.  doorway  and  staircase 
leading  to  destroyed  chapter-house,  the  ground  plan  of  which  was 
recovered  by  Mr.  Bilson  in  1890  [liv.  ArchcEologia,  425]. 

13.  Boxgrove. — Interesting  west  front  of  chapter-house  remains — 
three  large  round  arches,  those  on  the  N.  and  S.  having  a  strong  low 
base  wall,  and  each  subdivided  into  two. 

16.  Bristol. — See  118,  and  cf.  Vezelay. 

17.  Bromholm. — A  lamp  niche  within  the  chapter-house. 

18.  Buildwas. — Several  steps  down  into  chapter-house.  Four 
slender  columns  with  capitals,  two  being  circular  and  two  octagonal  in 
section,  carry  the  vault ;  doorway  with  lateral  windows  ;  three  lancets 
at  E.  end,  and  on  either  side,  in  the  easternmost  bays,  two  others ; 
a  slype  on  either  side  of  the  chapter-house,  which  is  of  the  same  date 
with  the  church. 

21.  Calder. — Double  portal. 

27.  Chichester. — Mr.  Freeman  believed  that  the  Norman  building 
[N.  and  E.  walls  are  E.E.]  which  stands  to  the  E.  of  the  N.  transept, 
and  to  the  N.  of  the  N.  choir  aisle,  with  a  central  pillar,  now  called 
the  Chapels  of  St.  Edmund  and  St.  John,  was  the  original  chapter- 
house. There  is  no  trace  of  any  chapter-house  in  the  Per.  cloisters, 
which  lie  to  the  S.  of  the  cathedral  with  the  S.  transept  as  a  centre. 
These  have  four  bays  in  the  W.  walk,  eight  in  the  E.,  and  eleven  and 
a  doorway  in  the  S.    There  is  no  N.  walk.    Cf.  note  94. 

28.  Cleeve. — From  Mr.  C.  R.  B.  Barrett's  Somersetshire,  1894,  we 
take  the  following :  "  The  chapter-house  is  a  very  remarkable  room, 
undivided  by  pillars,  entered  by  an  arch  which  never  owned  a  door, 
and  lighted  by  windows  which  have  never  been  glazed.  It  has  a 
vaulted  roof  of  three  bays,  but  the  third  and  most  easterly  one  is  far 
more  lofty  than  the  other  two.  Unfortunately  the  E.  wall,  which 
projected,  has  been  demolished.  On  the  roof  of  the  chapter-house 
fragments  of  distemper  painting  still  remain  in  the  shape  of  a  narrow 
simple  wavy  pattern,  which  runs  on  each  side  of  the  vaulting  ribs." 
The  dorter  is  over  the  chapter-house.  The  archway  into  the  chapter- 
house is  pointed  and  well  moulded,  and  on  either  side  of  it  is  an  arched 
opening  divided  into  two  pointed  arches  with  a  shaft  in  each  jamb, 
and  one  in  the  centre  with  a  quatrefoil  over,  apparently  like  the  plate- 
tracery  head  of  the  windows  in  the  Bileigh  chapter-house  figured  in 
Bond's  Gothic  Architecture,  p.  469. 

33.  Dore. — Dore  Abbey  and  Margam  were  founded  in  the  same 
year.  In  each  place  the  chapter-house  is  twelve-sided.  That  at 
Dore  is  somewhat  later,  and  "in  comparing  what  remains  of  that  at 
Dore  with  the  more  perfect  one  at  Margam,  there  can  be  but  little 
doubt  that  the  design  of  the  one  was  largely  influenced  by  the  other. 
That  at  Margam  is  transitional  in  date  with  square  abaci  to  the 
columns.  That  at  Dore  was,  as  far  as  can  be  ascertained,  fully- 
developed  E.E.  work.  It  was  slightly  smaller  than  Margam,  and  was 
twelve-sided  both  inside  and  out.  The  vaulting  shafts  against  the  outer 
walls,  instead  of,  as  at  Margam,  being  corbelled  back  before  reaching 
the  seat-levels,  were  brought  down  on  to  it,  and  there  was  a  large 
cluster  of  twelve  shafts  in  the  centre"  {Builder,  April  4,  1896,  p.  300). 

36.  Dublin^  St.  Patricks  Cathedral. — The  S.  transept  was  walled 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  239 


off  to  serve  as  a  chapter-house  before  1270,  and  this  continued  till 
1864.    It  measured  50  x  28  ft. 

40.  Easby, — "  Two  of  the  most  deformed  ground  plans  in  England 
belong  to  the  Premonstratensian  Canons,  viz.  Easby  .  .  .  and 
Bayham."— M.  Walcott  (Ch.  and  Con.  Arr.,  p.  76).  "  In  the  cloisters 
the  sides  form  an  obtuse  angle."  The  chapter-house  is  divided  from 
the  church  by  the  sacristy.  It  inclines  considerably  towards  the  N. 
The  N.  wall  is  shorter  than  the  S.,  and  the  W.  wall,  in  which  are  two 
entrance  arches,  is  far  from  being  parallel  with  the  E.  The  chapter- 
house is  vaulted. 

42.  Elgin. — 1270  is  suggested  as  the  date  applicable  to  the  chapter- 
house, though  only  the  buttresses  and  lower  part  of  walls  remain  of 
the  original,  which  was  burnt  in  1390.  Seventy  years  later  it  received 
a  complete  interior  casing  of  masonry  and  new  windows,  being  re- 
stored by  Bishop  David  Stewart.  All  the  window  (flowing)  tracery 
has  now  gone,  but  one  window  was  restored  some  thirty  years  ago. 
The  S.  wall  alone  has  not  been  veneered,  and  it  shows,  over  the  door- 
way, a  row  of  four  arched  recesses,  once  occupied,  it  is  said,  by  figures 
of  the  Evangelists.  The  central  pier  and  vaulting  springing  from  it 
is  graceful,  but  the  carving  throughout  is  indifferent.  At  the  N.  is  the 
Dean's  raised  seat ;  above  is  an  arcade,  omitted  on  the  other  sides  of 
the  octagon,  as  if  the  projection  of  the  new  masonry,  that  is  not  carried 
down  to  the  floor,  has  been  masked  by  the  stalls  of  the  clergy  ;  on  the 
NW,  side  of  the  centre  pier  is  built  a  projecting  desk — for  the  reading 
of  the  Martyrology,  it  is  supposed.  A  beautiful  doorway,  of  two  orders 
and  richly  moulded,  leads  into  the  chapter-house  from  the  small  vesti- 
bule, on  the  E.  side  of  which  is  a  lavatory.  The  chapter-house  stands 
on  the  N.  of  the  N.  choir  aisle,  near  to  its  E.  end.  Compare  Glasgow 
and  Liverpool.    Cf.  Builder,  March  3,  1894. 

44.  Evesham.  —  Abbot  Maurice  (succeeding  Abbot  Robert  of 
Jumieges)  in  1096  built  the  old  chapter-house  and  dormitory,  &c. 
He  died  1122.  This  old  chapter-house  was  painted  inside  by  Abbot 
Thomas  de  Marleburg  (1229-36),  who  had  visited  Rome  with 
Abbot  Randulph  ("  Institutes").  "  In  1295  a  new  chapter-house  was 
commenced  by  Abbot  de  Brokehampton,  as,  according  to  the  Harleian 
cartulary,  a  chapter  .  .  .  was  holden  in  that  year  to  make  provision 
for  the  completion  of  this.  ...  Its  erection  was  undertaken  by  Henry 
Lathom— Latomus,  or  stone-cutter — one  of  the  monks,  and  was  com- 
pleted by  him,  according  to  the  MS.  cited  by  Leland,  in  131 7.  The 
same  abbot  built  also  that  side  of  the  cloisters  next  the  chapter-house, 
and  erected  a  library  over  it "  (George  May,  History  of  Evesham, 
1845).  Mr.  May  had  the  opportunity  of  watching  the  careful  excava- 
tions made  in  the  church,  chapter-house,  and  part  of  the  cloisters, 
between  181 1  and  1834,  by  Edward  Rudge,  the  owner  of  the  site.  The 
discoveries  were  carefully  measured  and  planned,  but  what  was  found 
was,  unfortunately,  to  a  great  extent  removed.  The  owner  of  the 
other  part  of  the  cloisters,  Mr.  Welch,  burnt  his  stones  for  lime.  Mr. 
Rudge's  plan  was  published  in  Vetusta  Monumenta,  vol.  v.  Mr.  May 
used  this,  and  also  his  "  personal  observations  "  and  his  "  acquaintance 
with  the  ground  plans  of  similar  structures,"  in  making  his  plan.  He 
says  that  "  enough  of  the  [chapter-house]  remained  to  prove  that  it 
was  decagonal  .  .  .  with  a  groined  ceiling  sustained  by  a  central 
column  .  .  .  about  50  ft.  across"  {pp.  cit.,  p.  50).  The  arched  W. 
doorway  of  the  vestibule,  which  Dugdale  wrongly  called  "the  prin- 


240         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


cipal  entrance  to  the  abbey,"  has  been  remarkably  preserved.  It  is 
17  ft.  high,  has  two  large  niches  in  the  jambs  on  either  side,  and 
others  in  a  double  row  in  the  mouldings  of  the  soffit  of  the  arch. 
May  {op.  cit.,  p.  52)  says  there  were  twenty  figures  in  all,  most  of 
which  were  in  loco,  though  decapitated,  as  it  was  said,  by  a  naughty 
boy,  in  the  middle  of  the  17th  cent.,  to  spite  his  father.  A  portion  of  a 
lectern,  of  English  marble  of  the  time  of  Henry  III,  is  still  preserved, 
and  was,  probably,  originally  in  the  chapter-house,  as  (probably) 
was  also  a  massive  14th  cent,  oaken  chair,  which  still  exists.  May 
gives  drawings  of  chair,  lectern  and  archway,  and  a  ground  plan  of 
the  building.  Browne  Willis,  Mitred  Abbeys,  says  that  in  his  time 
(1682-1760),  so  entirely  had  the  buildings  been  destroyed,  that  "they 
have  no  Tradition  here  of  the  abbey  Church,  Cloysters,  or  Chapter- 
House,  but  in  the  cemitery  near  St.  Lawrence's  Church  is  an  old  arch 
yet  standing  in  Ruins,  which  perhaps  might  have  been  some  part  of 
the  abbey  buildings."    This  is  the  vestibule  doorway. 

49.  Glasgow. — The  chapter-house  is  on  the  N.  side  of  the  N.  choir 
aisle  in  the  lower  church,  from  which  seven  steps  lead  up  into  it 
through  a  richly  moulded  and  sculptured  doorway.  It  projects,  as  to 
half  its  length,  further  to  the  east  than  the  E.  wall  of  the  cathedral, 
and  there  is  a  room  (sacristy)  above  it.  There  is  a  raised  and 
canopied  seat  for  the  Dean  on  the  E.  side,  with  an  inscription  over  it 
in  which  the  word  capitulum  occurs.  The  chapter-house  evidently 
formed  part  of  the  original  design,  and  it  is  only  by  examination  of 
the  details  that  cne  discovers  that  it  was  built  at  a  much  later  period, 
probably  by  Bishop  William  Lauder  about  1400  (Builder^  July  1, 
1893). 

51.  Gloucester. — Cf.  note  85. 

53.  Hereford. — Chapter-house  destroyed  in  the  Civil  War.  Very 
beautiful.  Each  side  was  subdivided  into  five  panels  or  seats.  Nine 
of  its  ten  sides  filled  by  a  large  Dec.  window,  the  tenth  being  occupied 
by  the  doorway ;  an  equilateral  arch  divided  into  two  cusped  arches 
(see  sketch  in  Builder,  February  6,  1892)  by  a  central  shaft,  the  head 
of  the  arch  being  filled  in  with  simple  sunk  tracery-work,  and  the 
whole  surmounted  by  a  crocketed  gable  with  finial  and  sunk  trefoil 
below  it.  The  whole  is  very  graceful,  and  the  loss  of  the  rest  of  the 
house  is  most  regrettable.  The  windows  once  contained  forty-five 
large  figures  of  saintly  and  historical  personages.  The  capital  of  the 
central  pillar  has  been  discovered  and  preserved,  and  some  of  the 
panelling.    See  Architecture,  January  1905,  p.  280. 

54.  Hexham. — The  chapter-house,  if  ever  completed,  has  entirely 
perished,  and  the  only  indications  of  its  design  are  the  remains  of  wall 
ribs  against  its  N.  and  W.  walls.  These  show  that  it  was  a  lofty 
apartment,  vaulted  in  a  single  span,  with  a  quadripartite  vault.  The 
side  walls  were  divided  by  buttresses  into  three  bays,  and  lighted  by 
lancet  windows.  Some  of  its  foundations  were  traced  a  few  years  ago. 
The  vestibule  is  in  a  much  better  state  of  preservation,  as  it  was  used 
as  a  slaughter-house  for  more  than  a  century.  Its  height  is  equal  to 
that  of  the  slype,  and  it  was  vaulted  in  nine  compartments  (like 
Chester)  with  moulded  ribs  springing  from  circular  columns,  and,  on 
the  walls,  from  triple  vaulting  corbels.  It  was  arcaded  all  round,  and 
had  the  usual  triple  openings  on  the  E.  and  W.  sides.  Those  on  the 
east  are  nearly  perfect,  but  the  W.  doorway,  which  was  one  of  the 
richest  pieces  of  work  in  the  abbey,  fell  out  during  a  thunderstorm 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses  241 


about  1820.  It  is  thus  described  in  the  diary  of  a  lady  who  knew  it  : 
"  A  hand  at  the  top  seemed  to  hold  vine,  fruit,  and  foliage,  descending 
both  sides  of  the  arch,  and  terminating  with  two  lizards  at  the  bottom." 
Not  a  stone  of  this  fine  work  has  been  preserved  to  us.  The  arcade 
is  carried  across  the  side  openings,  both  on  the  E.  and  W.  sides,  in  a 
curious  manner  by  placing  detached  shafts  at  the  centre  of  the  opening 
on  both  sides.  The  shafts  are  gone,  but  the  bases  remain,  and  show 
what  the  design  was  {Builder,  April  i,  1899). 

55.  Howden. — Chapter-house  (fourth  bay  from  W.  on  S.  side  of  choir) 
is  reached  by  an  ogee-headed  doorway  with  canopied  niches  on 
either  side.  This  gives  access  to  a  short  vaulted  Per.  passage,  to 
the  E.  of  which  is  a  small  chantry  with  a  piscina ;  and  on  the  W.  a 
newel  staircase,  by  which  we  ascend  to  a  diminutive  chamber  above. 
The  Per.  of  the  chapter-house  is  so  early  as  to  be  almost  Dec. 
(xxv.  ArchcEological Journal,  184).  Each  bay  has  a  three-light  window, 
and  each,  except  the  entrance  bay,  has  an  arcade  of  four  ogee  arches, 
with  a  stone  bench  at  the  bottom.  The  entrance  bay  itself  has  an 
ogee-headed  doorway,  with  a  blind  ogee  arch  on  each  side  of  it,  and 
above  this  door  the  lower  half  of  the  window  has  been  blocked  by  rich 
tabernacle  work,  the  images  of  which  have  been  destroyed.  The  roof 
has  evidently  been  vaulted.  All  this  beautiful  work  is  rapidly  crum- 
bling to  ruin.  Howden  choir  fell  down  in  c.  1731  (R.  J.  S.  Bertram, 
East  Riding  of  Yorkshire). 

57.  Iona. — In  the  Builder  of  November  4,  1893,  is  a  sketch  of  the 
chapter-house  and  also  a  plan.  These  show  five  strong  piers  with 
narrow  arches  on  the  N.  and  S.  walls  of  the  chapter-house,  and  at  its 
W.  end  a  circular  pillar  with  carved  cap  and  large  square  base,  and 
two  strong  round  arches  of  two  orders  springing  from  it.  The  shading 
on  the  plan  gives  c.  1203  as  the  date  of  the  walls  of  the  Trans.  Nor. 
chapter-house,  and  c.  1300-80  as  the  date  of  the  Dec.  lateral  piers  and 
arches  and  of  the  vestibule.  In  the  text  it  is  said  that  this  chapter- 
house arch  occupies  a  peculiar  position  ;  it  can  hardly  have  been  its 
W.  termination,  unless  only  a  curtain  was  considered  sufficient  screen 
between  the  apartment  and  the  vestibule  or  passage  ;  later  the  chapter- 
house seems  to  have  extended  to  the  line  of  the  cloister.  The  piers 
along  the  side  walls  of  the  earlier  part  are  required  to  support  the 
barrel  vault,  added  when  an  apartment  overhead  was  formed — con- 
jectured to  be  the  library — but  they  have  proved  insufficient,  and  the 
S.  wall,  notwithstanding  the  large  buttress  outside,  is  considerably  out 
of  perpendicular. 

62.  Kirkstall. — The  chapter-house  is  entered  from  the  cloister  by 
two  large  moulded  archways,  placed  side  by  side,  and  flanked  by  two 
small  window-openings,  beyond  each  of  which  is  a  recess  to  match.  It 
was  originally  about  50  ft.  long  x  30  ft.  wide,  and  of  three  bays,  vaulted 
in  six  compartments,  resting  on  the  side  walls  and  two  central  pillars. 
In  the  13th  cent,  the  easternmost  bay  was  taken  down  and  rebuilt, 
but  to  twice  its  former  length,  and  the  whole  large  square  bay  thus 
formed  is  covered  with  a  ribbed  vault  of  three  divisions  and  one  span. 
The  new  bay  was  lighted  by  two  windows  in  the  E.  wall  and  one  on 
each  side  immediately  adjoining.  The  most  curious  thing,  however,  is 
that  the  new  walls  are  almost  entirely  built  of  stone  coffins,  which  are 
complete  even  to  their  lids.  The  explanation  is,  nevertheless,  a  simple 
one,  viz.  that  the  extension  is  built  upon  part  of  the  monks'  cemetery, 
and  the  wall  is  built  of  the  coffins  which  were  disturbed  in  excavating 

Q 


242         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


for  the  foundations.  Over  the  chapter-house  was  a  part  of  the  dorter 
{Builder ',  January  4,  1896). 

69.  Llandaff.— yix.  E.  A.  Freeman  {Llandaff Cathedral^  1850)  calls 
this  chapter-house  quasi-transeptal,  and  says  that  it  is,  amongst 
English  cathedrals  at  least,  absolutely  unique.  He  does  not  like  the 
interior  effect  of  the  square  building  with  a  central  pillar — that  of  "  a 
square  playing  at  a  polygon."  But  he  thinks  it  a  genuine  example 
of  transition  between  the  rectangular  and  polygonal  forms.  He  does 
not  like  the  external  effect  either  ;  "  it  breaks  the  monotony  of  the 
outline,  but  breaks  it  as  an  excrescence,  not  as  an  integral  part  of  the 
fabric."  The  building  has  since  been  restored,  including  the  upper 
story  (library),  to  which  has  been  added  a  high  pyramidal  roof.  The 
plan  of  the  Glasgow  chapter-house  is  also  square  with  central  pillar, 
and  the  dimensions  are  not  much  larger.  The  date  of  Glasgow 
is  15th  cent,  and  of  Llandaff  13th  cent.,  but  the  style  in  each 
case  is  much  the  same.  The  Dunkeld  chapter-house  (1457-69) 
projects  itself  in  much  the  same  way,  but  from  the  N.  side  of  the 
choir. 

70.  Llanthony. — The  chapter-house,  three  bays  in  length,  has  a 
semi-hexagonal  apse  of  slightly  irregular  form.  The  northern  half  of 
it  is  now  (1899)  a  stable,  the  E.  end  is  a  pig-sty.  A  portion  of  the 
bench  that  was  continued  round  the  interior  remains  at  the  SE.  angle. 
Sufficient,  however,  remains  of  the  building  for  the  general  lines  of 
the  design  to  be  recovered,  and  at  its  E.  end  are  still  the  foundations 
of  one  of  the  buttresses  of  the  apse,  which  definitely  settles  its  dimen- 
sions. The  vaulting  was  carried  on  banded  shafts  in  groups  of  three, 
and  in  each  bay  was  a  recessed  lancet.  The  sills  and  jambs  of  at  least 
one  of  these  windows  remain  on  the  S.  side,  and  the  window,  of  slightly 
greater  width,  on  the  S.  side  of  the  apse  also  partly  remains.  The 
jamb  of  one  of  the  arches  between  the  chapter-house  and  cloister 
remains  on  the  S.  side.  There  were  probably  three,  the  centre  one 
being  the  doorway.  Several  monumental  slabs  are  said  to  have  been 
found  in  the  chapter-house  {Builder ;  January  7,  1899). 

74.  Mar  gam. — See  note  on  Dore,  33. 

77.  Netley. — There  is  a  good  view  of  this  chapter-house  in  the 
Builder  of  April  6,  1895,  and  it  is  spoken  of  as  a  most  interesting 
example  of  13th  cent.  work.  In  plan  it  is  square,  and  was  originally 
vaulted  in  nine  compartments,  with  four  central  supporting  columns. 
The  three  pointed  arches  of  the  W.  front  are  deeply  moulded  with  the 
round  and  fillet,  deep  hollows  and  a  scroll  moulding.  The  centre 
one  was  the  entrance,  and  those  on  either  side  were  windows  origi- 
nally glazed,  with  four  lights  with  traceried  heads,  similar  in  character 
to  the  E.  window  of  the  choir.  In  the  chapter-house  are  three 
beautiful  E.E.  windows  of  two  lancet  lights  with  foliated  (sexfoiled) 
circles  in  the  head.  Mr.  G.  G.  Scott  in  his  English  Church  Archi- 
tecture (Plate  XXVII.)  gives  an  excellent  drawing  of  one  of  these. 
He  uses  it  to  illustrate  one  of  the  steps  in  the  progress  from  the 
simple  lancet  to  the  traceried  windows  of  several  lights. 

79.  Norwich. — In  the  Builder  of  October  5,  1895,  is  a  good  sketch 
of  the  remains  of  this  chapter-house — Dec.  work  of  great  beauty. 
Three  very  richly  moulded  arches  are  each  subdivided  into  two  ogee 
arches  supported  by  clustered  shafts,  which  in  the  centre  start  from 
the  ground  and  form  a  double  entrance,  and  in  the  lateral  arches 
from  a  low  wall.    In  the  head  of  each  arch,  above  the  shafts,  is  a 


Some  Notes  on  Ckapter-Hotises  243 


cinquefoil.  The  effect  is  excellent ;  there  is  great  simplicity,  strength, 
dignity,  and  beauty. 

83.  Peterborough— In  the  Builder  oi May  5,  1894,  is  an  interesting 
paper  by  Mr.  J.  T.  Irvine,  written  with  a  view  to  clearing  up  the  diffi^ 
culty  of  reconciling  the  dimensions  given  by  the  Parliamentary  survey 
of  1649  with  those  given  by  Gunton  (a  prebendary  of  the  cathedral 
who  had  often  seen  it)  in  his  history,  1686,  the  first  giving  120  x  27  feet, 
and  the  second  84  x  33  feet.  He  thinks  that  this  latter  was  the  size  of 
the  chapter-house  proper,  including  the  outside  walls,  whereas  the 
former  measurement  included  a  vestibule  of  one  bay  and  the  chapter- 
house of  three  bays.  So  he  thinks  both  statements  are  really  in  accord 
and  mutually  support  each  other.   If  he  is  right,  there  was  a  vestibule. 

85.  Reading. — Browne  Willis  says  that  the  cloisters  were  "  intirely 
demolished."  But  Mr.  John  Man,  in  his  History  of  Reading,  1816, 
gives  a  plan,  on  which  the  conjectural  parts  are  distinguished  from 
those  then  standing,  and  some  interesting  particulars.  He  says  that 
Hugh,  Prior  of  Lewes,  was  the  first  Abbot  of  Reading,  1 121-29. 
During  his  time  the  chapter-house  was  probably  in  building.  At 
Lewes  the  chapter-house  has  a  similar  plan.  Mr.  Man  (p.  251)  calls 
the  chapter-house  "  the  great  Hall  or  Consistory."  He  speaks  of  it 
as  "  a  beautiful  room  80  ft.  long  to  the  extremity  of  the  bow,  and  40 
ft.  wide,  with  three  large  entrance  doors  from  the  cloister,  with  three 
windows  over  them,  and  five  large  windows  at  the  E.  end  ;  on  each 
of  the  side  walls  were  four  pilasters,  20  ft.  high,  from  which  the  arched 
ceiling  sprung  ;  this  room,  from  the  floor  to  the  centre  of  the  ceiling, 
was  40  ft.  in  height,  and  arched  over.  .  .  .  On  digging  lately  within 
the  walls  .  .  .  the  foundation  of  the  outer  walls  of  this  room  .  .  .  was 
found  to  be  7  ft.  deep  and  12  ft.  thick  to  the  set-off,  above  which  the 
walls  were  6  ft.  thick.  .  .  .  This  noble  room,  where  general  and 
provincial  councils  were  frequently  assembled,  and  where  parliament 
sometimes  met,  is  now  disfigured  by  the  erection  of  a  national  school 
within  its  walls."  Mr.  F.  Bond,  Gothic  Architecture,  p.  284,  says  that 
"the  chapter-house  of  Reading  Abbey  had  a  barrel  vault  42  feet 
across  ;  that  of  Gloucester  has  a  pointed  barrel  of  about  35  feet." 

88.  Ripon. — The  chapter-house  stands  upon  the  Norman  crypt. 
Adjoining  it,  also  over  the  crypt,  is  the  vestry.  These  two  were 
formerly  one,  and  a  fragment  of  the  earlier  church.  The  vaulting 
and  columns  are,  however,  E.E.,  and  the  wall  now  dividing  the 
chapter-house  from  the  vestry  is  a  later  insertion,  and  cuts  through 
the  vaulting.  The  vestry  ends  in  a  round  apse  towards  the  E. 
There  are  two  circular  columns  in  the  chapter-house,  z\  bays  of  the 
vault,  and  i\  lancet  windows  on  the  S.  side.  The  Lady-chapel  loft 
(c.  1330)  is  over  both  chapter-house  and  vestry  {Builder,  Feb.  4,  1893). 

89.  Rochester. — "The  first  cloister  was  built  by  Gundulf  on  the  S. 
side  of  the  nave,  but  it  was  afterwards  removed  to  the  S.  side  of  the 
presbytery,  where  Bishop  Ernulf  built  a  chapter-house — a  very  fine 
room — the  shell  of  which  still  remains,  the  arcaded  E.  wall,  and  the 
three  western  arches  of  the  front,  wrought  with  the  diaper  which  marks 
Ernulf s  handiwork,  and  the  signs  of  the  zodiac,  with  three  rich 
windows  above  "  (M.  Walcott,  English  Minsters,  vol.  i.  p.  175).  This 
Norman  chapter-house  had  a  tiled  floor,  and  was  lighted  by  the  three 
large  windows  over  the  W.  end  arches.  It  was  not  vaulted,  but 
covered  from  the  first  by  a  wooden  roof.  During  the  14th  cent,  a 
new  roof  was  made;  the  corbels  still  exist.    It  is  doubtful  if  there 


244         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


was  a  vestibule  ;  probably  not.  Some  arcading  can  be  dimly  traced 
in  the  masonry  of  the  N.  wall  within  the  chapter-house.  On  the 
E.  wall  a  certain  amount  still  exists ;  but  it  is  concealed  by  the 
buildings  of  the  Deanery.  Ex  inf.  kindly  given  by  Canon  G.  A. 
Cooke,  Vice-Dean  of  Rochester,  who  refers  us  to  Mr.  St.  John  Hope's 
Cathedral  Church  and  Monastery  of  St.  Andrew  at  Rochester  (1900, 
Mitchell  &  Hughes) — "  a  thoroughly  scientific  and  trustworthy  work." 
The  chapter  room  (built  in  the  18th  cent.)  now  in  use  stands  on  the 
S.  side  of  the  presbytery,  and  measures  c.  17  x  50  feet,  in  which  is  in- 
cluded a  sort  of  vestibule.  The  doorway  which  leads  into  this  from  the 
SE.  transept  is  a  remarkably  fine  one  of  Decorated  date(tr.  1345),  with 
figures  of  the  Synagogue  and  the  Church  and  of  the  four  Doctors. 
During  Mr.  Cottingham's  repairs  the  mutilated  female  figure  of  the 
Church  was  "  restored  "  by  having  a  bearded  bishop's  head  given  to 
it  !    Cf.  Builder,  October  3,  1891. 

92.  St.  Andrews. — In  1236  Prior  Whyte  built  the  present  vestibule 
as  the  chapter-house,  and  c.  13 18  Bishop  Lamberton  built  a  new  and 
larger  chapter-house,  the  existing  one  being  retained  as  vestibule. 
The  W.  end  of  the  vestibule  has  three  arches,  the  lateral  ones  being 
subdivided  ;  there  is  also  a  small  lateral  opening  on  either  side  of 
the  door  (13th  cent.)  into  the  chapter-house  itself.  Cf.  Builder , 
February  3,  1894. 

94.  St.  Davids. — A  prominent  feature  in  the  eastern  views  of  the 
church  is  the  three-storied  building  projecting  eastward  from  the  N. 
transept,  the  lower  portion  being  formerly  the  chapel  of  St.  Thomas  of 
Canterbury  and  the  upper  the  chapter-house.  The  chapter-house 
now  occupies  the  position  on  the  ground-level.  The  upper  stories  are 
approached  by  a  stair  from  the  N.  aisle  of  the  presbytery.  There 
is  a  three-light  Dec.  window  at  the  east  end,  and  two  two-light 
windows  in  the  N.  wall.  The  building  is  set  askew  (towards  the  N.) 
from  the  choir  aisle.    Cf.  Builder,  December  3,  1892,  and  note  27. 

95.  St.  Paul's. — Dugdale,  St.  Paul's,  p.  87,  shows  an  open  crypt 
under  the  chapter-house  ;  cf.  plan  on  p.  108,  which  shows  four  square 
pillars.  He  says  it  began  to  be  built  in  1332  (6  Ed.  III).  The 
windows  are  Per.  with  gables  over,  the  lower  half  being  blank  with 
niches  for  figures.  The  cloisters  round  are  Per.  and  two-storied. 
John  Jebb,  writing  in  the  Ecclesiologist  (November  1842),  says  that 
M  the  chapter-house,  by  its  lofty  and  tapering  proportions,  and  the 
great  length  of  its  windows,  far  surpassed  in  exterior  beauty  the  other 
polygons  of  English  architecture,  and  had  much  that  was  foreign  in 
its  character."  In  the  Parentalia  Wren  speaks  of  it  as  "  of  a  more 
elegant  Gothick  manner."  The  roof  was  a  pyramid,  and  went  up 
high  with  a  cross  as  a  finial.  Hollar's  picture  of  St.  Paul's  on  fire 
(1666)  shows  this  roof  burnt  off  (Longman,  Three  Cathedrals,  p.  83). 
In  November  1630  the  vault  under  the  chapter-house  was  let  by  the 
Dean  and  Chapter  to  Mr.  Sands  of  the  Green  Dragon,  who  used  it 
for  a  wine  cellar.  The  cloisters  were  let  out  to  trunk-makers,  whose 
"knocking  and  noyse"  greatly  disturbed  the  church  service  (Timbs, 
Curiosities  of  London,  qu.  Longman,  op.  cit.,  p.  56). 

102.  Southwell. — The  stone  "in  which  all  the  minute  undercut 
foliage  is  executed,  and  which  still  preserves  every  contour  and  arris, 
even  every  mark  of  the  tool,  as  fresh  as  on  the  day  the  mason  left  it," 
is  "  the  wonderful  Mansfield  stone." 

103.  Tavistock. — Mitred  in  15 13.    Browne  Willis,  Mit?-ed  Abbeys, 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  245 


has  the  following:  "The  chapter-house  is  likewise  ruined.  It  was  a 
Pile  of  great  beauty,  built  as  round  as  can  possibly  be  marked  with  a 
Compass  ;  and  yet  the  Dimensions  thereof  were  large,  there  being 
36  seats  in  the  Inside  wrought  out  in  the  Walls,  all  arched  over  Head 
with  curious  carved  stones."  "The  Cloysters  .  .  .  which  were  45 
Paces  or  Yards  in  length,  the  E.  side  of  which  opened  into  the  chapter- 
house, and  it  is  probable  that  the  Church  stood  on  the  N.  side.  In 
two  arches  on  the  said  N.  side  of  the  Cloysters  are  one  or  two  broken 
monuments,  one  of  which  Tradition  says  belonged  to  the  Founder." 
"  Adjoining  to  the  N.  side  of  the  Cloysters  is  the  Churchyard,  which 
is  large  and  spatious,  and  perhaps  was  the  Cemitery  of  the  Abbey  as 
well  as  the  Parish  Church."  In  Antiquarian  Cabinet,  vol.  vi.  (1819), 
we  read  :  "The  materials  which  composed  the  chapter-house,  a  most 
magnificent  structure,  were  removed  many  years  since,  and  used  for 
the  erection  of  a  dwelling-house  for  the  Duke  of  Bedford's  steward." 

104.  Tewkesbury. — The  cloisters,  chapter-house,  and  Lady  chapel 
were  burnt  by  the  Commissioners  of  Henry  VIII. 

105.  Thornton. — Thornton  was  colonised  from  Kirkham  (Yorks). 
The  Thornton  chapter-house  work  may  be  compared  with  the  work 
about  the  Kirkham  lavatory. 

109.  Valle  Crucis. — The  plan  is  a  square  of  30  feet,  subdivided  into 
six  compartments  by  four  columns.  The  whole  is  of  14th  cent,  work, 
and  in  very  perfect  condition.  It  is  lighted  at  the  E.  end  by  three 
windows  with  reticulated  tracery  (the  tracery  of  the  centre  window 
is  modern),  and  in  the  S.  wall  are  three  recesses.  The  centre  of  the 
W.  wall  is  pierced  by  a  pointed  doorway.  The  wall  on  either  side 
is  curiously  planned.  On  the  N.  is  a  traceried  opening  of  three 
lights,  with  a  vaulted  space  behind  divided  into  three  bays,  worked 
in  the  thickness  of  the  wall.  This  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  book 
cupboard,  and  open  from  the  cloister — not,  as  now,  open  from  the 
chapter-house.  The  staircase  to  the  dorter  is  on  the  S.  side  of  the 
central  doorway  in  the  thickness  of  the  wall.  The  dorter  is  over 
sacristy,  chapter-house,  and  slype.    Cf.  Builder,  July  1,  1899. 

112.  Warwick  St.  Mary. — The  chapter-house  is  on  the  N.  side 
of  the  church,  and  ends  in  a  three-sided  apse  turned  towards  the  N. 
It  is  lighted  by  five  pointed  windows  with  square  heads  internally, 
each  divided  into  two  lights.  There  are  nine  stone  seats  with  re- 
cessed canopies  over,  each  presenting  in  front  a  foliated  arch  within 
a  square  head.    There  was  a  Dean  with  five  Canons. 

114.  Wenlock. — There  are  three  fine  round  arches,  richly  worked, 
and  two  massive  pillars  in  the  W.  front.  On  the  spandrils  are  figures 
of  saints,  e.g.  St.  Peter.  The  N.  side  of  the  house  is  complete,  and  the 
S.  side  fairly  so.  Three  feet  above  the  present  surface  is  a  projecting 
stone  string-course  running  the  whole  length,  its  face  ornamented  with 
a  chevron  moulchng.  From  this  arise  two  short  clustered  columns, 
about  15  feet  apart,  each  consisting  of  six  round  shafts,  from  which 
the  groining  (three  bays)  once  sprang.  The  wall  is  covered  with 
interlacing  archwork,  and  may  be  compared  with  Bristol.  The  effect 
is  very  rich  (see  illustrations).  Buck's  drawing  of  1731  shows  four 
round-headed  windows,  with  string-course  underneath,  at  some  little 
distance  (five  courses)  above  the  three  W.  arches  of  the  chapter-house, 
and  a  figure  in  each  of  the  two  spandrils  of  the  arches.  These  figures 
yet  remain,  and  are  shown  in  Sandby's  drawing  in  1778,  but  the 
windows  and  the  greater  portion  of  the  string-course  had  by  that 


246         Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses 


time  disappeared,  though  a  small  length  of  the  string-course  is 
there  still,  and  may  be  seen  in  our  illustration,  to  the  N.  of  the 
northernmost  arch.  Lady  C.  Milnes-Gaskell  {Spring  in  a  Shropshire 
Abbey)  tells  how  in  the  18th  cent,  the  abbey  ruins  were  regularly  used 
as  a  stone  quarry.  She  says  that  in  the  19th  cent.  "  one  complete 
set  of  arches  "  in  the  chapter-house  had  fallen.  This  may  mean  a 
portion  of  the  vaulting. 

118.  Winchester. — Some  recesses  on  the  N.  side  and  five  striking 
round  arches  supported  by  six  strong  round  pillars  with  cushion 
capitals  are  all  that  is  left  here  (see  illustration).  The  centre  arch 
is  higher  than  the  lateral  ones.  The  arch  stones  are  left  square,  and 
there  is  a  sternness  and  absence  of  ornament  which  is  very  impressive. 
The  arches  possibly  opened  into  a  short  vestibule,  as  at  Bristol, 
where  there  are  only  three  archways  of  equal  height,  and  these  much 
more  ornate,  the  supporting  pillars  standing  on  the  floor.  The  Bristol 
vestibule  is  vaulted  in  six  compartments,  and  on  either  side  of  the 
central  door  of  the  chapter-house  itself  there  is  a  window  of  two 
lights.  There  may  possibly  have  been  a  similar  arrangement  at  Win- 
chester. But  compare  the  chapter-house  at  Vezelay,  where  there  is 
no  trace  of  any  vestibule,  and  Rochester,  note  89. 

124.  Cireficester. — We  give  the  following  from  A  New  History  of 
Gloucestershire — Cirencester:  printed  by  Samuel  Rudder,  1779,  folio 
(no  author's  name  given),  p.  359 — Cirencester  Abbey :  "  Leland, 
who  had  seen  the  Abbey  Church,  says,  'The  Est  part  of  the  Chirch 
shewith  to  be  of  a  very  old  building.  The  West  part,  from  the 
Transeptum,  is  but  new  Work  to  speke  of.'  The  whole  fabric  was 
probably  demolished  soon  after  the  Surrender,  and  the  materials  were 
so  totally  removed,  that  the  precise  place  where  it  stood  was  soon 
forgotten  ;  but  there  are  two  gates,  the  Spitalgate  and  the  Almery- 
gate,  belonging  to  the  Abbey  buildings,  and  the  Abbey  barn,  still 
remaining.  Mr.  Willis  [i.e.  Browne  Willis]  conjectures  that  the 
Abbey  stood  on  the  N.  side  of  the  parish  church,  which  was  no 
doubt,  says  he,  set  within  part  of  the  Abbey  cemitery.  He  has  given 
the  following  dimensions  .  .  .  from  William  of  Worcester's  MS.  in 
Bennet-college,  Cambridge,  viz.  .  .  .  the  length  of  the  cloister  52 
grassus.  The  length  of  the  chapter-house  14  yards,  and  10  yards 
in  breadth — the  grassus,  or  step,  is  about  2  feet."  We  have  not 
yet  been  able  to  verify  these  figures,  but  we  learn  from  the  Librarian 
of  C.C.  College,  Cambridge,  that  they  have  William  of  Wor- 
cester's "  Itinerary  "  amongst  their  MSS.  (No.  210) — "a  very  curious 
and  almost  illegible  traveller's  note-book,"  in  which  "many  great 
churches  are  described."  It  was  edited  and  translated  in  1778  by 
the  antiquary  James  Nasmith  (1 740-1808),  who  was  a  Fellow  of 
the  College.  William  of  Worcester  (1415-82?)  was  a  chronicler  and 
traveller,  born  at  Bristol  and  educated  at  Oxford.  He  was  afterwards 
secretary  to  Sir  John  Fastolf,  and  his  name  often  occurs  in  the 
Paston  Letters.  His  Itinerary  is  said  to  be  a  "mass  of  undigested 
notes  of  very  unequal  importance,  but  interesting,  if  only  as  an 
anticipation  of  Leland's  greater  work  "  (Diet.  Nat.  Biog.). 

Note  A. — Browne  Willis  (1682- 1760),  Mitred  Abbeys,  in  speaking  of 
the  following  (all  mitred  abbeys),  says  that  in  each  case  the  monastic 
buildings  (including  chapter-house)  have  been  entirely  destroyed  : 
St.  Albans,  St.  Edmundsbury,  Peterborough,  Colchester,  Winchel- 


Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses  247 


combe,  Croyland,  Reading,  Abingdon,  Waltham,  Shrewsbury,  Ciren- 
cester, Bardney,  Hulme  St.  Bennet's,  Thorney,  Ramsey,  Malmesbury, 
Selby,  Coventry,  St.  John's  Jerusalem,  Evesham,  and  Tavistock.  In 
some  of  these  cases  the  gatehouse  was  spared.  In  others  some  traces 
of  other  buildings  yet  remain.  But  the  statement  seems  generally 
true. 

Note  B,  see  p.  178. — With  regard  to  circular  buildings  in  England  at 
the  time  of  the  Norman  Conquest,  the  following  extract  from  Browne 
Willis,  Mitred  Abbeys,  may  be  of  interest :  "  The  round  Chapell  in 
which  St.  Edmund  was  buried  before  the  Translation  of  his  bones." 
This  "round  chapell"  was  at  Bury  St.  Edmund's  Abbey.  It  was 
pulled  down  between  1257  and  1279.  Browne  Willis  gives  a  reference 
to  Leland,  vol.  iv.  p.  130.  King  Edmund  was  martyred  by  the 
Danes  at  Hoxne  in  A.D.  870,  and  buried  there.  His  bones  were 
moved  to  Bury  Abbey  in  A.D.  903,  which  is  the  probable  date  of  the 
"  round  chapell,"  and  there  (apparently)  they  stayed  till  their  "  Trans- 
lation" in  the  13th  century  to  a  more  imposing  shrine. 

Note  C. — Since  the  foregoing  paper  was  written  we  have  seen  The 
Catholic  Encyclopedia,  London,  vol.  i.,  1907,  vol.  xiv.,  191 2,  and  we 
gladly  print  the  following  extract,  which  corroborates  several  of  our 
statements  :  "  The  chapter-house  is  not  mentioned  by  St.  Benedict 
(d.  543)"  [cf.  op  tit..  Abbey,  "Although  St.  Benedict  makes  no 
specific  mention  of  a  chapter-house,  nevertheless  he  does  order  his 
monks  to  come  together  presently  after  supper  to  read  'Collations'  " 
(H.  N.  Birt,  O.S.B.)],  "nor  is  it  indicated  in  the  ancient  plan  of  the 
Abbey  of  St.  Gall,  drawn  up  in  820;  the  monks  then  probably 
assembled  for  chapter  in  a  part  of  the  cloister  near  the  church.  The 
need  of  a  separate  building  made  itself  felt,  and  the  chapter-house 
is  mentioned  in  the  statutes  approved  by  the  Council  of  Aachen 
in  816.  .  .  .  The  rectangular  room,  with  a  wooden  roof,  and  little 
architectural  distinction,  is  characteristic  of  the  Continent  of  Europe. 
In  England  the  chapter-house  was  the  object  of  very  careful  designing 
and  elaborate  ornamentation;  the  polygonal-shaped  chapter-house 
is  a  triumph  of  English  13th  cent,  architecture,  and  no  single  instance 
of  it  is  found  either  in  France  or  Germany.  The  earliest  example  is 
probably  that  of  Lincoln,  decagonal  in  shape,  which  was  built  from 
1240-60.  .  .  .  The  ingenious  theory  which  seeks  to  identify  the 
polygonal  shape  with  secular  foundations  breaks  down  in  the  presence 
of  the  circular  chapter-house  of  Worcester,  and  the  octagonal  chapter- 
house of  Westminster  Abbey,  both  Benedictine  in  origin  "  (Edward 
Myers,  M.A.  Cantab.,  Professor  of  Dogmatic  Theology  and  of 
Patrology,  St.  Edmund's  College,  Ware). 

Note  £>.— With  reference  to  the  foregoing  Note  C,  and  to  p.  49, 
there  is  a  very  interesting  chapter-house  at  the  Abbey  of  St.  George 
at  Bocherville,  1157-1211.  It  is  illustrated  in  Cotman  and  Dawson 
Turner,  Architectural  Antiquities  of  Normandy,  fol.  (London,  1822), 
vol.  i.  Plate  11.  This  plate  gives  five  capitals,  and  in  the  text,  p.  6, 
is  the  following:  "In  the  chapter-house  which  stands  between  the 
church  and  the  monastic  buildings,  the  capitals  are  decidedly  his- 
torical, and  exhibit  an  apparent  connection  very  unusual  in  similar 
cases."  "This  part  of  the  building  is  known  to  have  been  erected 
towards  the  close  of  the  12th  cent.,  and  is  consequently  100  years 
posterior  to  the  church.  It  is  now  (1822)  extremely  dilapidated,  and 
employed  as  a  mill.    The  capitals  here  figured  are  taken  from  three 


248         Some  Notes  on  Chapter- Houses 


arches  that  formed  the  W.  front."  To  the  pillars  which  supported 
them  were  attached  large  figures  (half  life  size).  Cotman  (vol.  ii.  p.  97, 
Plate  82)  also  gives  a  drawing  of  the  large  14th  cent,  chapter-house 
at  Montivilliers  Abbey-church.  There  is  no  plan  attached.  It  looks 
more  like  a  north  aisle,  and  has  a  deep  vestibule  of  the  same  width 
at  the  west,  opening  into  the  churchyard,  and  a  procession  is  shown 
issuing  from  it.  The  date  given  is  1390.  Apparently  the  early 
Norman  chapter-house  was  quite  on  a  par  with  our  English  ones. 
But  there  was  not  afterwards  on  the  Continent  the  growth  which 
took  place  in  England.  The  chapter-house  at  Santa  Maria  Novella 
(1350)  does  not  show  any  advance  architecturally  on  that  at  Vezelay, 
c.  1 160  (we  are  not  speaking  of  its  adornment),  at  all  corresponding 
to  the  advance  made  in  England  from  the  Winchester  or  Rochester 
chapter-houses  to  those  of  Chester,  Wells,  and  York. 


249 


COMMUNICATIONS 

A  NARRATIVE  OF  THE  "FIFTEEN" 

By  Miss  Dorothy  Fitzherbert-Brockholes 
(Mrs.  Longueville) 


THE  following  story  of  what  happened  in  Lan- 
cashire in  the  Jacobite  incursion  of  17 15  is 
copied  from  a  manuscript  in  possession  of  Rev. 
W.  Pedder,  Churchtown,  Garstang.  There  is  no 
signature  and  no  clue  as  to  the  writer  of  the  manu- 
script, which  is  in  the  form  of  sheets  of  paper  in 
a  paper  cover,  the  whole  evidently  put  together  by 
an  amateur.  It  forms  a  scrap-book  of  thirteen 
pages ;  three  have  been  cut  out,  two  at  the  end. 
The  first  entry  is  a  deed  (copy)  of  date  1729, 
followed  by  a  miscellaneous  collection  of  writing 
in  another  hand,  estate  accounts,  rhymes,  a  song  (?), 
and  another  copy  of  an  agreement  between  Edw. 
Entwisle  and  James  Dewhurst,  date  1730,  with 
signatures  of  a  Wm.  and  Dorothy  Bertwisle. 

The  account  of  Preston  doings  is  in  the  same 
handwriting  as  the  latter,  and  shows  signs  of 
having  been  copied  in  from  some  other  source, 
probably  manuscript,  since  some  of  the  words — 
Atient,  captivalate,  &c. — may  be  transcripts  of  a 
difficult  handwriting. 

An  Account  what  happened  in  Preston. 
Be[ginn]ing  No'br  7,  1 715 

A  week  before  the  Date  we  had  several  flying  reports  of  a 
Body  of  men  together  under  the  Command  of  the  Lord  Der- 
wentwater  and  Mr.  Foster,  two  Northumberland  Gentlemen, 


250  A  Narrative  of  the  "Fifteen" 


and  of  their  march  sometimes  towards  Penrith,  then  to  New- 
castle, &c.  To  all  which  little  Credit  was  allowed  till  militia 
under  the  command  of  Colonel  Hoghton  now  assembled  at 
Lancaster  who  had  certain  information  that  the  Scots  and 
Northumbrians  were  within  three  days  march  of  him.  He 
dispatched  an  Express  to  Colonel  Stanhope,  who  was  then  in 
Preston  with  his  Regiment  of  Dragoons,  to  desire  his  assistance 
to  appose  the  beforementioned  People.  The  Colonal  com- 
municats  the  Express  to  our  Mayor  and  the  rest  of  the  Gentle- 
men Inhabitants,  who  all  agreed  it  was  not  advisable  to  make 
any  opposition  being  so  much  inferior  in  Number  to  the  Scots ; 
and  Expresses  were  dispatched  to  the  Lord  Townsend,  secretary 
of  State,  Laying  before  him  the  ill  posture  of  defence  the  Country 
was  in,  praying  his  assistance  for  Forces  and  Arms  from  Chester 
for  use  of  the  Militia.  No  answer  came  to  this  Express,  only  the 
Boy  heard  in  the  Road  that  General  Wills  with  a  considerable 
body  of  men  were  on  their  march  for  Lancashire.  This 
coming  by  no  better  hand  Little  Credit  was  given  to  it. 

On  Monday  the  7th  an  Express  from  Lancaster  signed  By 
Gibson,  Rigby,  and  Cole  came  to  Colonel  Stanhope,  Assuring 
the  Scots  were  on  Sunday  quartered  at  Hornby,  Kirkby  Lonsdale 
and  Burton,  and  intended  to  be  at  Lancaster  that  night.  Colonel 
Hoghton  and  his  men  maid  of  from  Lancaster  in  a  confused 
manner  :  happy  was  he  that  had  the  best  feet !  However  about 
two  Hundred  kept  together  till  Tuesday  when  there  were  fresh 
Expresses  of  the  Enemy's  advance  \  so  about  four  in  the  Morning 
Colonel  Stanhope  marched  his  troops  out  of  our  town.  Every- 
body was  in  great  confusion ;  most  or  all  of  ye  Better  Sort 
Removed  themselves  and  effects. 

Wednesday  about  n  at  night  all  the  Northumbrian  horse 
entred  the  Town  and  on  Thursday  they  were  followed  by  the 
Scots  foot,  making  in  all  above  two  thousand  men.  Officers 
were  appointed  for  the  Proclamation  of  their  King,  which  they 
did  by  the  stile  and  title  of  James  the  Third.  The  Magistrates 
of  the  Town  did  not  appear  in  the  solemnity.  No  compulsion 
was  offered;  every  Body  was  at  his  own  disposal.  Thursday 
night,  Friday  and  that  night  were  spent  in  refreshing  themselves, 
and  on  Saterday  morning  November  1 2  they  resolved  to  pursue 
their  march  towards  Manchester.  Their  Vanguard  had  not  got 
above  three  Miles  when  they  were  unexpectedly  alarmed  with 
the  appearance  of  a  considerable  Body  of  men  coming  to  attack 
'em  under  the  Command  of  General  Wills.  This  put  the 
Scots  &c.  in  the  utmost  consternation,  and  what  Measures  to 
concert  the[y]  were  utterly  at  a  Loss.  Scarce  a  man  amongs 
them  knew  Military  discipline,  or  at  Least  wanted  knowledge  to 
dispose  of  so  larg  a  Body  of  men  to  any  advantage. 

But  to  return  to  King  George's  forces  and  be  more  portickler 


A  Narrative  of  the  "Fifteen"  251 

about  their  march  it  is  as  follows:  Fryday,  Novbr.  the  nth, 
Major  General  Wills  with  the  Regiments  of  Dragoons  of  Wynn, 
Honywood,  Munden  and  Dormer  and  Preston's  Regmt.  of  foot 
marched  from  Manchester  to  Wiggain,  where  Pitts'  horse  and 
Stanhope's  Dragoons  were  in  Quarters.  The  General  left 
orders  for  Newton's  which  were  marching  from  Worchester 
to  halt  at  Manchester  and  keep  that  Town  in  Awe.  The 
General  upon  his  arrival  at  Wiggan  received  advice  that  the 
Scots  were  still  at  Preston,  upon  which  he  gave  orders  for  the 
march  of  the  tropps  by  Brake  of  day  next  morning.  He  formed 
the  Horse  into  three  Brigades :  that  is,  Wynn's  and  Honey- 
wood's  under  the  Command  of  Brigadeer  Honywood,  Munden's 
and  Stanhope  under  the  command  of  Brigadeer  Munden,  and 
Pitts  and  Dormer  under  the  Comd.  of  Brigadeer  Dormer. 
Saturday  the  12  the  Troops  Begun  their  march  in  the  following 
order:  Preston  Regt.  of  foot  in  the  front  with  a  Captain  and 
fifty  men  for  their  vanguard  sustained  By  a  Detachment  of  a 
Captain  and  50  Dragoons;  Brigadeer  Honey  wood  Brigade 
followed  the  foot,  Dormer's  after  Honywood  and  Munden's  in 
the  rear,  and  the  baggage  in  the  rear  of  all. 

About  one  in  the  afternoon  they  arrived  at  Ribble  Bridge, 
where  were  several  of  the  foot  and  horse  belonging  to  the  Scots. 
But  upon  the  approach  of  King  George's  troops  they  Retired  into 
the  town  without  disputing  the  passage.  As  soon  as  they  had 
gained  the  Rising  Ground  near  the  town  the  Troops  Drew  up 
till  the  Genaral  had  viued  the  Auents,  which  he  found  to  be 
strongly  Barracaded  and  two  peices  of  Cannon  planted  on  each 
Barracade.  As  soon  [as]  the  General  came  back  he  ordered  the 
following  disposition  for  the  Atacks.  Preston's  Regt.  of  foot 
commanded  by  the  Lord  Forrister,  a  Captain,  and  50  Dragoons 
of  each  of  the  five  regts.  with  colonal,  Lowetennant-Colonal, 
and  magor  to  command  'em  to  dismount  to  sustain  Preston's 
and  Brigadeer  Honywood  Regiment,  the  whole  to  be  com- 
manded by  Brigadeer  Honywood,  for  the  attack  at  the  Church- 
gate  end ;  and  for  the  attack  at  the  Fryergate  The  Regiments 
of  Wagn 1  and  Dormer  and  a  squadron  of  Stanhope's  were  ordered 
to  dismount  under  the  command  of  Brigadeer  Dormer;  and 
Brigadeer  Munden  with  the  Regiment  of  Pitts,  Munden,  and 
a  squadron  of  Stanhope's  Regiment  Remained  on  horseback  to 
sustain  Brigadeer  Dormer.  So  the  Troops  were  all  Employed 
in  the  two  attacks. 

As  soon  as  the  disposition  was  maid  and  the  Troops  ready 
the  General  gave  the  Brigadeers  that  commanded  the  two  attacks 
orders  to  march  and  gain  the  ends  of  the  town,  to  set  the  houses 
on  fire,  to  dislodge  the  enemy  from  their  Barcaide,  and  to  make 


1  For  Wynn 


252  A  Narrative  of  the  "Fifteen" 


such  lodgments  for  those  men  as  to  prevent  their  sallying  out 
upon  them  or  make  their  escape. 

Brigadeer  Honywood  with  the  Troops  under  his  command 
marched  and  attacked  the  first  barrier,  which  they  Immediately 
abandoned  and  retired  to  the  second  Barracade,  which  was 
strong  both  be  nature  and  art ;  on  which  they  had  two  pieces  of 
Cannon  planted.  Brigadeer  Honywood  finding  that  the  taking 
the  Barracade  would  cost  him  a  great  many  men,  thought  it 
proper  to  take  possession  of  the  two  great  houses  (vizt.  Sir  Henry 
Hoghton's  and  Mr.  Eyre)  within  50  yards  ont,  by  which  he 
saved  his  men  from  the  fire  of  the  Scots,  &c.  wh[ich  w]as  very 
great  and  annoyed  them  much  from  the  windows.  In  which 
situation  they  Remained  till  night  and  then  threw  up  Brest  works 
to  secure  himself  from  the  sallies  and  posted  his  men  so  advan- 
tageously that  it  was  not  possible  to  make  their  escape  at  the  end 
of  the  town.  As  soon  as  he  got  his  men  under  cover  he  ordered 
the  house  between  him  and  the  Barracade  to  be  set  on  fire; 
which  was  done  accord'ly,  tho'  not  without  the  Loss  of  some 
men.  Brigadeer  Dormer  with  the  troops  under  his  command 
gained  the  end  of  the  town,  but  sustained  a  great  fire  in  their 
approach,  and  set  the  houses  on  fire,  which  burnt  up  the  Barra- 
cade. Brigadeer  Dormer  Received  a  shot  in  his  leg  in  this 
attack. 

A  little  before  day  the  General  viewed  all  the  posts  and  gave 
orders  for  making  a  communication  betwixt  the  two  attacks  in 
order  to  sustain  each  other  in  case  they  were  pursued. 

On  Sunday,  November  13th,  General  Carpenter  arrived  with 
the  Regiments  of  Cobham,  Churchill,  and  Molesworth  about 
12  a  clock.  At  two  the  Scots  sent  out  one  of  their  officers  to 
captivalate ;  upon  which  General  Wills  sent  Lwetent. -Colonel 
Cottam  into  the  town  to  acquaint  them  that  he  would  give  them 
no  other  terms  than  that  of  Prisoners  at  Discretion  and  that 
they  must  be  subject  to  the  King's  mercy.  The  heads  of  the 
Gentlemen  told  Colonal  Cottam  that  there  was  a  dispute  between 
the  English  and  Scots,  but  they  hoped  if  the  General  would 
grant  them  a  cessation  of  arms  till  next  morning  at  break  of  day 
they  should  be  able  to  settle  the  whole  affair  as  he  Demanded. 
After  Colonal  Cottam  had  carried  several  Messages  the  General 
agreed  to't,  provided  they  should  make  no  works  in  town  nor 
suffer  any  of  their  people  to  escape.  Colonal  Cottam  brought 
out  Lord  Derwentwater  for  the  English  and  Mackintosh  for  the 
Scots  as  hostages  that  what  was  demanded  should  be  complied  with. 

At  brake  of  day  next  morning  the  Northumbrians  and  Scots 
submitted  to  King  George's  mercy,  and  Colonal  Cottam  was 
sent  back  to  take  possession  of  the  Town  and  to  order  King 
George's  troops  to  march  in  and  disarm  the  people ;  which  was 
done  accordingly. 


16  )oU  $h«ftcx  CCdfA.TUc.  S~  X'V,  lol        *)  . 


A  Narrative  of  the  "Fifteen"  253 

Erigadeer  Honeywood  Received  a  contusion  on  the  shoulder 
by  a  musket  shot  and  Major  Bland  a  slight  one  on  the  arm  and 
the  horse  he  was  on  was  shot  through  the  neck.  There  was 
killed  at  Brigadeer  Honeywood  attack  two  Captains,  one  Ensign'* 
and  28  soulders;  Wounded,  Lord  Forrester,  Major  Lawson,  two 
Liewetenants,  4  Ensigns,  and  fifty  privatemen :  Total  killed  and 
wounded  in  Brigadeer  Hony wood's  attack  82.  At  Brigadeer 
Dormer's  attack  where  nine  men  killed :  wounded,  the  Brigadeer, 
one  Captain,  one  Liewtennant,  one  Colonal,  and  39  men :  Total 
killed  and  wounded  at  Brigadeer  Dormor's  attack  48  ;  at  Briga- 
deer Hony  wood's  82  :  in  all  130  men.  This  account  I  had  from 
a  Dragoon  officer  who  highly  lemended  the  Loss  of  their  own 
men  and  made  little  mention  how  many  suffred  in  Preston  foot ; 
which  by  the  way  did  most  received  the  greatest  fire  and  lost 
more  men  than  all  the  Dragoon  Regmt.  put  together.  An  Exact 
account  of  the  loss  was  never  given;  To  keep  it  a  secret  was 
thought  necessary.  I  heard  a  Gentleman  in  Preston  Regiment 
afferm  the[y]  lost  upwards  of  80  men  in  the  attacks  besides  what 
were  killed  coming  to  the  Clarkyard ; 1  which  most  people  knew 
were  considerable.  There  is  nothing  more  worth  taking  notice 
of,  But  the  times  and  places  the  unfortunate  people  suffered  at. 


December  the  first,  17 15.  Major  Nairn,  Captain  Lockhart, 
Captain  Shaftoe*  Captain  Ereskin"were  shot  at 
Preston      .  -4 

Jan.  the  28?  Rich.  Shuttleworth,  Roger  Moncaster,  Tho 
Coupe,  Will  Butler,  Will  Arkwright  were  hanged 
at  Preston  5 

Feb.  the  9th.  Rich.  Chorley,  Esq.f  James  Drumondf  Willi. 

Black,  Donald  Macdonald,  Jno.  Oward,^  Berry 
Kennedy,7  Jno.  Rowbotham  were  hanged  at 
Preston       .       .       .       .       .  .  .7 

Feb.  the  10th.  James  Blundall^  James  Finch,  Jno.  Mac- 
gallivery,  Will.  Whaley,  James  Burne  were  hanged 
at  Wiggan  5 

Feb.  the  nth.  Tho.  Sudell,"  Will.  Harries/4 Stephen  Sagerf 
Joseph  Porter  and  John  Fined  2  were  hanged  at 
Manchester  5 

Feb.  the  i4th?^Allen  Sanderson,  Tho.  Cartmell,  Tho.  Goose 

and  Joseph  Wadsworth  were  hanged  at  Garstang  .  4 

Feb.  the  24th.  James   Earl  of  Derwenter  and  Viscount 

Kenmure  were  beheaded  on  Towrhill  ...  2 


1  Mr.  H.  W.  Clemensha  of  Preston  says  that  this  place  still  exists,  T^^flffi^ 
and  is  known  as  "Clark's  Yard"  ;  it  is  not  far  from  the  site  of  Sir  7jf2£jftt66). 
Henry  Hoghton's  house,  but  fifty  yards  nearer  the  centre  of  the  town. 

8  Finch,  Chetham  Society ',  vol.  v.  p.  194.  ^ 

Ar'  tU&JzVUUia^  *  firfyiU       ^<ulUJ  fr»        TixUtUc^'  4  p^SA.  <V>f&*»-  C9>Ju»^J< ,<x.<U 

6  >W«a<*  ( :K>fuVUh,  £*c .  <sk. ;  \aUJUktk  ,  *f>  ■  <*t .,  p  86] 

7  Soil  ~^KwuX,  op  cit  j+ll,  -Cut  r~R<yu^'  K^^JL,         W^U*t>-  of.  cd     a  JU* 


254  <A  Narrative-  of .  the  "Fifteen" 


May  the  8.  1716.'  Mr.  Collingwoodf  Mr.  Burnetf  Mr.  Dru- 

mond  and  Mr.  Hunter  were  hanged  at  Liverpool  .  4 
May  the  14.  Colonal  Oxburghswas  hanged  at  Tyburn  .  1 
May  25.  Mr.  Gascoigne*was  hanged  at  Tyburn  1 
July  13.  Mr  Paul  the  Parsonj  John  Hall  Esq.  were  executed 

at  Tyburn  2 

October  2.  Captain  Bruce,^  Jno.  Winkley/  Tho.  Shuttle- 
worth,  George  Hodgson,0  and  Charnley"  were 
hanged  at  Lancaster    ...       ...  5 

Thus  far  Mr.  Ashton  gives  an  account ;  but  I  am  very  certain 
that  4  more  were  executed  at  Lancaster?  wereof  I  remember  the 
names  of  two — viet.  Mr  Crow,  an  Aberdeen  Scot  and  a  Mathe- 
meticion,  Another  called  Mackintosh,  whose  head  was  set  over 
the  Castle  Gates. 

Therefore  executed  in  all  49  * 


^  tU^ritr^k  VorvdA  tfu  MjUV  (  WJC  .  Jhlrjt .  «f  J^l**.  Vlil,  >%  not 

r  Mc*,^  Chclm*  CfUo*,  % 4  H1  ^  **f) 

C*j<XU   'tfu  Xi.fr  *{ih*-  3UcA  Bull  oa  cUd  ^^^L^tfrf 

^JbZx  Ir^UJL  CddhvL*.  Hr^cLA^i,  &*c~W  U*ut  $*yn*~ .  3+3)  -  t£££f£^^ 'P  ' 

Cgif. 'fixe  So*  xXVHi.Jt). 

^''^SwiJ^i^^'^^   CUwJty  4  WaJl&T.  **x*utc<i  f**  4u^L  Tuonan  U*^- 

«  *  ^  2U-^  %  2»r.  ^Zj^ 


255 


OLD  SWAN  CHARITY  SCHOOL 

By  James  Hoult 


THE  origin  of  the  School  was  due  to  the 
philanthropic  sympathies  of  four  local  gentle- 
men— Thomas  Staniforth,  Thomas  Parke,  Richard 
Watt,  and  Joseph  Jackson.  They  built  and  fur- 
nished the  school,  and  then  asked  the  Bishop  of 
Chester,  in  whose  diocese  it  was,  to  nominate  a 
master,  they  agreeing  to  contribute  thirty  guineas 
a  year  as  his  salary.  A  Mr.  John  Holme  was 
accordingly  nominated  and  appointed.  The  school 
was  built  to  be  a  free  school  for  the  children  of 
the  poor.  It  seems  to  have  been  opened  at  the 
beginning  of  1794,  for  in  April  that  year  the  master 
received  his  first  quarter's  salary. 

The  four  gentlemen  who  provided  the  school 
were  so  notable  that  a  short  account  of  each  is 
worth  recording. 

Thomas  Staniforth  was  a  man  of  wealth.  He 
lived  at  Broad-Green  Hall,  and  had  also  a  town 
residence  in  Ranelagh  Street,  which  eventually 
became  the  Waterloo  Hotel,  familiarly  known  as 
Lynn's  ;  its  exact  situation  is  now  part  of  the  main 
entrance  to  the  Cheshire  Lines  Railway  station. 
The  Staniforth  family  have  had  some  useful  and 
distinguished  members,  among  them  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Staniforth,  who  was  stroke  in  the  Oxford 
Eight  in  the  first  University  boat-race  between 
Oxford  and  Cambridge,  rowed  in  1829,  and  result- 
ing in  an  easy  win  for  Oxford.     He  afterwards 


256  Old  Swan  Charity  School 


resided  at  Storrs  Hall,  Windermere.  The  present 
representative  of  the  old  Liverpool  family  is  the 
squire  of  Kirk  Hammerton,  Yorkshire. 

Locally  the  school  was  called  Parke's  School,  and 
it  would  appear  that  members  of  that  family  took 
a  great  interest  in  it.  Mr.  Parke  of  Highfield  was 
the  founder  of  a  famous  family,  the  most  eminent 
member  of  which  was  James  Parke,  in  his  day  a 
well-known  lawyer  and  judge.  He  was  knighted 
in  1828  and  made  baron  in  1856,  thereby  helping 
to  make  national  history,  for  it  was  he  who  was 
objected  to  by  the  members  of  the  House  of  Lords. 
They  declined  to  allow  him,  as  Lord  Wensleydale, 
to  sit  in  their  House,  on  the  ground  that  his  was 
merely  a  life  peerage,  and  they  insisted  at  the  time 
upon  all  new  members  of  their  House  being  heredi- 
tary peers.  Lord  Wensleydale,  lawfully  summoned 
to  Parliament,  was  shut  out  from  his  seat  till  the 
new  patent  was  granted  securing  the  seat  after  him 
to  his  male  descendants,  if  any.  He  had  three 
daughters:  1.  Cecilia  Anne,  who  married  in  1841 
Sir  Matthew  White  Ridley,  baronet,  and  had  a  son, 
the  first  Viscount  Ridley.  2.  Mary,  who  married 
the  Hon.  Charles  Wentworth  George  Howard,  son 
of  the  sixth  Earl  of  Carlisle,  and  her  son  (born 
1843)  is  George  James,  ninth  Earl  of  Carlisle. 
3.  Charlotte  Alice,  who  married  in  1853  tne  Hon. 
William  Lowther,  brother  of  the  third  Earl  of 
Lonsdale;  her  son,  born  in  1855,  is  the  present 
Speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons.  Thomas 
Parke,  Lord  Wensleydale's  brother,  was  one  of 
the  founders  and  was  first  treasurer ;  at  his  death 
his  widow,  Anne  Parke,  took  his  place,  showing  a 
keen  interest  in  the  girls'  department  of  the  school. 

Joseph  Jackson  of  Fir  Grove,  Old  Swan,  and 
Callender  Court,  Derby  Street  (now  Whitechapel), 
Liverpool,  was  evidently  a  landed  proprietor  or 
wealthy,  for  in  the  Liverpool  Directory  of  1800  he 


Old  Swan  Charity  School 


257 


has  " esquire"  affixed  to  his  name ;  in  those  days  it 
indicated  more  than  it  does  to-day.  Joseph  Jackson 
was  one  of  the  Commissioners  appointed  under  the 
Wavertree  Enclosure  Act,  8  Geo.  Ill,  c.  51,  that 
notorious  Act  which  Bamber  Gascoigne,  M.P.  for 
Liverpool  and  Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Wavertree, 
was  the  means  of  passing  through  Parliament, 
whereby  a  large  amount  of  land  (public)  of  trian- 
gular shape,  extending  from  Monk's  Well,  Waver- 
tree, to  Wavertree  Nook  in  one  direction,  and  to 
what  used  to  be  Elm  House  (Alderman  Watt's)  in 
the  other  direction,  was  divided  between  Bamber 
Gascoigne  and  his  tenants,  he  taking  for  himself 
the  lion's  share.  Joseph  Jackson  was  the  senior 
Commissioner  appointed  to  see  that  the  Act  was 
properly  carried  out.  His  daughter  and  heiress 
married  Roger  Parr,  merchant,  of  Paradise  Street, 
and  they  had  a  son,  Joseph  Parr,  who  succeeded 
to  his  grandfather's  estate  and  lived  at  Fir  Grove, 
where  he  died  in  1820.  This  Joseph  Parr  in  his 
time  acted  as  a  trustee  to  the  Old  Swan  School. 
As  the  Parrs  became  a  noted  family  and  the  bank 
bearing  their  name  is  world-renowned,  it  is  worthy 
of  record  that  Joseph  Parr  married  Ellen,  daughter 
of  Matthew  Lyon  of  Warrington,  on  18th  October 
1780,  and  they  had  two  children:  Joseph  Parr  of 
Fir  Grove,  who  died  unmarried  19th  June  1824, 
was  a  banker  at  Warrington,  founding  "  Parr's 
Bank  "  ;  and  a  younger  brother,  Thomas  Parr,  who 
became  later  a  trustee  of  Old  Swan  School,  and 
who  was  heir  to  his  brother's  estate.  He  afterwards 
removed  to  Grappenhall,  Cheshire. 

Richard  Watt  lived  at  Oak  Hill  House,  Old 
Swan.  He  had  been  a  poor  boy  himself.  He  came 
originally  from  Standish,  went  out  to  the  West 
Indies,  became  a  sugar  planter,  and  returned  to  his 
old  home  a  very  rich  man.  His  extensive  stables 
are  still  to  be  seen  near  the  school.    Miss  Watt  of 


258  Old  Swan  Charity  School 

Speke  Hall  is  descended  from  his  nephew  and  heir, 
another  Richard  Watt. 

It  is  pleasant  to  find  that  owners  and  occupiers 
of  the  larger  houses  of  the  district  took  an  interest 
in  the  school  and  made  contributions  towards  its 
upkeep.  They  were — James  Clemens,  who  built 
Ashfield,  Knotty  Ash  :  he  became  a  County  Magis- 
trate, and  was  Mayor  of  Liverpool  in  1775  ;  Edmund 
Molyneux  of  the  Round  House,  or  as  it  is  now 
called  the  Old  Hall,  Sandfield  Park  ;  and  Alderman 
Peter  Rigby,  who  built  Moss  House,  Old  Swan, 
and  became  Mayor  of  Liverpool  in  the  year  1774. 

Among  the  names  of  later  trustees  are  the  fol- 
lowing :  Robert  Preston,  who  bought  Fir  Grove  in 
1828  from  the  executors  of  Joseph  Parr,  and  was 
the  founder  of  the  noted  distillery  firm  ;  and  John 
Clarke,  a  town  councillor,  who  became  Mayor  of 
Liverpool  in  1809.  His  brother  was  for  many 
years  Recorder  of  Liverpool. 

The  total  cost  of  the  school  and  schoolhouse 
amounted  to  ^351,  is.  4d.  It  took  a  long  time  to 
build,  the  first  payment  being  dated  26th  November 
1 79 1  (for  the  making  of  a  ditch),  the  last  (for  the 
writing  of  the  covenant  deed)  25th  May  1795.  The 
building  is  still  in  existence,  and  is  used  as  a  mission 
room.  The  writer  is  indebted  to  Rev.  W.  J.  Elslie, 
M.A.,  for  permission  to  inspect  the  minute-book  of 
the  old  school. 

The  Proposals. 

The  following  were  the  original  Proposals  of  the 
founders.  Some  of  them — for  example,  the  restric- 
tions on  teaching  writing  and  arithmetic — appear 
very  strange  to  moderns  : 


Old  Swan  Charity  School 


259 


The  Subscribers  having  been  at  the  Expence  of  erecting  a 
House  at  the  West  End  of  the  Mill  Lane  near  the  Old 
Swan  in  the  Township  of  West  Derby  for  the  purpose  of 
establishing  a  Charity  School  for  the  Benefit  of  the  Poor 
in  the  Neighbourhood  thereof,  the  chief  Object  of  which 
shall  be  to  promote  Decency  of  Behaviour  and  by  teaching 
the  Children  to  read  to  instill  into  their  Minds  more  effectu- 
ally the  Principles  of  Religion  and  a  proper  Sense  of  moral 
Duty,  have  come  to  the  following  Resolutions : — 
1  st.  That  the  Master  of  the  said  School  shall  be  a  Member  of 
the  established  Church  of  England,  of  good  moral  character,  of 
sufficient  Knowledge  and  Ability  to  instruct  Children  in  reading 
the  English  Language  and  also  in  Writing  and  Accounts.  He 
shall  not  be  in  Holy  Orders  or  a  Teacher  of  a  seperate  Congre- 
gation ;  though  professing  himself  of  the  Established  Church ; 
Nevertheless  to  prevent  the  Master,  as  far  as  is  possible  under 
any  Authority  whatever  from  keeping  possession  of  the  School 
contrary  to  the  Rules  prescribed ;  the  Master  shall  previous  to 
his  appointment  enter  into  a  Bond  to  the  Patrons  in  a  penalty 
equal  to  the  Amount  of  six  Years  clear  Salary  (with  a  Surety,  if 
required)  conditioned  to  quit  the  School,  Dwelling  House  and 
Premises  within  four  Months  after  Notice  given  him  ;  any  Licence 
or  Authority  to  the  Contrary  notwithstanding. 

2nd.  That  the  Master  shall  have  a  Salary  of  thirty  Guineas 
per  Annum  to  be  paid  quarterly  with  the  Use  of  the  House  and 
School  free  of  any  Expence  or  Deduction  whatever  (the  Glass 
Windows  excepted  which  must  at  all  Times  be  repaired  and  kept 
in  Order  by  him) ;  and  it  is  also  expected  and  understood  that 
he  shall  keep  a  good  and  sufficient  Fire  in  the  School  at  his  own 
Expence  from  the  1st.  of  October  to  the  1st.  of  May;  and  in 
order  to  prevent  the  Premises  from  going  out  of  repair,  the 
Residence  of  the  Master,  if  a  single  man,  must  not  be  at  a 
greater  Distance  than  one  Quarter  of  a  Mile  from  the  School, 
provided  he  does  not  live  in  the  House,  but  should  it  so  be  that 
the  Master  is  married  or  hath  a  Family,  it  is  expected  that  he 
shall  reside  in  the  House,  upon  pain  in  either  Case  of  forfeiting 
the  School  for  Non  Residence. 

3rd.  That  at  the  first  Meeting  of  the  Subscribers  one  of  them 
shall  be  appointed  the  Treasurer  and  Visitor,  who  shall  receive 
the  Annual  Subscriptions  for  the  Support  and  Maintenance  of 
the  said  School,  and  likewise  any  and  all  free  Gifts  or  Bene- 
factions of  such  Persons  as  are  disposed  to  encourage  the  same, 
and  likewise  attend  to  any  alterations  or  Repairs  that  may  be 
necessary  at  or  about  the  Building ;  who  shall  continue  in  Office 
till  the  Annual  Meeting  to  be  held  at  the  School  on  the  second 
Monday  in  March  following  at  twelve  o'Clock  at  Noon,  when 
he  must  make  up  his  Accounts,  be  re-elected  or  another  Person 


260  Old  Swan  Charity  School 


appointed  in  his  Room.  At  which  Time  each  Subscriber  shall 
pay  his  proportion  of  the  Annual  Salary  of  thirty  Guineas  for  the 
Master  for  the  ensuing  year  into  the  Hands  of  the  new  Treasurer, 
and  also  his  share  of  all  such  reasonable  Expences  or  Disburs- 
ments  as  may  have  been  expended  by  the  late  Treasurer. 

4th.  That  no  Children  shall  be  admitted  under  the  Age  of  six 
Years,  nor  any  that  are  not  so  far  instructed  as  to  know  the 
Alphabet  perfectly;  that  none  shall  be  permitted  to  continue 
after  the  Age  of  fourteen  Years,  unless  such  Children  were  of 
the  age  of  twelve  Years  when  admitted,  in  which  Case  they  may 
be  allowed  to  continue  till  they  attain  their  fifteenth  Year,  and 
that  the  whole  number  of  the  Scholars  shall  not  at  any  Time 
exceed  Forty ;  ten  of  which  to  be  nominated  by  each  Subscriber 
and  shall  be  taught  to  read  the  Psalter  and  New  Testament; 
and  that  each  Subscriber  shall  have  a  Power  and  Authority  to 
direct  the  said  Master  to  teach  such  of  the  boys,  not  exceeding 
the  Number  of  three  out  of  the  List  of  such  as  are  appointed  by 
him,  to  write  and  likewise  the  common  Rules  of  Arithmetic,  but 
that  the  Master  shall  not  on  any  pretence  whatever  presume  to 
teach  any  of  the  Boys  to  write  or  to  understand  Arithmetic  with- 
out the  special  Orders  and  Directions  of  the  Subscribers. 

5th.  That  the  names  of  all  the  Scholars  shall  be  entered  by 
the  Master  at  the  Time  of  Admission,  in  a  Book  to  be  kept  for 
the  Inspection  of  the  Subscribers  according  to  the  Form  agreed 
upon,  and  that  an  alphabetical  List  be  likewise  kept  of  the  same 
in  order  to  ascertain  with  ease  and  Exactness  the  particular  time 
each  has  been  under  Instruction ;  whether  they  are  taken  away 
in  due  form  and  order  or  discharged  by  the  Subscribers  for 
Irregularity  or  Misconduct ;  also  a  Book  so  formed  as  to  ascer- 
tain the  Regularity  of  each  Scholars  Attendance. 

6th.  That  all  the  Scholars  be  required  constantly  to  attend 
Church  or  some  place  of  Public  Worship  on  Sundays,  where 
they  must  behave  themselves  with  the  greatest  Decency,  such  as 
go  to  Church  to  walk  in  Procession  Morning  and  Evening  every 
Sunday  with  the  Master  from  the  first  Sunday  in  April  to  the 
last  Sunday  in  September  both  inclusive ;  and  to  attend  him  to 
repeat  the  Church  Catechism  after  Evening  Service;  any  one 
absenting  himself  or  herself  therefrom  or  neglecting  to  attend 
the  School  without  good  and  sufficient  Cause,  the  Master  shall 
give  immediate  notice  to  the  Subscriber  in  whose  List  of  Nomi- 
nation he  or  she  is  inserted,  that  Inquiry  may  be  made  in  Order 
to  enforce  a  proper  Submission  to  the  Rules  and  Regulations  of 
the  School  or  in  Default  that  the  Visitor  of  the  said  School  may 
order  the  Aggressor  to  be  expeled. 

7th.  That  if  any  of  the  Scholars,  after  proper  Admonition  by 
the  Master,  for  Lying,  Swearing,  Stealing  or  other  immoral  Con- 
duct, remain  incorrigible,  such  Children  on  Complaint  to  the 
Visitor  shall  be  excluded. 


Old  Swan  Charity  School  261 

8th.  That  the  Hours  of  Attendance  at  School  shall  be  from 
Eight  to  Twelve  in  the  Morning  and  from  One  to  Five  in  the  After- 
noon from  the  twenty  fifth  of  March  to  the  tenth  October ;  and 
from  Nine  to  Twelve  in  the  Morning  and  from  One  to  Four  in 
the  Afternoon  from  the  tenth  October  to  the  twenty  fifth  March, 
the  Master  observing  to  teach  those  Children  the  first,  who  are 
the  greatest  Distance  from  Home. 

9th.  That  if  the  Children  of  the  Poor  within  that  Part  of  the 
Township  of  West  Derby  and  Neighbourhood,  for  whom  the 
Charity  is  intended,  shall  not  amount  to  Forty,  the  Master  shall 
be  at  Liberty  to  receive  others  of  the  same  Township  into  the 
School  to  compleat  that  Number  and  to  demand  quarterage  for 
them,  the  Subscribers  being  first  acquainted,  and  such  as  have 
their  Recommendation  prefered. 

10th.  That  the  Master  shall  not  be  restricted  from  admitting 
any  Person  after  School  Hours  to  learn  Writing  Accounts  &c. 
for  his  own  Emolument. 

nth.  That  the  Parents  or  Friends  of  the  Children  shall  give 
one  Months  Notice  before  they  remove  or  take  any  of  them  from 
the  School,  that  the  Subscribers  may  have  sufficient  time  to  sub- 
stitute others  to  succeed  them. 

1 2th.  That  the  Subscribers  shall  each  in  his  seperate  Capacity 
consider  it  a  Duty  incumbent  upon  him  to  visit  the  School  as 
often  as  he  conveniently  can,  in  Order  to  give  Consequence  to 
and  support  the  Authority  of  the  Master,  making  at  the  same 
time  a  particular  Inquiry  into  his  Conduct  and  the  Proficiency  of 
the  Scholars. 

13th.  That  the  Names  of  the  Scholars  shall  be  called  over 
every  Morning  and  Afternoon  upon  their  entering  the  School, 
after  which  the  Master  must  read  a  short  and  suitable  collection 
of  Prayers  calculated  in  a  more  especial  Manner  to  impress  the 
Minds  of  Youth  with  a  Sense  of  their  Duty  to  God  and  at  the 
same  Time  to  remind  them  of  the  Blessings  they  enjoy,  which 
can  only  be  continued  to  them  so  long  as  they  submit  and  con- 
duct themselves  in  such  a  Manner  as  he  shall  approve. 

14th.  That  the  Master  shall  Instruct  the  Children  in  the 
Church  Catechism  every  Thursday  at  1 1  o'clock  in  the  Forenoon 
during  the  whole  Year. 

15th.  That  the  different  Vacations  shall  not  in  the  whole 
exceed  five  weeks  in  each  Year  and  in  Order  that  the  Master 
may  be  accomodated  as  much  as  possible,  that  he  shall  have  a 
Liberty  of  dividing  the  same  at  Christmas  and  Whitsuntide  in 
such  Proportions  as  may  be  agreeable  and  the  most  convenient 
to  himself. 

1 6th.  That  should  the  Annual  Subscription  of  any  of  the 
Proprietors  of  the  School  be  withheld  and  unpaid  for  the  space 
of  Twelve  Months  after  the  Time  that  the  same  ought  to  have 


262 


Old  Swan  Charity  School 


been  paid  to  the  Treasurer  agreeable  to  the  Third  Resolution 
and  after  having  been  regularly  demanded ;  he  or  they  so  neglect- 
ing or  refusing  to  pay  the  same  shall  from  that  Time  forfeit 
his  or  their  Share  Part  or  Property  in  the  said  Building  and 
Premises  and  be  no  longer  considered  as  having  Right  or  Interest 
therein. 

17th.  That  on  the  Death  of  any  one  of  the  Proprietors  of  the 
said  School  his  Share  shall  devolve  to  and  be  from  thence  vested 
in  his  Heir  or  Representatives  provided  he  or  they  continue  and 
pay  the  Annual  Subscription  of  the  deceased  and  subscribe  his 
or  their  name  or  Names  to  the  General  Rules  established  for  the 
Good  Government  of  the  same. 

1 8th.  That  the  Treasurer  may  call  a  Meeting  of  the  Sub- 
scribers whenever  he  may  see  it  necessary,  one  Weeks  previous 
Notice  being  always  given,  in  Order  to  consider  alter  and  improve 
any  of  these  Resolutions  or  to  make  any  addition  thereto ;  but 
should  any  of  the  Subscribers  be  absent  from  Home  or  Sick  at 
the  Time  of  making  any  new  Laws,  by  which  he  or  they  may  be 
prevented  from  attending,  the  same  shall  be  subject  to  the 
Revisal  of  the  Annual  Meeting  when  any  of  these  Rules  may 
be  rescinded  and  such  others  adopted  as  a  Majority  of  the 
Subscribers  present  may  think  proper. 

Richard  Watt 
Thomas  Parke 
Joseph  Jackson 
Thomas  Staniforth 


In  the  spring  of  1841  the  representatives  of  the 
original  founders  of  the  school,  finding  themselves 
unable  to  carry  it  on,  made  it  over  to  the  incum- 
bent of  St.  Anne's  Church,  Stanley,  then  recently 
built,  and  in  the  hands  of  his  successors,  the  vicar 
and  wardens  of  that  church,  it  has  remained  ever 
since,  and  in  them  it  is  now  vested. 


263 


A  DISCOVERY  AT  CROSTON 


SINCE  my  paper  on  the  ancient  Parish  of 
Croston  was  written 1  there  has  been  a  dis- 
covery at  Croston  which  I  think  is  worthy  of 
notice. 

In  cutting  a  trench  across  one  of  the  main  roads 
in  the  village  for  the  purpose  of  laying  a  sewer  the 
workmen  came  across  a  large  number  of  horse  shoes 
(between  eighty  and  a  hundred)  and  a  quantity  of 
horse  bones,  at  a  depth  of  eight  feet  below  the 
present  surface,  and  three  feet  below  the  level  of 
the  original  road.  As  the  cutting  was  only  about 
five  feet  wide,  and  no  attempt  was  made  to  extend 
the  search,  it  is  natural  to  suppose  that  what  has 
been  found  is  only  a  part,  and  that  more  remains 
are  still  underground.  As  soon  as  I  heard  of  it  I 
went  on  an  errand  of  inquiry,  but  was  greatly  dis- 
appointed to  find  that  not  only  was  the  excavation 
itself  filled  up,  but  that  the  horse  shoes  had  got  into 
the  possession  of  the  village  blacksmith,  and  with 
the  exception  of  a  very  few  (I  managed  to  get  one) 
have  been  used  up  by  him  in  the  course  of  his 
business ;  so  I  fear  there  is  little,  at  present  at  any 
rate,  upon  which  to  form  even  a  conjecture  how  the 
remains  came  to  be  where  they  were  found,  and 
when.  I  think  they  point  to  a  hostile  encounter  of 
some  kind,  and  it  seems  desirable  that  further 
research  should  be  made,  if  only  Mr.  de  Trafford 
of  Croston  Hall  or  some  other  person  of  influence 
could  be  interested. 

1  See  Trans.  Hist.  Soc,  lx.  lxii. 


264  A  Discovery  at  Croston 


Most  of  the  Croston  roads  are  now  from  five  to 
six  feet  higher  than  they  originally  were.  No  doubt 
this  raising  was  done  many  years  ago  to  prevent  the 
damage  done  by  the  constant  floods. 

W.  G.  Procter. 

Croston  Church  Goods. — In  1468  the  church 
reeves  of  Croston,  Robert  Wilkinson  and  Richard 
Harsnape,  accused  one  Thomas  Branch  or  Thor- 
nache  of  Burnley,  priest,  with  stealing  the  following 
vessels  belonging  to  Croston  church :  A  chalice 
silver-gilt,  a  pix  silver-gilt  for  the  consecrated  Host 
— these  had  been  kept  in  an  iron-bound  chest — a 
thurible  silver-gilt,  and  a  silver  vessel  in  the  shape 
of  a  boat  for  incense.  The  accused  was  handed 
over  to  the  ordinary.  See  Palatinate  of  Lancaster 
Plea  Roll  33,  m.  22b. 


265 


OBITS  OF  THE  RADCLIFFES 
OF  ORDSALL 


IN  the  Bodleian  Library  at  Oxford  is  a  printed 
Book  of  Hours1  intended  for  use  in  England 
which  is  noteworthy  in  several  respects.  It  came 
from  the  office  of  Francis  Regnault  at  Paris  in 
1534,  and  is  a  beautiful  volume  fully  adorned  with 
pictures,  including  a  portrait  of  Henry  VI,  with 
prayer  to  him.  It  has  a  local  interest  also,  for 
writing  in  it  shows  that  it  once  belonged  to  Dame 
Elizabeth  Atherton,  sister  of  Sir  William  Radcliffe 
of  Ordsall ;  and  then  "  Alexander  Radclyffe  aus 
this  bock.  God  mace  hym  a  gud  man  and  sond 
hym  .  .  Other  names  written  in  it  are  Thomas 
Byrtwyssyll,  John  Smyth,  and  Margaret  Urmstone. 
It  was  therefore,  no  doubt,  a  treasured  possession  of 
the  Radcliffes  of  Ordsall,  and  the  following  deaths 
of  members  of  the  family  are  recorded  on  paper 
leaves  at  the  beginning  : 

Alexander  Radclyff  of  Ordyssall,  Knt.;  d.  5  Feb.  1548 
(3  Edw.  VI).  F. 

Dame  Alice  Radclyff,  widow  of  above;  d.  13  Mch.  155 1 
(6  Edw.  VI).  CB. 

Dame  Elenore  Molyneux,  wife  of  Rychard  Molyneux  of  Sefton, 
Knt. ;  d.  28  Oct.  1557  (4  and  5  Phil,  and  Mary).  G. 

Dame  Anne  Trayfford,  wife  of  Edmund  Trayfford  of  Trayfford, 
Knt. ;  d.  17  Nov.  1557  (4  and  5  Phil,  and  Mary).  G. 

John  Radclyff,  clerk,  M.A.,  Vicar  of  Sabryge  in  Essex ; 
d.  26  Aug.  1560  (2  Eliz.).  F. 

Anthony  Molineux,  son  of  Sir  Rychard  Molyneux,  Knt.,  of 
Sefton,  and  Elenore  his  wife ;  died  in  the  University  of  Lovain 

1  Gough  Missals,  177. 


266        Obits  of  the  Radcliffes  of  OrdsalL 


30  Aug.  1565  (7  Eliz.)  and  buried  in  St.  Michael's  church  there 
before  the  altar  of  St.  Anthony. 

Alice,  daughter  of  William  Radclyff  of  Ordessall,  Knt.,  married 
(1)  to  John  Hulton,  son  and  heir  of  William  Hulton  of  Farn- 
worth ;  bearing  two  sons  (s.fi.)  and  two  daughters ;  (2)  to  Francis 
Tonstall  of  Thorland,  bearing  two  sons  (who  died  in  boyhood) 
and  three  daughters  and  dying  in  childbed  of  a  third  son,  3  April 
1568  (10  Eliz.). 

William  Molineux,  son  and  heir  of  the  above  Sir  Rychard 
Molyneux,  Knt.,  and  Dame  Elenore;  d.  at  Halsall,  11  June 
1568,  and  buried  at  Standish  church  before  the  high  altar. 

Alexander  Radclyff  of  Nocton,  Lines.,  esq.,  son  and  heir  of 
Sir  William  Radclyff  of  Ordessall;  d.  at  Ordesall  25  Sept.  1568 
(10  Eliz.). 

Wylhelm  Radclyff  of  Ordessall,  Knt.;  d.  n  Oct.  1568 
and  buried  18  Oct. 

Rychard  Molineux  of  Sefton,  Knt. ;  d.  3  Jan.  1568  (n  Eliz.). 

Alexander  Radclyff  of  Ordessall,  gent.,  younger  son  of  Alex- 
ander Radclyff,  Knt.;  d.  24  Feb.  1570  (13  Eliz.). 

Katerine  Belyngam,  daughter  of  Robert  Belyngam,  Knt., 
married  (1)  Rychard  Assheton  of  Mydleton,  esq.,  and  (2)  William 
Radclyff  of  Ordessall,  Knt.;  d.  30  April  1572  (14  Eliz.). 

Dorothy  Howghton,  daughter  of  the  said  Katerine  Assheton 
by  Rychard  Assheton,  who  married  Alexander  Howrghton,  esq., 
and  d.  22  Feb.  1573  (16  Eliz.). 

Wylhelm  Hyde  of  Urmeston,  esq. ;  d.  31  May  1574  (16  Eliz.). 

Dame  Elizabeth  Atherton,  widow  of  John  Atherton  of  Ather- 
ton,  Knt. ;  d.  1  May  1576  (18  Eliz.). 

Thomas  Asshawe  of  Hyll,  esq.,  in  Hethe  Charnocke;  d. 
24  Sept.  1578  (20  Eliz.). 

Brigid  Radclyff,  wife  of  Richard  Radclyffe,  esq.,  at  Alkarre ; 
d.  22  Jan.  1578  (21  Eliz.). 

John  Dumbell  of  Ordessall,  gent. ;  d.  25  Jan.  1578  (21  Eliz.). 

After  each  is  the  petition,  "Cujus  anime  propicietur 
Deus,"  and  each  name  is  noted  in  the  calendar  of 
the  book. 

It  is  another  very  interesting  feature  that  various 
badges  have  been  stitched  into  the  volume,  appar- 
ently about  the  same  time.  The  largest  of  them,  a 
badge  of  the  Five  Wounds,  drawn  on  parchment 
(fol.  725),  is  here  reproduced  as  an  example  of  old 
Lancashire  devotions,  by  permission  of  Bodley's  Lib- 
rarian, Mr.  F.  Madan.    The  other  insertions  are  : 


BADGE  OF  THE  FIVE  WOUNDS 


Obits  of  the  Radcliffes  of  Ordsall  267 


Our  Lord  appearing  to  a  monk  and  showing  the  Five  Wounds 
(fol.  17*); 

A  small  badge  of  the  Five  Wounds  (n6£) ; 
A  badge  with  five  compartments  marked  IHS  (117^); 
A  small  coloured  picture  of  the  Crucifixion,  on  parchment 
(i2\b) ;  also 

A  curious  double  badge  of  two  pieces  of  paper  (n6£). 

On  the  last  page  is  written  : 

Ihesus  est  amor  meus. 
Vulnera  quinque  Dei  sint  medicina  mei. 
Sint  medicina  mei  pia  crux  et  passio  Christi. 


268 


THE  LAST  ANCRESS  OF  WHALLEY 


HE   hermitage   in   Whalley  churchyard  was 


JL  founded  by  Henry,  Duke  of  Lancaster,  in 
1360  for  a  recluse  nominated  by  him  or  his  suc- 
cessors. She  might  have  two  servants  to  wait  on 
her.  Accordingly  on  6  July  1437,  Henry  VI  nomi- 
nated Isolda  de  Heton,  a  widow,  who  was  to  be 
ancress  there  for  the  term  of  her  life.1  The  following 
petitions  show  that  she  was  sister  of  Alexander 
Standish  and  widow  of  Richard  Heton  of  Heaton- 
under-Horwich.  She  was  left  with  several  young 
children,  the  heir  being  a  son,  William,  about  ten 
years  old.  Such  an  heir  was  a  valuable  property 
to  the  guardian,  for  fathers  with  marriageable 
daughters  sought  to  provide  a  permanent  home  for 
one  by  paying  such  a  guardian  a  round  sum  to 
marry  the  heir  to  a  daughter.  Richard  Barton, 
lord  of  Middleton  near  Manchester,  agreed  to  pay 
£66,  13s.  4d.  to  William  Heton,  grandfather  of  the 
heir,  so  that  his  daughter  Agnes  might  marry  the 
younger  William,  and  this  compact  seems  to  have 
been  carried  through.  But  the  mother,  from  her 
cell  at  Whalley,  had  also  a  desire  to  bargain  for  the 
marriage  of  her  son,  in  order  to  provide  portions  for 
her  daughters.  According  to  her  story,  as  will  be 
seen,  she  had  been  offered  as  much  as  ^200 — pos- 
sibly equal  to  ^"2500  at  the  present  time — and  that 
would  have  given  her  great  help  in  her  purpose. 
Hence  on  hearing  of  the  bargain  with  Richard 
Barton  she  seems  to  have  appealed  to  her  brother, 


1  Whitaker,  Whalley,  i.  101. 


The  Last  Ancress  of  Whalley  269 


the  head  of  the  Standish  family,  for  help,  and  they 
contrived  to  carry  the  heir  away  and  hide  him. 
Whereupon  the  following  petition 1  was  addressed  to 
John  Stafford,  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  as  chancellor : 

To  the  right  honourabill  and  reverent  fader  in  God 
the  Bisshopp  of  Bath  and  Chaunceler  of  England. 

Mekely  besecheth  your  bedeman  Richard  of  Barton  that  ther 
wher  oon  William  of  Heton  the  elder  was  seised  and  ....  the 
bodye  of  William  of  Heton  the  yonger  cosyn  and  heir  to  the  saide 
William  the  elder  that  is  to  wete  son  to  Richard  son  to  the  saide 
William  the  elder  and  ....  isede  bargained  and  sold  the 
mariage  of  the  saide  William  the  yonger  to  your  saide  besecher 
to  be  maried  and  wedded  to  Agnes  doghter  of  your  saide 
[besecher]  which  saide  besecher  for  the  saide  bargayn  to  the 
saide  William  the  elder  hath  paied  xl.  mark  of  moneye  and  he 
with  other  men  sufficiantly  bounden  by  severals  [obligacions]  to 
paie  to  the  saide  William  the  elder  for  the  said  bargayn  xl.  ii 
over  the  saide  xl.  mark  atte  certeins  dayes  in  the  saide  obliga- 
cions specified  and  seth  this  bargayn  [thus  made]  Alisaunder  of 
Standish  of  the  Counte  of  Lancastre  and  Ysote  of  Heton  suster 
to  the  saide  Alisaunder  of  the  same  counte  haue  taken  and  doon 
away  the  saide  William  the  yonger  and  hym  ....  in  to  a 
straunge  place  prive  (?)  and  aloigned  wher  ne  into  what  place 
your  saide  besecher  ne  the  saide  Agnes  that  hath  weddit  the 
saide  William  the  yonger  may  have  no  knawlege  ne  wetyng  to 
the  undoying  of  the  saide  bargayn  and  like  to  cause  finall 
devorce  betwene  the  saide  William  the  yonger  that  is  [yet  within] 
the  age  of  xiiii  zeers  and  the  said  Agnes  his  wife  but  if  ther  be 
remedie  in  hasty  tyme.  That  it  please  to  your  gracious  lord- 
shippe  to  consider  the  mischeves  abovesaide  and  theruppon  to 
graunt  two  wrettes  sub  pena  oon  wrette  to  the  saide  Alisaunder 
and  the  tother  to  the  saide  Ysote  chargyng  thaym  severally  by 
the  saide  severall  wrettes  either  on  payne  of  two  hundreth 
pounde  to  appeer  in  their  propre  persons  in  the  Chauncere  of 
Englonde  wher  it  be  the  daye  next  after  the  Purificacion  of  our 
ladie  next  to  come  to  answer  of  thies  premisses  for  the  love  of 
God  and  in  waye  of  charite.2 

1  Early  Chancery  Proceedings  (P.R.O.),  bundle  9,  m.  204 ;  holed 
in  places. 

2  A  Memorandum  (in  Latin)  is  added,  stating  that  on  4  November 
19  Henry  VI  [1440],  Richard  Barton  of  Middleton  in  Lancashire,  the 
younger,  "gentilman,"  and  William  Hewed  of  Middleton,  "yoman," 
came  before  the  Chancellor  in  person,  and  bound  themselves  to  com- 
pensate Alexander  and  Isolda  in  case  of  failure  to  prove. 


270 


The  Last  Ancress  of  Whalley 


It  will  be  observed  that  the  petitioner  avoids 
mentioning  that  Isolda  was  William's  mother,  and 
so  had  some  interest  in  his  lot. 

From  the  next  document  to  be  given  it  would 
appear  that  Isolda  herself  had  gone  away  with  her 
son  into  hiding.  What  the  Chancellor  did  is 
unknown.  Probably  he  could  do  nothing  until  they 
were  discovered.  The  monks  of  Whalley,  who  had 
found  the  women  attending  on  the  ancresses  a 
source  of  much  scandal,  took  the  opportunity  of 
Isolda's  flight  to  get  rid  of  ancress  and  maids, 
addressing  their  complaint  to  the  king  as  follows : 1 

To  the  Kyng  owre  sovereign  Lord,  &c. 

Be  hit  remembryd  that  the  plase  and  habitacion  of  the  said 
recluse  is  within  place  halowed  and  nere  to  the  gate  of  the  seyd 
monastre  and  that  the  weemen  that  have  been  attendyng  and 
acquayntyd  to  the  seyd  recluse  have  recorse  dailly  into  the  seyd 
monastre  for  the  livere  of  brede  ale  kychin  and  other  thyngs 
for  the  sustentacyon  of  the  seyd  recluse  accordyng  to  the  com- 
posityon  endentyd  above  rehersyd  :  the  whyche  is  not  accordyng 
to  be  had  withyn  such  religyous  places.  And  how  that  dyvers 
that  been  anchores  and  recluses  in  the  seyd  plase  aforetyme 
contrary  to  theyre  own  oth  and  professyon  have  brokyn  owte  of 
the  seyd  plase  wherein  they  were  reclusyd  and  departyd  therfrom 
wythout  eny  reconsilyatyon.  And  in  especyal  how  that  now 
Isold  of  Heton  that  was  last  reclusyd  in  the  seyd  plase  at  deno- 
mynatyon  and  preferment  of  owre  sovereign  lord  and  kyng  that 
nowe  is  is  broken  owte  of  the  seyd  plase  and  hath  departyd  ther- 
from contrarye  to  her  own  oth  and  professyon  not  willyng  nor 
entendyng  to  be  restoryd  agayn  and  so  livyng  at  her  own  liberte 
by  this  two  yere  and  more  like  as  she  had  never  been  professyd. 
And  that  divers  of  the  wymen  that  have  been  servants  ther  and 
attendyng  to  the  recluses  afortym  have  byn  misgovernyd  and 
gotten  with  chyld  withyn  the  seyd  plase  halowyd  to  the  grete 
displeasaunce  of  hurt  and  disclander  of  the  abbeye  aforesayd,  &c. 

Please  hyt  your  highness  of  [y]our  espesyal  grase  to  grant  to  your 
orators  the  abbot,  &c. 

Accordingly  the  king  altered  the  foundation ; 2 

1  Printed  by  Whitaker  {pp.  cit.,  102)  from  the  Whalley  Coucher. 
The  introductory  clauses  have  been  omitted.  Undated. 

2  His  grant  is  not  on  the  general  Patent  Rolls,  nor  yet  on  the 
remaining  Lancaster  Roils. 


The  Last  Ancress  of  Whalley 


271 


instead  of  supporting  an  ancress  the  endowments 
were  devoted  to  a  chantry  foundation  for  the  souls 
of  Duke  Henry  and  of  Henry  VI  and  others. 

About  the  same  time  as  the  monks  made  their 
petition  Isolda  sent  hers  to  the  Chancellor.  Bishop 
Stafford  had  been  translated  to  Canterbury  in  1443, 
retaining  his  office  in  the  state  ;  the  petition  must 
have  been  addressed  to  him  in  that  year,  or  perhaps 
a  little  later.1  She  says  nothing  of  her  having 
broken  her  enclosure,  but  pleads  thus : 

To  the  most  worshipfull  fader  in  God  and  most  gracious  lord 
the  Archbisshop  of  Caunterbury  Chaunceller  of  Englond. 

Besechith  mekely  your  poer  Bed[e]woman  Isot  that  was  the 
wyf  of  on  Richard  Heton  nowe  beyng  an  ancrys  closeyd  at 
Qwalley  in  the  counte  of  Lancastre  that  where  on  William  Heton 
fader  unto  the  seid  Richard  s  .  .  .  .  eyd  your  seid  Bedwoman 
to  have  William  son  and  heire  of  the  seid  Richard  and  of  your 
seid  Bedwoman  to  marye  and  dispose  aftur  his  discression  pro- 
myttyng  unto  your  seid  Bedwoman  for  her  gode  will  xl  marcs 
your  [seid]  Bedwoman  seyng  that  her  son  schuld  be  maryd 
ayenst  his  will  and  all  his  frendz  will  and  also  within  age  and 
furovere  that  sche  had  grete  charge  dayly  with  other  of  hur 
childer  that  is  to  sey  a  son  and  [?two]  daughters  I  .  .  .  .  un- 
maryed  and  also  where  as  sche  was  profereyd  for  the  maryage  of 
her  seid  son  ccc  marcs  with  the  whech  sche  thought  to  have 
holpyn  her  other  childer  utterly  refusid  The  seid  William  fader 
un  to  the  seid  Richard  seyng  anon  aftur  that  your  seid  Bedwoman 
was  disposeid  to  be  an  Ancrys  and  closeid  and  schuld  have  no 
power  to  maynten'  accion  be  the  lawe  ayenst  hym  come  with 
grete  power  and  toke  away  [the  seyd  Richard]  her  son  & 
maryed  hym  ayenst  the  will  of  your  seid  Bedwoman  and  all  her 
frendez  will  to  the  grete  hurt  and  myscomforth  of  your  seid  Bed- 
woman,  and  also  to  the  utter  undoyng  and  disperysching  of  her 
seid  [childern]  stondyng  un  holpyn  as  aboveseid  That  hit  please 
un  to  your  gracious  lordschyp  consideryng  these  premissez  above- 
seid and  that  your  seid  Bedwoman  hath  no  remedye  in  the  lawe 
to  recuvere  ayenst  hym  and  also  that  sche  is  not  of  power  of 
gode  to  make  menes  nor  to  gete  her  lordschip  to  maynten'  hur 


1  Early  Chancery  Proceedings  (P.R.O.),  bundle  142,  m.  40.  The 
edge  of  the  petition  has  been  rubbed,  and  some  words  are  illegible. 
It  is  endorsed  :  "R.  xx.  die  Marcii  prox.  futuro.':  This  is  at  least 
three  years  and  a  quarter  after  Richard  Barton's  complaint. 


272 


The  Last  Ancress  of  Whalley 


in  her  ryght  but  utterly  to  her  undoyng  and  to  her  chylder  also 
with  owt  your  gracious  help  and  lordschyp  in  this  [partie]  And 
that  ye  wold  of  your  gracious  lordschip  to  graunt  a  wryt  of  sub 
pena  direct  un  to  the  seid  William,  fader  of  the  seid  Richard  to 
apere  be  fore  yowe  in  the  Chauncere  at  a  certeyn  day  be  yowe 
lymytteyd  and  under  a  certeyn  payn  and  there  to  be  examyneyd 
and  to  do  as  trouth  and  consciens  requyren'.  for  the  love  of  God 
and  in  wey  of  charyte. 

PI    '  d         ,  f  Gilbertus  Standissh  de  Blecckeley  in  com  .  . 
eg  ae  pros  |  j0HANNES  Weston  de  eadem,  Gent. 

Unfortunately  nothing  is  known  of  the  result  of 
this  battle  for  the  profits  of  the  heir's  marriage. 
William  Heton  was  in  possession  in  1473,  as  aP" 
pears  by  the  Manchester  Rental  of  that  year.  In 
1489  he  proffered  to  the  judges  at  Lancaster  a 
writ  from  the  king  ordering  his  exemption  from 
serving  on  juries,  &c,  if  he  were  over  seventy,  or 
infirm,  or  in  permanent  ill-health.  He  was  prob- 
ably father  of  the  Richard  Heton  who  recorded 
a  short  pedigree  at  the  Herald's  Visitation  of  the 
county  in  1533,  Richard  being  a  grandfather  at  the 
time. 


273 


A  BLACKBURNSHIRE  PUTURE  ROLL 

By  H.  I  nee  Anderton 

THE  following  document  belongs  to  Mr.  Edmund 
Arthur  Le  Gendre  Starkie,  J. P.,  and  is  pre- 
served at  Huntroyde,  where  it  was  found  in  1906 
in  a  large  packing-case  containing  a  mass  of  papers  of 
varying  dates  between  the  thirteenth  and  nineteenth 
centuries.  Mrs.  Tempest,  who  later  in  the  same  year 
arranged  and  calendared  those  which  appeared  to  be 
of  most  interest,  marked  it  V.  1  o  and  placed  it  in  bundle 
xi.  (various).  The  stained  strip  of  parchment  measures 
25^  by  5 \  inches,  and  bears  no  visible  sign  of  having 
formed  part  of  a  larger  whole.  The  front  has  a  list 
of  those  manorial  lords  who  owed  puture  of  the 
Serjeants  (certain  meat  for  men,  horses,  and  dogs) 
in  the  Hundred  of  Blackburn ;  the  back  includes 
a  list  of  payments  to  the  sheriff  of  the  county  which 
are  probably  sheriff's  aid  or  commutations  of  puture 
to  be  collected  from  the  free  tenants  by  the  master 
serjeant  of  Blackburnshire.  The  first  gives  66  names 
in  42  townships,  the  second  has  92  names  (62  with 
sums  charged  to  them  totalling  £i,  19s.  6d.)  and  41 
townships.  Seven  names  (Thomas  Aghton,  Henry 
Hoghton,  Christopher  H olden,  Lawrence  Knowles, 
Alexander  Nowell,  Henry  Towneley,  and  Thomas 
Winkley)  are  common  to  the  two  lists.  Downham, 
Wiswell,  Witton,  Worsthorne,  and  Worston  in  the 
township  list  are  not  in  the  puture  list,  which,  however, 
includes  Great  Marsden  (for  Swinden),  Habergham 
Eaves  (for  Towneley),  Haslingden  (for  Holden  and 
Broad  Holden),  Pendleton  and  Salesbury.  Chatburn, 
Huncoat,  Padiham,  &c,  where  the  land  was  chiefly 
copyhold,  do  not  occur  throughout.  The  puture  list 
has  been  used  in  the  accounts  of  some  townships  in 

s 


274  'A  Blackburnshire  Puture  Roll 


the  parish  of  Blackburn  given  in  the  Victoria  History 
of  Lancashire,  the  editors  assigning  various  dates  to 
it  (e.g.  vi.  2500  ;  330,  note  68  ;  294,  note  68#  ;  256^ 
and  293$  ;  261^).  It  is  probably  a  clerk's  fair  copy 
of  an  older  list  which  had  perhaps  been  so  amended 
from  time  to  time  as  to  be  of  no  further  use,  con- 
sequently it  is  not  possible  to  assign  any  more  precise 
date  to  it  than  the  latter  half  of  the  reign  of  Henry  VI 
(the  absence  of  the  prefix  de  alone  would  indicate 
that  it  could  not  be  earlier  than  about  1440).  The 
words  "pro  turno  Michaelis  anno  regni  regis  Edwardi 
quarti  secundo  "  which  follow  the  Livesey  of  Holme 
entry  are  rough  additions  to  the  list  in  a  different 
handwriting,  and  show  that  it  was  still  actually  in 
use  at  the  end  of  1462.  Although  the  writing  on 
the  dorse  is  again  in  another  hand,  the  whole  appears 
to  be  of  one  time. 

The  Latin  has  been  extended,  but  as  in  the  puture 
title  there  is  a  doubt  as  to  what  are  the  words  denoted 
by  "  &c.,"  it  is  uncertain  whether  "  tent'  "  should  be 
rendered  tentam,  tent  as,  or  even  tenement  a.  The 
Hospital  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  was  probably 
excused  from  the  payment  of  puture,  and  it  is  un- 
likely that  the  words  refer  to  the  entries  that  follow. 
Crosses  are  prefixed  to  six  of  the  names.  The  MS. 
has  a  few  alterations  (Braddyll  to  Bradhyll  and 
Whalley  to  Salley),  and  the  words  "pro  terris 
Johannis  Clytheraw  "  are  added  in  a  different  hand. 

Some  puture  rents  were  also  due  from  the  free- 
holders to  the  lord  of  the  Hundred  of  Blackburn 
(see  a  rental  of  14  Charles  II  printed  in  Mr.  Farrer's 
Clitheroe  Court  Rolls,  ii.  429-38) ;  they  were  to  be 
collected  and  answered  by  the  bailiff  of  the  wapen- 
take every  year  at  the  feast  of  St.  Giles  the  abbot. 

The  editor  desires  to  acknowledge  the  help 
received  from  the  honorary  editor  and  Mr.  William 
Keown  Boyd,  F.R.Hist.Soc,  in  establishing  a 
correct  text. 


A  B lac kburns hire  Puture  Roll  275 


[Recto] 

Vicecomes  Lancastrian  habet  poturam  servientium  in  Blaburn- 
schyre  {sic)  in  singulis  locis  subsequentibus  ultra,  &c, 
tent'  de  sancto  Johanne,  &c. 

Cum  barone  de  Walton  apud  Walton.1 
Cum  herede  Johannis  Walton  in  le  Dayle.2 
Cum  Wyllelmo  Banastre  de  Walton.3 
Cum  domina  {sic)  de  Keuerdale. 
Cum  Johanne  Banastre  de  Derwynd.4 
Cum  domino  de  Lowell  apud  Sammesbury.5 
Cum  Ricardo  Sotheworth  apud  Sammesbury.6 
Cum  Ricardo  Balderston  apud  Balderston.7 
Cum  Galfrido  Osbaldston  apud  Osbaldston.8 
Cum  Ricardo  RadclyfT  apud  Sholley.9 
Cum  Ricardo  Morley  apud  Bradhyll.30 
-f  Cum  Gilberto  Cundeclyf  apud  Dynclay.11 
Cum  Ricardo  Sotheworth  apud  Meller.6 
Cum  Thoma  Clayton  apud  Parva  Harwode.12 
Cum  abbate  Whalley  apud  Byllyngton. 
Cum  Thoma  Hesketh  apud  Mertholme.13 
Cum  Alexandro  Nowell  apud  Nether  Harwod. 
Cum  Ricardo  Rysshton.14 
Cum  Elia  Aynesworth  apud  Plesyngton.15 


1  Henry  Langton,  baron  of  Newton  in  Makerfield  and  lord  of  the 
manor  of  Walton-le-Dale  from  1431  to  1471. 

2  Probably  Henry  Walton  of  Little  Walton  (son  of  John  Walton), 
living  in  1448. 

3  Of  Lostock  in  Walton-le-Dale,  living  in  1459. 

4  Banister,  otherwise  called  Darwen,  Hall  was  in  Walton-le-Dale. 

6  William,  seventh  Lord  Lovell  of  Titchmarsh  and  fourth  Lord 
Holland,  held  a  moiety  of  Samlesbury  from  1423  to  1455. 

6  Richard  Southworth  from  1432  to  1472. 

7  Richard  Balderston  of  Balderston  from  the  end  of  1405  to 
20  December  1456.  JSe*  ^a^u^amJ-  cA*a.  &u  S<x  xli, pp  xi'/  ~xi'fi . 

8  Geoffrey  Osbaldeston  was  lord  of  Osbaldeston  from  1435  to  1475  ; 
he  also  held  Over  Darwen. 

9  Showley  in  Clayton-le-Dale  belonged  to  Richard  Radcliffe  of 
Winmarleigh,  Clitheroe,  and  Astley  from  22  November  1440  to  1477. 

10  Braddyll  in  Billington. 

11  Gilbert  CunlifTe  of  Dinckley,  living  in  1430  and  1441,  was  dead 
by  1471. 

12  His  son,  John  Clayton,  had  probably  succeeded  by  1443. 

13  Thomas  Hesketh  of  RufTord  held  Martholme  in  Great  Harwood 
from  1416  to  1458. 

14  Probably  at  Rishton  Hall  or  perhaps  at  Dunkenhalgh  in  Clayton- 
le-Moors  ;  he  succeeded  about  1427,  and  was  living  in  1466. 

15  Pleasington  belonged  to  Elias  (or  Ellis)  Ainsworth,  who  was 
a  juror  at  Lancaster  assizes  on  16  September  1437  (Huntroyde  Deeds, 


276  A  B lac kburns hire  Future  Roll 


Cum  Galfrido  Osbaldston  apud  Over  Derwynd.1 
Cum  Edmundo  Talbot  milite  apud  Nether  Derwynd.2 
Cum  herede  Johannis  Arderon  (sic)  in  Nether  Derwynd.3 
Cum  Radulpho  Radclyff  milite  apud  Blakburn.4 

+  Cum  Jacobo  Radclyff  apud  Oswaldtwesell.5 
Cum  Rogero  Rysshton  apud  Povthalgh.6 

+  Cum  herede  de  Aspeden.7 
Cum  herede  de  Clayton  super  le  Mores.8 
Cum  Lawrencio  Banastre  apud  Altham. 
Cum  Christophoro  Holden  apud  Holden.9 
Cum  Ricardo  Towneley  apud  Hapton.10 
Cum  Ricardo  Towneley  apud  Towneley.10 
Cum  Ricardo  Towneley  apud  Clyvecher.10 
Cum  Johanne  Parker  apud  Monkhall.11 


H.  30),  but  appears  to  have  died  before  the  Preston  gild  merchant 
of  1459- 

1  See  note  8,  p.  274. 

2  Sir  Edmund  Talbot  of  Bashall  in  Craven  held  two-thirds  of  the 
manor  of  Lower  Darwen  in  1445-6  and  died  in  1462. 

3  John  Arderne  of  Roxton,  co.  Bedford,  died  in  1392  ;  the  heirs  in 
1445-6  were  John  Bradshaw  of  Bradshaw,  Edward  Charnock,  Hugh 
Bradshaw,  and  Joan,  relict  of  Nicholas  Ainsworth,  each  of  whom  held 
a  twelfth  part  of  the  manor. 

*  Sir  Ralph  RadclifTe  of  Smithills  in  Halliwell  succeeded  in 
January  1432-3  and  died  about  1460. 

5  James  RadclifTe  of  RadclifTe  Tower,  who  entered  into  possession 
in  1441  or  1442,  was  living  as  late  as  1483. 

6  Ponthalgh  [anc.  Pouthalgh]  was  the  manor-house  of  Church  to 
which  he  succeeded  in  1425  ;  he  was  living  in  1453,  but  died  by  1473. 
William  Rishton,  who  recorded  his  pedigree  in  1664,  was  living  in 
Preston  in  1678,  he  and  his  son  of  the  same  name  being  out-burgesses 
in  1662  and  1682.  Mr.  Walmesley  of  Dunkenhalgh  appears  to  have 
purchased  their  estate  in  1659  (Towneley's  MS.  DD, penes  W.  Farrer, 
p.  605) ;  Richard  Walmesley  of  Ponthalgh  occurs  in  the  hearth  tax 
returns  of  1666. 

7  Roger  Grimshaw  of  Oakenshaw  in  Clayton-le-Moors  died  seised 
of  Aspden  in  Oswaldtwistle  in  or  before  1442  ;  the  heir  was  his  sister 
Alice,  widow  of  Peter  Marsden. 

8  The  tenants  were  Robert  Grimshaw  of  Clayton-le-Moors  (who 
also  gave  puture  at  Grimshaw)  and  Richard  Rishton  of  Dunkenhalgh, 
Iwho  has  already  been  named  ;  they  were  great-grandson^  of  Henry  st 
de  Clayton,  who  died  in  1361,  and  each  held  a  moiety  of  the 
manor. 

9  Holden  in  Haslingden.  Christopher  de  Holden  was  a  juror  at 
Lancaster  assizes  on  16  September  1437  (Huntroyde  Deeds,  h.  30), 
and  died  between  1443  and  1446.    See  also  notes  9  and  10,  p.  283. 

10  Richard  Towneley  of  Towneley  in  Habergham  Eaves  was  in  pos- 
session from  1399  to  1454. 

11  John  Parker  of  Monk  Hall  in  Extwistle  was  in  possession 
in  1446. 


A  Blackburnshire  Puture  Roll  277 


Cum  Johanne  Banastre  apud  Swynden.1 
Cum  Thoma  Say  well  milite  apud  Folryg.2 
Cum  herede  de  Twyston. 
Cum  herede  Johannis  Morley  in  Morley. 
+  Cum  Thoma  Aghton  apud  Clederaw.3 


1  Swinden  in  Great  Marsden.  John  Banastre  is  variously  described 
as  of  Wakefield  in  1427  and  1429-30  (Rec.  Soc.  Lanes,  and  Ches., 
1.  92,  124,  125  ;  cf.  also  Victoria  Hist.'  of  Lanes.,  vi.  521,  note  9),  of 
Swinden  in  Lent  1441-2  (Pal.  of  Lane.  Plea  Roll  4,  m.  1,  24),  and  of 
Walton-le-Dale  in  1446  ( Victoria  Hist.,  vi.  470^).  Mr.  Farrer  calls 
his  son  Thurstan  Banastre  of  Swinden  in  Craven  {Clitheroe  Court 
Rolls,  i.  230  note,  244  note),  but  he  is  styled  of  Clayton-le-Moors, 
gent.,  in  1485,  and  married  Alice,  daughter  of  Henry  Rishton  (  Victoria 
Hist.,  loc.  cit). 

2  Sir  Thomas  Saville  of  Thornhill,  near  Dewsbury,  succeeded  to 
Foulridge  between  1412  and  1421,  and  held  the  eighth  part  of  a 
knight's  fee  there  in  1446. 

3  In  September  1470  and  July  1472  Richard  Anderton,  brother  and 
heir  of  Edward  Anderton,  complained  against  Thomas  Chisnall  of 
Standish,  gent.,  Thomas,  son  of  Thomas  Aghton,  John  Standish  of 
Blackrod,  yeoman,  and  John,  son  of  Henry  Bradshaw  of  Aspull,  for  the 
death  of  the  said  Edward,  to  which  John  Rigby  of  Langtree,  yeoman, 
Richard,  son  of  Thomas  Aghton  of  Clitheroe,  gent.,  Isabel,  wife  of 
Thomas  Aghton  of  Adlington,  gentlewoman,  and  Joan,  daughter  of  the 
said  Thomas  Aghton  of  Aghton,  gentlewoman,  were  accessories  (Pal. 
of  Lane.  Plea  Rolls,  37,  m.  7d  ;  39,  m.  2od,4d,  2d).  Thomas  Aghton, 
who  in  1468  complained  of  assault  at  Adlington  (Pal.  of  Lane.  Writs 
Proton.,  file  8  Edw.  IV)  probably  acquired  an  estate  there  through 
marriage  with  [?  Isabella]  the  heir  of  Charnock  of  Adlington,  and  is 
said  to  have  been  a  descendant  of  the  Aughtons  of  North  Meols  (and 
Aughton)  in  West  Derby  Hundred,  whose  arms  the  herald  allowed  to 
his  great-great-grandson  (Visitation  of  1567,  p.  68);  Col.  Parker, 
F.S.A.,  however,  is  of  opinion  that  the  family  derived  from  the 
Aightons  of  Aighton,  in  Blackburn  Hundred.  Richard  Aghton,  the 
son  of  that  marriage,  inherited  a  share  of  Twiston  in  right  of  his  wife, 
Margaret,  eldest  of  the  five  sisters  and  coheirs  of  Robert  Worsley 
(Pal.  of  Lane.  Writs  Proton.,  file  1  Henry  VII),  and  left  issue  Thomas 
Aghton  of  Adlington,  gent.,  who  agreed  with  Roger  Nowell  of  Read 
on  20  March  1 503-4  to  make  an  estate  of  all  his  lands  in  Adlington, 
Clitheroe,  and  Twiston,  in  view  of  a  marriage  which  had  been  arranged 
to  take  place  before  Pentecost  1505  between  his  son  and  heir,  Thomas 
Aghton,  and  Nowell's  daughter  Margery  (Lord  Ribblesdale's  Deeds, 
T.  3).  A  life  interest  in  lands  in  Clitheroe  was  accordingly  given  to 
Margery,  who  was  living  on  20  August  1522  {ibid.,  T.  4);  but  the 
elder  Thomas  afterwards  settled  land  called  Claverell  Hey  in 
Clitheroe  on  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Roger  Winckley,  who  was  put  in 
seisin  in  1524,  shortly  before  her  marriage  to  the  younger  Thomas 
(Duchy  of  Lane  Deps.,  Series  I.,  lxi.  P.  1).  In  1 531  the  latter  joined 
with  his  father  and  their  feoffees  in  a  sale  of  the  Twiston  estate  to 
John  Lambert  of  Skipton,  vice-chancellor  and  receiver  of  the  Duchy 
of  Lancaster  (Lord  Ribblesdale's  Deeds,  t.  10  [fine],  1 1-14),  and  was 
buried  on  2  Aug.  1558,  leaving  a  son,  John  Aghton,  who  gave  his  age 


278  A  B lac kburns hire  Puture  Roll 

+  Cum  Johanne  Cletheraw  apud  Clederaw. 
Cum  abbate  de  Whalley  apud  Cletheraw  pro  terris  Johannis 
Clytheraw. 

Cum  herede  de  Henthorne  and  (?  apud)  Stonden.1 


in  1560  as  thirty-two  (Duchy  of  Lane.  Deps.,  Series  II.,  bdle.  2,  No.  2). 
John,  whose  name  about  this  time  is  variously  spelt  Aighton  and 
Haughton  (ibid.),  Aghton  and  Aughton  (Duchy  of  Lane.  Inq.  p.m.,  xi., 
No.  67  ;  Pleadings,  xliv.  A.  4),  and  Awghton  (Visit,  of  1567,  p.  68), 
married  a  daughter  of  Peter  Anderton  of  Anderton,  and  recorded  his 
pedigree  in  1567,  when  he  had  three  sons  and  three  daughters  living,  all 
children  and  unmarried.  The  pedigree  as  printed  {Chetham  Soc.,\xxx\.) 
is  misleading,  the  editor  having  incorporated  without  distinction  some 
later  additions  to  the  children's  entries  made  by  Randle  Holme  in 
Harleian  MS.  2086,  fol.  62.  This  has  led  to  some  confusion  between 
the  Aughton  and  Hollins  families  in  Victoria  Hist,  of  Lanes.,  vi.  218, 
note  11.  John's  youngest  son,  James  Aughton,  was  in  possession  in 
1582,  when  he  and  James  Hollins  are  named  among  the  owners  of 
land  in  Adlington  {Trans.,  New  Series,  xxii.  62);  he  was  probably 
childless  in  1593,  when  his  youngest  sister  Anne  and  her  first  husband, 
Alexander  Sharpies  alias  Ward,  of  Sharpies,  whom  she  had  married 
about  1582,  joined  with  him  in  a  sale  of  the  "manor"  of  Adlington  to 
their  first  cousin,  Roger  Anderton  of  Gray's  Inn  {Victoria  Hist,  of 
Lanes.,  vi.  218,  note  12  ;  v.  261,  note  17  ;  H.  Fishwick  in  G.  C.  Cope's 
Geneal.  of  the  Sharpless  Family,  1887,  pp.  5,  62),  and  the  printed 
pedigree  is  probably  right  in  stating  that  he  died  without  issue.  For 
Aghton  sales  in  Clitheroe,  see  Rec.  Soc.  Lanes,  and  Ches.,  Ix.  8,  60,  70, 
and  for  Claverell  Hey,  cf.  Victoria  Hist,  of  Lanes.,  vi.  366,  note  60, 
where  the  last  steps  in  the  pedigree  are  correctly  set  out. 

1  Henthorn  and  lands  in  Clitheroe  had  passed  from  the  Standens 
by  1 44 1  to  John  de  Whitaker  of  Padiham,  whose  sons  were  James, 
Christopher,  and  Thomas  ;  one  moiety  descended  to  the  son  James 
Whitaker  and  the  other  to  his  daughters  Lettice  Nowell  and  Sibyl 
Holden.  In  August  1469  Thomas  Holden  and  Sibyl,  his  wife,  com- 
plained against  James  Whitaker  of  Padiham,  Thomas  Whitaker  of 
Simonstone,  Nicholas  Legh  of  Pendle  Forest,  and  Peter  Whitaker  of 
Burnley,  for  taking  cattle  (Pal.  of  Lane.  Plea  Roll  36,  m.  2).  In  1520 
and  1 52 1  Henry  Whitaker  of  Whitaker  and  Nicholas  Whitaker  of 
Henthorn  were  feoffees  of  lands  belonging  to  St.  Leonard  of  Padiham 
{Clitheroe  Court  Rolls,  ii.  53  ;  Huntroyde  Deeds,  H.  43).  The 
disputes  between  Thomas  Riley  of  the  Green  in  Hapton,  yeoman, 
and  Nicholas  Whitaker  of  Clitberoe,  yeoman,  concerning  the  lands 
which  had  lately  belonged  to  James  Whitaker  and  were  now  held 
"  in  two "  between  the  parties,  were  referred  to  the  arbitration  of 
Christopher  Whitaker,  clerk,  parson  of  Tinwell,  and  Hugh  Gartside, 
who  by  indenture  of  award  dated  28  April  1541  assigned  the  lands  in 
Clitheroe,  Henthorn,  and  Henthornholme  to  Whitaker,  and  the  copy- 
holds in  Padiham  or  elsewhere  in  the  manor  of  Ightenhill  to  Riley 
(Huntroyde  Deeds,  H.  57  ;  cf.  Rec.  Soc.  Lanes,  and  Ches.,  lx.  31,  and 
Clitheroe  Court  Rolls,  ii.  93,  153-4,  where  the  arbitrator  is  called 
John  Whitaker,  clerk,  215)  ;  an  old  pedigree  states  that  Riley's  wife, 
Joan,  was  a  daughter  and  coheir  of  James  Whitaker  of  Henthorn 
{Chetham  Soc,  lxxxi.  125). 


A  B lac kburns hire  Puture  Roll  279 


Cum  Ricardo  Caterall  apud  Mitton.1 

Cum  Alexandro  Nowell  apud  Reved.2 

Cum  herede  Thome  Holden  apud  Symondston.3 

Cum  herede  Ricardi  Chyrburn  apud  Aghton.4 

+  Cum  herede  Johannis  Lyvesey  de  le  Holme   pro  turno 

Michaelis  anno  regni  regis  Edwardi  quarti  secundo.5 
Cum  herede  de  Bayley  Hall.6 
Cum  herede  Henrici  Clayton  apud  Dotton.7 
Cum  herede  Johannis  Lynnols  apud  Rybchester.8 
Cum  Ricardo  Hoghton  milite  apud  Blakhall  in  Chepen.9 
Cum  Milone  Knoll  apud  Thorneley  Wheyteley.10 
Cum  Laurencio  Knoll  apud  Chepen.11 
Cum  herede  de  Schotelworth  apud  Schotelworth.12 
Cum  Roberto  Grymeshaw  apud  Grymeshay.13 


1  Richard  Catterall  of  Catterall,  near  Garstang,  succeeded  to 
Little  Mitton  in  1397  and  died  between  1460  and  1467. 

2  Alexander  Nowell  of  Read  succeeded  in  1433  and  was  dead  by 
1468  ;  he  held  the  third  part  of  Great  Harwood,  called  Lower 
Harwood  (see  p.  275). 

3  Thomas  Holden  of  Simonstone,  who  also  held  Broad  Holden  in 
Haslingden,  was  living  in  1434  ;  he  must  have  been  dead  by  1443,  as 
the  heirs  of  Thomas  Holden  were  then  tenants  in  Haslingden 
(Clitheroe  Court  Rolls,  i.  502).  HcdcU^ft^^t  itfi(^,iwSwa*,x)()(,^(!). 

4  Probably  Richard  Shireburne  of  Stonyhurst  in  Aighton,  who 
followed  his  grandfather  of  the  same  name  in  1441  and  died  in  1492, 
aged  about  fifty-seven. 

5  John  Livesey  of  Livesey  succeeded  in  or  before  1389  and  was 
living  in  1445-6,  but  Gilbert  de  Livesey  was  in  possession  from  1455 
to  1483. 

6  Bailey  Hall  belonged  to  the  Clitheroes  of  Auckley,  near  Don- 
caster. 

7  In  1445-6  the  heir  of  Ellen  de  Clayton  held  Dutton ;  she  was 
daughter  and  heir  of  Thomas  de  Clayton  of  Dutton,  who  succeeded  his 
father,  Henry,  between  1381  and  1388.  John  de  Bailey  of  Stonyhurst 
held  land  in  Dutton  of  the  heir  of  Henry  de  Clayton  in  1391. 

8  John  Lennox  (or  Lynalx)  of  Ribchester  was  in  possession  in 
1432  ;  the  name  also  occurs  in  1449  and  1456. 

9  Black  Hall  was  the  manor-house  of  the  Hoghtons  in  Chipping. 
On  the  death  of  Sir  Henry  de  Hoghton  of  Leagram  in  November 
1424  without  legitimate  issue  his  great-nephew  Richard  Hoghton  of 
Hoghton  succeeded  to  Chipping  and  died  between  1464  and  1468. 

10  Miles  Knowles(or  Knoll)  of  Thornley  was  in  possession  in  1446, 
having  succeeded  between  1426  and  1443  ;  he  was  dead  by  1479. 

11  Lawrence  Knowles  (or  Knoll)  of  Wolfhouse,  now  Wolfhall,  in 
Chipping,  was  in  possession  in  1446  ;  he  was  a  juror  at  Lancaster 
assizes  on  16  September  1437  (Huntroyde  Deeds,  H.  30). 

12  Richard  de  Shuttleworth  of  Shuttleworth  in  Hapton  died 
between  1384-5  and  1390,  leaving  a  daughter  and  heir,  Isabel,  whose 
grandson  (apparently)  Thomas  Legh  was  in  possession  in  145 1-2. 

13  Robert  Grimshaw  of  Clay ton-le- Moors  held  the  old  family  estate 
of  Grimshaw  in  Eccleshill  from  about  1429  to  his  death  in  1442. 


280         A  B lac kburns hire  Puhcre  Roll 


Cum  herede  Ricardi  Gynnakres  (sic)  militis  in  Merley.1 

Cum  abbate  Salley  apud  Sonderlond.2 

Cum  Alexandro  Radclyf  apud  Tokholys.3 

Cum  Roberto  Bolton  apud  Lovelay.4 

Cum  Johanne  Talbot  apud  Salebury.5 

Cum  Henrico  Hoghton  apud  Penylton.6 

Cum  Thoma  Wynkeley  in  Aghton.7 

Cum  Henrico  Towneley  in  Dotton.8 


1  Sir  Richard  de  Greenacres  of  Great  Mearley  and  Twiston  died 
between  1378-9  and  1385-6,  leaving  two  daughters  and  coheirs :  Joan, 
who  married  Henry,  son  of  John  de  Worsley,  and  Agnes,  who  married 
William  de  Radcliffe  of  Todmorden.  Henry  Worsley,  who  by  the 
law  of  England  was  holding  his  wife's  inheritance  in  Great  Mearley, 
died  on  7  February  1442-3  (Towneley's  MS.  DD,  No.  1473),  and  his 
eldest  son,  Robert,  had  died  on  18  September  1438  seised  of  half 
the  vill  of  Twiston  and  the  fourth  part  of  a  messuage  in  Downham 
called  Ravensholme  ;  the  heir  was  their  grandson  and  nephew  Richard, 
son  of  John,  son  of  Henry  Worsley,  who  was  upwards  of  twenty-two 
years  of  age  in  1443  {ibid.,  No.  1475),  and  died  in  1463  seised  of  a 
third  part  of  the  manor  of  Great  Mearley,  half  the  manor  of 
Twiston,  &c.  To  William  de  Radcliffe  the  younger,  son  of  the  other 
coheir,  was  given  his  mother's  inheritance  in  Mearley  and  Twiston 
in  1438,  and  he  was  still  holding  it  in  145 1. 

2  Sunderland  was  in  Balderston. 

3  Alexander  Radcliffe  of  Ordsall  in  Salford  from  26  July  1442 
to  1475-6,  also  had  the  manor  of  Tockholes. 

4  Richard  Bolton  of  Lovely  in  Salesbury,  perhaps  his  son,  occurs 
in  1473. 

6  Isabella,  daughter  and  coheir  of  Richard  de  Clitheroe  (fourth 
son  of  Robert  de  Clitheroe  the  elder)  died  in  1432  seised  of  the 
manor  of  Salesbury,  and  was  succeeded  by  her  husband,  John,  son  of 
William  Talbot,  as  tenant  by  the  courtesy  of  England.  Before  this 
Sir  Henry  de  Hoghton  of  Leagram  and  Joan,  his  wife,  only  child  of 
Sibyl  de  Radcliffe  of  Ordsall,  daughter  and  heir  of  Robert  de  Clitheroe 
(eldest  son  of  Robert  de  Clitheroe  the  elder),  had  held  the  manor, 
and  having  no  issue,  had  endeavoured  in  1422  to  divert  the  succession 
to  Sir  Henry's  illegitimate  son,  Richard  Hoghton.  The  consequent 
disputes  between  Richard  and  John,  which  began  about  1425,  were 
referred  to  arbitration,  and  not  finally  settled  in  the  latter's  favour  till 
1449  ;  a  few  weeks  after  the  award  was  made  John  Talbot  died,  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  son  of  the  same  name. 

6  The  manor  of  Little  Pendleton  was  also  part  of  the  Clitheroe 
inheritance.  Richard  de  Hoghton  of  Leagram  was  in  possession  in 
1426,  and  had  live  stock  there  in  1447 ;  the  arbitrators  finally  awarded 
it  in  145 1  to  his  son  Henry,  described  as  Henry,  son  of  Richard 
Hoghton  of  Chippingdale. 

7  Thomas  Winckley  of  Winckley  Hall  in  Aighton  succeeded 
between  1437  and  1443,  and  was  still  living  in  1479. 

8  Henry  Towneley  of  Towneley  (afterwards  Dutton)  Hall  in 
Dutton  and  Dineley  in  Cliviger  was  in  possession  c.  1420  to 
c.  1451. 


A  B lackburnshire  Puture  Roll  281 


Cum  Johanne  Bradley  in  Chependale.1 
Cum  Rogero  Rysshton  apud  Ryssgton  (sic).2 
Cum  herede  de  Brod  Holden. 
Cum  Johanne  Symondston  apud  Symondston.3 


3  John  de  Bradley  occurs  as  a  juror  at  Lancaster  assizes  on 
16  September  1437  (Huntroyde  Deeds,  H.  30).  On  13  September 
145 1  John  Bradley  of  Chipping  regranted  to  John,  son  of  Robert 
Simonstone,  all  the  lands  in  Simonstone  which  he  and  Richard  de 
Aighton  or  Dighton,  chaplain,  deceased,  had  by  the  gift  of  Robert  de 
Simonstone  (Talbot  of  Salesbury  deeds  in  Towneley's  MS.  DD., 
Nos.  1216,  1207)  in,  apparently,  March  1411-12  {ibid.,  No.  1283; 
Huntroyde  Deeds,  H.  21).  They  took  their  name  from  Bradley 
in  Thornley. 

2  The  Rishtons  of  Ponthalgh  made  many  claims  to  the  manor  of 
Rishton  between  1329  and  1478,  and  their  title  seems  to  have  been 
acknowledged  in  1417  and  again  in  1425,  when  Roger  Rishton  suc- 
ceeded. Roger,  who  was  temporarily  outlawed  in  1447,  was  still 
living  in  1453,  and  though  the  Talbots  of  Bashall  eventually  recovered 
possession,  it  is  evident  from  the  return  of  knights'  fees  in  1445-6  that 
the  claim  of  Sir  Edmund  Talbot  to  the  manor  had  not  yet  been 
settled  in  his  favour. 

3  Lands  in  Simonstone  were  settled  on  27  February  1436-7  on 
John  de  Simonstone  for  life,  with  remainder  to  Richard,  his  son  and 
heir  (Huntroyde  Deeds,  H.  29) ;  four  weeks  earlier  John  de  Simon- 
stone had  agreed  with  James,  brother  of  Geoffrey  de  Grimshaw,  that 
Richard,  his  son  and  heir,  who  was  under  age,  should  fine  for  the 
copyholds  in  Padiham  (ibid.,  H.  27),  and  Richard  Simonstone  was 
a  tenant  there  in  1443  (Clitheroe  Court  Rolls,  i.  506).  John  Simon- 
stone of  Simonstone  gave  all  his  lands  to  feoffees  in  March  1445-6 
(Huntroyde  Deeds,  H.  31,  32),  and  a  previous  note  shows  that  he  was 
still  living  in  September  145 1.  On  2  March  1474-5  Edmund  Starkie 
and  Elizabeth,  his  wife,  for  a  yearly  rent  of  ,£3,  granted  to  his  father, 
William  Starkie  of  Simonstone,  a  lease  for  life  of  the  messuage  there, 
in  which  William  then  dwelt,  with  all  the  land  belonging  to  it  except 
Huntroyde,  which  he  already  held  of  him  (deed  at  Huntroyde).  The 
grantors  were  no  doubt  Edmund  Starkie  of  Simonstone  and  Elizabeth, 
his  wife,  described  as  daughter  and  heir  of  John  Simonstone  of  Simon- 
stone, who  head  the  pedigree  recorded  in  1664  (Chetham  Soc,  lxxxviii. 
296);  on  12  January  1464-5  Edmund  Starkie,  aged  seventeen,  and 
his  wife,  Elizabeth,  aged  between  thirteen  and  fourteen,  appeared  in 
the  Consistory  Court  of  the  archdeacon  of  Chester  before  Ralph 
Langley  in  the  Church  of  Blessed  Mary  of  Manchester,  and  being 
questioned  in  the  presence  of  many  witnesses,  consented  willingly  to 
the  ratification  of  their  contract  of  marriage,  took  hands  and  kissed 
(Huntroyde  Deeds,  Bn.  xvii.). 

The  Starkies  had  previously  resided  at  Barnton,  near  Frodsham, 
being  descended  from  Geoffrey  Starkie,  who  was  paying  a  chief  rent 
of  2s.  to  Sir  Hugh  de  Dutton  for  a  moiety  of  the  manor  in  1294 
(Ormerod's  Cheshire,  ed.  Helsby,  i.  639);  in  1619  it  was  found  that 
Nicholas  Starkie  had  held  the  manor  of  Barnton,  otherwise  Barthing- 
ton,  of  the  king  as  of  his  honor  of  Halton,  co.  Chester,  in  socage  by 
fealty  and  an  annual  rent  of  2od.,  and  that  it  was  worth  26s.  8d.  per 


282         ^4  B lac kburns hire  Puhcre  Roll 


annum  beyond  reprises  (Inq.  p.m.  at  Huntroyde).  Thomas,  son  of 
John,  son  of  Hugh  de  Legh  and  Katherine,  his  wife,  widow  of  Hugh 
Starkie,  recovered  her  dower  in  Barnton,  co.  Chester,  from  William, 
son  of  Hugh  Starkie  of  Barnton,  in  1389  and  from  Ralph,  son  of 
William  Starkie  of  Barnton  in  1393  (Pal.  of  Chester  Plea  Rolls, 
Chester,  No.  91,  m.  13  ;  Huntroyde  Deeds,  Bn.  viii.).$  The  dean  of 
Frodsham  on  5  February  1408-9  granted  administration  of  the  goods 
of  Ranulf  Starkie,  lately  deceased,  to  the  widow  Alice  (Ormerod's 
Cheshire,  i.  641,  notef\  by  deed  bearing  date  at  Dutton  on  6  January 
1408-9  Peter  de  Dutton,  kt.,  lord  of  Dutton,  granted  the  wardship  and 
marriage  of  William,  son  of  Ralph,  son  of  William  Starkie  of  Barnton, 
with  all  his  lands  there  and  elsewhere  in  Cheshire,  to  Henry  de 
Rishton  [of  Dunkenhalgh]  (Rishton  evidences  in  Towneley's  MS. 
DD.,  No.  1434 ;  cf.  also  Ormerod's  Cheshire,  loc.  cit.).  According  to 
a  pedigree  by  Randle  Holme  in  one  of  the  Harleian  MSS.,  the  ward 
married  Margaret,  daughter  of  John  Venables  of  Antrobus  in  Over 
Whitley,  and  had  issue  four  sons,  of  whom  Thomas  was  the  youngest, 
and  Edmund,  the  third,  became  heir  on  the  death  of  his  elder  brothers 
without  issue  ;  a  daughter,  Anne,  was  the  wife  of  Oliver  Birtwisle  of 
Huncoat  (Visit,  of  1 567,  p.  32).  He  may  have  been  the  William  Starkie 
who  signed  an  indenture  with  Henry  V.  to  serve  in  the  Agincourt 
campaign  with  a  small  retinue  {Tra?is.  Royal  Hist.  Soc,  3rd  Series, 
v.  no).  On  15  August  1437  William  Starkie,  lord  of  Barnton, 
enfeoffed  Richard  de  Catlow  and  Geoffrey  de  Grimshaw  of  his  manor 
of  Barnton  (Huntroyde  Deeds,  Bn.  ix.),  and  in  July  1453  he  made 
a  settlement  with  remainders  to  his  son  and  heir,  Edmund  Starkie, 
in  fee  tail,  the  heirs  of  the  grantor  and  those  of  his  father  and  grand- 
father, Ralph  and  William  Starkie  {ibid.,  Bn.  xii.).  In  March  146 1-2 
Ralph,  abbot  of  Whalley,  complained  of  threats  by  William  Starkie  of 
Simonstone,  gent.  (Pal.  of  Lane.  Plea  Roll  23,  m.  6),  who  was  a  de- 
fendant in  other  cases  in  August  1467  and  1473  {ibid.,  Rolls  32, 
m.  32d ;  40,  m.  8,  iod).  William,  Edmund,  and  Thomas  Starkie,  all 
of  Simonstone,  gents.,  were  sued  by  Alan  Holt  in  August  1479  and 
Lent  1479-80  {ibid.,  Rolls  51,  m.  4,  10;  52,  m.  6,  10,  14  ;  cf.  also 
56,  m.  8d),  but  William  was  dead  by  13  October  i486,  when  his  widow, 
Margaret,  and  her  son  Edmund  Starkie  made  an  agreement  as  to  her 
dower  out  of  the  lands  in  Barnton  (Huntroyde  Deeds,  Bn.  xviii.)  ; 
on  14  July  1490  Edmund,  son  and  heir  of  William  Starkie,  and  James 
Goldsmith  of  Northwich  agreed  to  abide  by  an  award  whereby  James 
was  to  cease  all  processes  on  a  claim  of  lands,  and  Edmund  was  to 
pay  him  40s.  {ibid.,  Bn.  xix.).  Thomas  Starkie  married  Alice,  fourth 
sister  and  coheir  of  Robert  Worsley  of  Twiston,  and  his  descendants 
were  long  seated  there  (the  pedigree  in  Whitaker's  Whalley,  ii.  155, 
omits  at  least  three  generations,  and  is  very  unsatisfactory) ;  he  is  still 
styled  of  Simonstone  in  September  1484  (Pal.  of  Lane.  Plea  Roll  61, 
m.  14),  but  was  of  Mearley  in  Lent  1489-90  and  the  following  August 
{ibid.,  Rolls  69,  m.  2d  ;  70,  m.  4,  4d,  2d),  and  still  living  in  1528,  when 
he  was  a  defendant  in  a  claim  to  the  Worsley  inheritance  (Duchy  of 
Lane.  Pleadings,  Series  I.,  vi.  W.  12,  12a,  12c). 


A  Blackburnshire  Puture  Roll 


283 


Blakburnshire 


[Verso,  col.  1] 
De  Johanne  Rydyng 1  . 
De  Jacobo  Estham  2  .  . 
De  Johanne  Ward  .  . 
De  Ricardo  Osbaldyston 
De  Roberto  Shotylworth3 
De  Ricardo  Bolton  4  .  . 
De  Rogero  Bolton  4  .  . 
De  Johanne  Dewhurst5 
De  Johanne  Clayton  .  . 
De  Galfrido  . .  e .  ton  .  . 
De  Olyvero  Parker  6  .  . 
De  Thoma  Aspynhalgh7 
De  Ricardo  Aspeden8  . 
De  Christofero  Holden9 


fa  sMrtr^  S  /W  5  , 


\]d.  De  Christofero  Walmsley  iiijd. 

v)d.  De  Johanne  Esthalgh    .  ni)d. 

v)d.  De  Edmundo  Aynesworth  m]d. 

\]d.  De  Thoma  Holden    .    .  iiij^. 

\)d.  De  Henrico  Cowburn 13  .  w]d. 

x\)d.  De  Thoma  Sede 14     .    .  x\)d. 

x\]d.  De  Jacobo  Grymshaw    .  v)d. 

x\]d.  De  Johanne  Brytwesyll  .  \\\)d. 

x\]d.  De  Willelmo  Ryley 15 .    .  \)d. 

m]d.  De  Willelmo  Talbot  .    .  v)d. 

\\\]d.  De  Edmundo  Tatersall  .  m]d. 

m]d.  De  Roberto  Whittacar16  x\]d. 

m)d.  De  Thoma  Bercroft 17    .  \)d. 

x\\d,  De  Tohanne  BercrofV7 


PUBLIC  RECORD  ( 

(  One  document  only  is  to  be  applied  for  (J 


Date  of 
Application . 


Description  of  Docui 


pei 
eac 
up 
Re( 

inc. 


reti 

0ffi( 

exc 
sha." 
him 
offic 

whc 
won 
kepi 
pers 

pers 
roon 


(K  6( 


282         ^  Blackburnshire  Puture  Roll 


annum  beyond  reprises  (Inq.  p.m.  at  Huntroyde).  Thomas,  son  of 
John,  son  of  Hugh  de  Legh  and  Katherine,  his  wife,  widow  of  Hugh 
Starkie,  recovered  her  dower  in  Barnton,  co.  Chester,  from  William, 
son  of  Hugh  Starkie  of  Barnton,  in  1389  and  from  Ralph,  son  of 
William  Starkie  of  Barnton  in  1393  (Pal.  of  Chester  Plea  Rolls, 
Chester,  No.  91,  m.  13;  Huntroyde  Deeds,  Bn.  viii.).$  The  dean  of 
Frodsham  on  5  February  1408-9  granted  administration  of  the  goods 
of  Ranulf  Starkie,  lately  deceased,  to  the  widow  Alice  (Ormerod's 
Cheshire,  i.  641,  notef\  by  deed  bearing  date  at  Dutton  on  6  January 
1408-9  Peter  de  Dutton,  kt.,  lord  of  Dutton,  granted  the  wardship  and 
marriage  of  William,  son  of  Ralph,  son  of  William  Starkie  of  Barnton, 
with  all  his  lands  there  and  elsewhere  in  Cheshire,  to  Henry  de 
Rishton  [of  Dunkenhalgh]  (Rishton  evidences  in  Towneley's  MS. 
DD.,  No.  1434 ;  cf.  also  Ormerod's  Cheshire,  loc.  cit).  According  to 
a  pedigree  by  Randle  Holme  in  one  of  the  Harleian  MSS.,  the  ward 
married  Margaret,  daughter  of  John  Venables  of  Antrobus  in  Over 
Whitley,  and  had  issue  four  sons,  of  whom  Thomas  was  the  youngest, 
and  Edmund,  the  third,  became  heir  on  the  death  of  his  elder  brothers 
without  issue  ;  a  daughter,  Anne,  was  the  wife  of  Oliver  Birtwisle  of 
Huncoat  (Visit,  of  1 567,  p.  32).  He  may  have  been  the  William  Starkie 
who  signed  an  indenture  with  Henry  V.  to  serve  in  the  Agincourt 
campaign  with  a  small  retinue  ( Trans.  Royal  Hist.  Soc,  3rd  Series, 
v.  no).  On  15  August  1437  William  Starkie,  lord  of  Barnton, 
enfeoffed  Richard  de  Catlow  and  Geoffrey  de  Grimshaw  of  his  manor 
of  Barnton  (Huntroyde  Deeds,  Bn.  ix.),  and  in  July  1453  he  made 
a  settlement  with  remainders  to  his  son  and  heir,  Edmund  Starkie, 
in  fee  tail,  the  heirs  of  the  grantor  and  those  of  his  father  and  grand- 
father, Ralph  and  William  Starkie  {ibid.,  Bn.  xii.).  In  March  146 1-2 
Ralph,  abbot  of  Whalley,  complained  of  threats  by  William  Starkie  of 
Simonstone,  gent.  (Pal.  of  Lane.  Plea  Roll  23,  m.  6),  who  was  a  de- 
fendant in  other  cases  in  August  1467  and  1473  {ibid.,  Rolls  32, 
m.  32d  ;  40,  m.  8,  iod).  William,  Edmund,  and  Thomas  Starkie,  all 
of  Simonstone,  gents.,  were  sued  by  Alan  Holt  in  August  1479  and 
Lent  1479-80  {ibid.,  Rolls  51,  m.  4,  10;  52,  m.  6,  10,  14  ;  cf.  also 
56,  m.  8d),  but  William  was  dead  by  13  October  i486,  when  his  widow, 
Margaret,  and  her  son  Edmund  Starkie  made  an  agreement  as  to  her 
dower  out  of  the  lands  in  Barnton  (Huntroyde  Deeds,  Bn.  xviii.)  ; 
on  14  July  1490  Edmund,  son  and  heir  of  William  Starkie,  and  James 
Goldsmith  of  Northwich  agreed  to  abide  by  an  award  whereby  James 
was  to  cease  all  processes  on  a  claim  of  lands,  and  Edmund  was  to 
pay  him  40s.  {ibid.,  Bn.  xix.).  Thomas  Starkie  married  Alice,  fourth 
sister  and  coheir  of  Robert  Worsley  of  Twiston,  and  his  descendants 
were  long  seated  there  (the  pedigree  in  Whitaker's  Whalley,  ii.  155, 
omits  at  least  three  generations,  and  is  very  unsatisfactory) ;  he  is  still 
styled  of  Simonstone  in  September  1484  (Pal.  of  Lane.  Plea  Roll  61, 
m.  14),  but  was  of  Mearley  in  Lent  1489-90  and  the  following  August 
{ibid.,  Rolls  69,  m.  2d  ;  70,  m.  4,  4d,  2d),  and  still  living  in  1528,  when 
he  was  a  defendant  in  a  claim  to  the  Worsley  inheritance  (Duchy  of 
Lane.  Pleadings,  Series  I.,  vi.  W.  12,  12a,  12c). 


PUBLIC  RECORD  OFFICE 

( One  document  only  is  to  be  applied  for  on  this  Ticket.) 

Dat.  -I 

D«,i|,lio.i  of  Duvuweut 

Signature  »f  Appliamt  

FOLDOUT  BLANK 


FOLDOUT  BLANK 


f 


A  Blackburnshire  Puture  Roll  283 


Blakburnshire 

[Verso,  col.  1] 

De  Johanne  Rydyng 1    .  vjd.  De  Christofero  Walmsley  ii\]d. 

De  Jacobo  Estham 2  .    .  vjd.  De  Johanne  Esthalgh    .  iiijaT. 

De  Johanne  Ward     .    .  vjd.  De  Edmundo  Aynesworth  iiijV. 

De  Ricardo  Osbaldyston  vjd.  De  Thoma  Holden    .    .  iii)d. 

De  Roberto  Shotylworth3  vjd.  De  Henrico  Cowburn  18  .  vjd. 

De  Ricardo  Bolton 4  .    .  xijd.  De  Thoma  Sede 14     .    .  xijd. 

De  Rogero  Bolton 4  .    .  xijd.  De  Jacobo  Grymshaw    .  v]d. 

De  Johanne  Dewhurst 5  xijd.  De  Johanne  Brytwesyll  .  iiij^. 

De  Johanne  Clayton  .    .  xijd.  De  Willelmo  Ryley 15 .    .  v)d. 

De  Galfrido  . .  e .  ton  .    .  m)d.  De  Willelmo  Talbot  .    .  vjd. 

De  Olyvero  Parker6  .    .  iiij^.  De  Edmundo  Tatersall  .  iii]d. 

De  Thoma  Aspynhalgh7  iiij^.  De  Roberto  Whittacar16  xijd. 

De  Ricardo  Aspeden 8   .  iii]d.  De  Thoma  Bercroft 17    .  vjd. 

De  Christofero  Holden 9  xijd.  De  Johanne  Bercroft 17  .  iiij^. 

awdulpho  Holden10  xijd.  De    Henrico  Mankyn- 

enrico  Grymshaw  .  xijd.        hole18   vjd. 

-oberto  Wadyngton 11  vjd.  De  Laurencio  Parker 19  .  vjd. 

Jlyvero  Barton    .    .  vjd.  De  Henrico  Parker    .    .  xijd. 

Johanne  Mersden 12  .  vjd.  De  Jacobo  Stansfeld 20  .  vjd. 

I  Probably  of  Riding  House  in  Walton-le-Dale.  The  name  also 
curs  at  Oswaldtwistle,  Church,  and  Winkley  in  Aighton. 

Eastham  of  Walton-le-Dale,  who  inherited  the  Colevill  property 
hat  township. 

Probably  of  Hacking  Hall  in  Billington. 
The  Bolton  family  had  lands  in  Salesbury,  Chipping,  &c. 
5  Of  Dewhurst  in  Wilpshire.  6  Perhaps  of  Oswaldtwistle. 

7  Aspinall  is  a  well-known  name  in  the  Clitheroe  district. 

8  Perhaps  of  Church. 

9  A  tenant  in  Haslingden  in  1443  {Clitheroe  Court  Rolls,  ed.  Farrer, 
501).    The  next  note  probably  refers  to  his  son  and  heir,  who 

jcceeded  about  this  time. 

10  A  tenant  in  Habergham  in  1443  {ibid.,  505  ;  Christopher  cancelled 
>r  Ralph).  The  Holdens  of  Holden  long  held  an  estate  in  Haber- 
'iam  Eaves. 

II  A  tenant  in  Haslingden  in  1443.  The  Waddington  family  held 
,nds  in  Clitheroe,  &c. 

12  The  Marsdens  had  property  in  Marsden,  &c. 

13  Of  the  Eyes  in  Witton  and  Todehole  in  Livesey. 

14  The  Seeds  of  Pleasington  appear  to  have  been  a  branch  of  those 
f  Ribchester. 

15  A  tenant  in  Accrington  in  1443. 

16  Probably  of  Holme  in  Cliviger.  A  tenant  in  Habergham  in  1443. 
37  The  Barcrofts  had  lands  in  Cliviger,  &c. 

18  Probably  Manknowles  of  Marsden  (Townhouse,  Sic). 

19  Of  Foulridge. 

20  Stansfield  of  Worsthorne  and  Heysandforth  in  Burnley.  A 
iant  in  Burnley  in  1443. 


284         A  B lac kbums hire  Puture  Roll 


De  Johanne  Whitacer 1  .  \\\)d. 
De  Alexandro  Nowell  .  xxd. 
De  Henrico  Hoghton  .  xd. 
De  Johanne  Alen 2  .  .  iujd. 
De  Johanne  Dynley  3  .  xxd. 
De  Johanne  Eyre  .  .  .  iiijV. 
De  Willelmo  Foolle4  .  iiijd. 
De  Thoma  Wynkeley  .  vii]d. 
De  Ricardo  Knoll 5  .  .  xxd. 
De  Johanne  Bradeley  .  vii]d. 
De  Johanne  Holden  6  .  xd. 
De  Ade  Lathys 7  .  .  .  v)d. 
De  Thoma  Eccles 8  .  .  \)d. 
De  Ricardo  Halghton  9  .  xd. 
De    Christofero  Sowr- 

bottes 10  v]d. 

De  Johanne  Rodys 11 .  .  v)d. 
De  Ricardo  Eccles  8  .  .  viij^aT. 
De  Willelmo  Alston 12    .  v')d. 


De  Thoma  Broun 13  .    .  v)d. 

De  Johanne  Halton  14    .  x\]d. 

De  Galfrido  Soderen 15  .  w]d. 

De  Johanne  Stertyuant16  in]d. 

De  Henrico  Cottom17    .  x\)d. 

De  Christoforo  Knoll 

De  Willelmo  Mawdysley 18 

De  Willelmo  Hall 19 

De  Johanne  Walker  20 

De  Jacobo  Coppull 21 

De  Willelmo  Helme22 

De  Willelmo  Jankynson 

De  Roberto  Wateson 

De  Laurencio  Knoll 

De  Thoma  Grenhyls23 

De  Thurstano  Tatyrsalse  24 

De  Thoma  Redyhalgh 25 

De  Laurencio  Brerclyfe 26 

De  Christoforo  Jakson 


1  Perhaps  of  Henthorn. 

2  The  Allan  family  had  land  in  Downham. 

3  Dineley  of  Downham. 

4  William  Foole  or  Fowle  was  a  tenant  in  Pendleton  in  1443. 

5  Perhaps  son  of  Lawrence  Knowles  of  Wolfhall  in  Chipping. 

6  Of  Chaigley. 

7  Richard  del  Lathes  occurs  at  Worston  in  1332  and  1342  (Rec.  Soc. 
Lanes,  and  Ckes.,  xxxi.  [2],  74;  xlvi.  115). 

8  The  Eccles  family  had  property  in  Thornley,  &c. 

9  Haighton  or  Aighton  of  Chaigley. 

10  Probably  Sowerbutts  of  Studley  in  Thornley. 

11  Rhodes  of  Chipping. 

12  The  Alston  family  had  land  in  Chipping  and  the  neighbouring 
townships. 

13  The  Browne  family,  whose  chief  estate  lay  in  Newton-with- 
Scales,  had  land  in  Chipping. 

14  Of  Chipping. 

16  Surreys  or  Sotheron  of  Chipping.  Geoffrey  Sotheron  was  a 
tenant  at  will  in  the  Forest  of  Bowland  in  1443. 

16  Sturtivant  or  Startivant  of  Chipping. 

17  Cottam  of  Dilworth  and  Alston. 

18  Mawdesley  of  Chipping. 

19  Of  Chipping  and  Dutton. 

20  A  John  Walker  was  a  tenant  in  Colne  in  1443. 

21  The  Coppull  of  Coppull  family  were  free  tenants  in  Pleasington. 

22  Of  Helme,  now  Elmridge,  in  Chipping. 

23  Greenhills  of  Studley  in  Thornley. 

24  The  Tattersall  family  had  land  in  Burnley,  Briercliffe,  &c. 
Thurstan  Tattersall  was  a  tenant  in  Burnley  in  1443. 

25  Ridihalgh  of  High  Ridihalgh  in  Briercliffe.  A  tenant  in  Brier- 
cliffe in  1443.  26  A  tenant  in  Briercliffe  in  1443. 


A  B lac kburns hire  Future  Roll  285 


De  Laurencio  Legh 1  De  Jacobo  Gudshaw 8 

De  Petro  Holcar  2  De  Johanne  Bayley 

De  Thoma  Aghton  De-Thoma  Asshe  9 

De  Ricardo  Dugdall3  De  Henrico  Townley     .  v]d. 

De  Lawrencio  Parker  De  Henrico  Boys  de  Stony- 

De  Willelmo  Halsted4  gat10 

De  Henrico  Halsted 4  De  Christoforo  Alston    .  iiij^. 

De  Galfrido  Grymshaw  5  De  Percivello  Hayhurst 11 

De  Johanne  Hyll 6  De  Willelmo  Dylworth 
De  Thoma  Blakborn7 

[  Verso,  col.  2] 

Merley  j  acra  terra?   \\]d. 

Altham   j  acra  terra?   .....  i\)d. 

Dounham  ij  acra?  terra?   \'\)d. 

Clederhow  ij  acra?  terra?   \'\)d. 

Worston     .  j  acra  terra?   ii]d. 

Cliuacher  j  acra  terra?   i\]d. 

Chyrch                                     acra  terra?   \\)d. 

Osbaleston  {sic)   dimidia  acra  terra?    .    .  )d. 

Baldyrston   dimidia  acra  terra?    .    .  )d. 

Keuerdall  j  acra  terra?   ii]d. 

Symondston   j  acra  terra?   .    .    .    .    .  i\)d. 

Leuesay  ij  acra?  terra?   \i)d. 

Walton  in  le  Dale    .    .    .    .    ij  acra?  terra?   v\)d. 

Oswaldestwisell  j  acra  terra?   md. 

Aghton  j  acra  terra?   ii]d. 

Chepyn   j  acra  et  dimidia     ...  xd. 

Brerclyfe  cum  Extwisel .    .    .     j  acra   ii]d. 

Harwod  magna  ij  acra?  terra?   vijd. 

1  Of  Clifton  in  Habergham  Eaves. 

2  Holker  of  Read. 

3  Sir  William  Dugdale  was  descended  from  the  Dugdales  of 
Clitheroe. 

4  The  Halsteads  had  land  in  Worsthorne,  Briercliffe,  &c.  William 
Halstead  was  a  tenant  in  Burnley  in  1443  :  perhaps  this  was  Bank 
House. 

6  Perhaps  of  Henthorn.o*-  UaAfU^-U  -  ti+ott 

8  Of  Ribchester.  By  deed  dated  23  August  1478  John  Hill  granted 
to  Roger  Dean,  chaplain,  and  Geoffrey  Dewhurst  a  messuage  in  the 
vill  of  Ribchester  called  Hillhouses  ;  the  boundaries  name  Halgh 
meadow,  Buckley  field,  Oakoat  field,  Kendal  Hey,  and  Fieldman  field 
(Huntroyde  Deeds,  V.  11).  ^}f-.<dA^¥xS^  <^^^  $  t^-****  j*itt  0$  ^m^kt^Ui  <m.ann*e* 

7  Blackburn  of  Dutton. 

8  Goodshaw  of  Dutton. 

9  Ash  of  Hurst  in  Aighton  and  Clough  End  in  Dutton. 

10  Stonygate  in  Ribchester.    The  Boys  family  had  Boys  House  in 
Ribchester  as  well  as  land  in  Oswaldtwistle. 

11  Of  Hayhurst  in  Dutton. 


286         A  Blackburnshire  Puture  Ron 


Clayton  super  Mores     .    .  . 

Nether[der]wynte  .... 

Thorneley  cum  Wheteley  .  . 

Mellur  cum  Eccleshull  .    .  . 

Wlipshir  cum  Dynkley  .    .  . 

Clayton  cum  le  Dall .... 

Mitton  Henthorne  with  Code- 

j  carucata  terras  .  . 

.    .    in  </. 

j  carucata  terrae  .  . 

.    .  \\)d. 

j  carucata  terrae  .  . 

.    .  \\)d. 

Summa  totalis  xi\]s. 

\\\]d.  [sic]. 

OBVERSE 


THE  LISCARD  PALSTAVE 

{Half  the  size  of  the  Original) 


287 


THE  LISCARD  PALSTAVE 


THE  bronze  palstave  or  winged  celt  which  was  ex- 
hibited at  the  Society's  meeting-  on  18th  January 
191 2,  was  found  in  September  1901  in  Zig-Zag 
Road,  Liscard,  by  a  workman  employed  in  cutting 
a  drain.  It  lay  about  3  feet  below  the  surface, 
upon  a  thin,  hard  bed  or  crust  of  black  substance 
(possibly  a  hearth  of  wood  ash),  with  sand  both 
above  and  below.  The  finder  took  it,  as  old  metal, 
to  Mr.  Joseph  Kitchingman,  who  at  once  purchased 
it.  The  weight  is  10^  ounces,  and  the  measure- 
ments are  :  Length  in  all,  5T3^  inches  (3^  from 
edge  to  stop-ridge) ;  breadth  of  blade,  2f  inches 
(1  inch  at  flange);  and  breadth  of  wings,  -|  inch. 
The  surface  bears  evidence  of  the  manner  of  usage 
in  the  curving  scratches  or  lines  scored  upon  the 
blade  and  in  the  bent  and  damaged  state  of  the 
reverse  flanges  on  the  lower  side.  Mr.  Kitching- 
man has  kindly  lent  his  block  for  the  accompany- 
ing illustration ;  it  shows  the  two  faces  and  side  of 
this  interesting  relic  of  the  ancient  inhabitants  of 
Liscard. 


2  SS 


NOTES  OX  THE  PARISH  OF  BURTON 
IN  WIRRAL 

By  F.  C.  Beazley,  FS.A. 


THE  following  are  additions  and  corrections  for 
the  above  article,  which  appeared  in  vol.  lix.  of 

our  Transactions: 

P.  1 6,  note  2. — William  Trigg  was  a  juror  at  the  court  of 
frank-pledge  and  court-baron  of  Burton,  24th  April  1719. 

P.  2  e. — The  letters  inscribed  on  the  Vicarage  stand  for  Thomas 
Bainbridge,  minister  of  Burton,  and  Jane  his  wife,  nee  Howard. 
They  were  married  at  Burton — "  1697  Tho.  Bainbridge  minister 
and  Jehan  Howard,  spinster,  marry ed  December  the  28th."  See 
Notes  on  the  Burton  Parish  Registers,  by  the  Rev.  P.  F.  A.  • 
Morrell,  B.A.,  Vicar  of  Burton,  Cheshire  (Chester  :  G.  R.  Griffith, 
1908). 

P.  23. — The  letters  on  the  old  mill  stand  for  "Robert  Oliver, 
miller  "  ;  see  register  extract,  page  75. 

P.  59,  line  3. — For  Mercidii  read  Mercurii.  Bottom  line — 
after  "  ye  Plague  was  "  add  "  in  Shotwick." 

P.  66. — "  Elthorns  "  is  now  Cross's  farm,  near  Denhall. 

P.  75. — Register  entry  1757. — The  Liverpool  Chronicle  and 
Marine  Gazette  of  6th  May  1757  contains  the  following  notice: 
'•'30  July  1757.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Washington,  curate  of  Burton 
near  Parkgate,  in  Wirral,  was  unfortunately  drowned  as  he  was 
bathing  in  the  salt  water." 


288 


NOTES  ON  THE  PARISH  OF  BURTON 
IN  WIRRAL 

By  F.  C.  Beazley,  F.S.A. 


THE  following  are  additions  and  corrections  for 
the  above  article,  which  appeared  in  vol.  lix.  of 

our  Transactions: 

P.  1 6,  note  2. — William  Trigg  was  a  juror  at  the  court  of 
frank-pledge  and  court-baron  of  Burton,  24th  April  17 19. 

P.  21. — The  letters  inscribed  on  the  Vicarage  stand  for  Thomas 
Bainbridge,  minister  of  Burton,  and  Jane  his  wife,  nee  Howard. 
They  were  married  at  Burton — "  1697  Tho.  Bainbridge  minister 
and  Jehan  Howard,  spinster,  marryed  December  the  28th."  See 
Notes  on  the  Burton  Parish  Registers^  by  the  Rev.  P.  F.  A.  • 
Morrell,  B.A.,  Vicar  of  Burton,  Cheshire  (Chester  :  G.  R.  Griffith, 
1908). 

P.  23. — The  letters  on  the  old  mill  stand  for  "Robert  Oliver, 
miller"  ;  see  register  extract,  page  75. 

P.  59,  line  3. — For  Mercidii  read  Mercurii.  Bottom  line — 
after  "ye  Plague  was"  add  "in  Shotwick." 

P.  66. — "  Elthorns  "  is  now  Cross's  farm,  near  Denhall. 

P.  75. — Register  entry  1757.- — The  Liverpool  Chronicle  a?id 
Marine  Gazette  of  6th  May  1757  contains  the  following  notice: 
"30  July  1757.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Washington,  curate  of  Burton 
near  Parkgate,  in  Wirral,  was  unfortunately  drowned  as  he  was 
bathing  in  the  salt  water." 


Vestry 


Chancell 


The  North  Side  of  the  Church 


10 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


am  . 

17 

32  | 

18 

«  I 

19 

5«  1 

i  ! 

«  1 

.       J6  I 

22 

L_£I  1 

23 

38  | 

59  j 

25 

h 

W 

i  ^ 

i       f  I 

27 

,       «  1 

28 

.  «  1 

,       "  J 

30 

,      45  I 

^3 


6*5 


] 

^  ; 

[    *  ; 

1  51  ! 

I  5±  , 

i    *  . 

59 

4  i 

i  

1        60  j 

I  «  . 

46 

47 

81 


82 
83 
64 


ACTON  CHURCH  IN  1635 


289 


ACTON   CHURCH  SEATING 
ARRANGEMENTS 


THE  plan  of  the  seats  in  Acton  Church,  near 
Nantwich,  as  arranged  in  1635,  has  been  copied 
by  permission  of  the  vicar,  the  Rev.  Herbert 
Moore,  and  offered  to  the  Society  by  Mr.  John 
Livesey. 

A  note  in  the  left-hand  corner  of  the  plan  (at  A) 
informs  us  that  "  These  seats  [were]  disposed  by 
us  the  Commissioners  (whose  names  are  subscribed) 
by  vertue  of  a  commission  directed  to  us  from  the 
Lord  Bishop  of  Chester,  bearing  date  May  8th, 
1635  "  ;  their  names,  however,  are  not  given  on  this 
copy  of  the  plan.  On  the  plan  itself  the  names  of 
the  holders  are  written  upon  the  several  seating- 
places,  but  on  the  smaller  scale  of  the  copy  here 
given  the  words  would  not  have  been  legible. 
Hence  numbers  have  been  inserted,  and  the  corre- 
sponding names  here  follow  : 

[North  Side] 


1  and  2.  Mr.  Mainwaring  of 
Swanley 

3.  Mr.  Robert  Weever  of  Aston. 

4.  Mr.  Richard  [?  Leicester]  of 

Poole. 

5.  Passage  to  the  pulpit. 
5A.  Clark's  seat. 

6.  Mr.  Mainwaringe  of  Badde- 

ley. 

7.  Mr.  Edward  Glegg. 


8.  Mr.  Raphe  Huxley. 

9.  Mr.  Raphe  Horton. 
Mr.  Hugh  Hassall. 

10.  Mr.    Richard    Minshull  of 

Burland. 

11.  Randle  Graston. 

12.  William  Pott. 

13.  Mr.  Richard  Aston, 
Arthur  Edgley. 

T 


290     Acton  Church  Seating  Arrangements 


17. 


20. 

2] 


14.  John  Stockton,  30 
Richard  Wilkinson. 

15.  William  Badcock, 
Edward  Aston. 

16.  John  Brereton,  Raphe  Wick-  31 

sted,  John  Cappur,  John 
Watson  of  Aston. 

Nyne.    {See  29,  45.) 
Mr.    Richard   Leicester  of 
Poole. 

Mr.  John  Braine  of  Aston.  32, 
Mr.   Alexander    Elcock  of 

Poole.  33, 
Randle  Smyth, 
and  36.  Lord  Viscount  Choi-  34, 
mondeley. 
22.  John   Orchard   of    Coolane  35, 
House,   Mrs.  Shakerley, 
Humphrey  Walley,  Randle  36. 
Snikley,  Henry  Pendleton.  37. 

23  and  38.  Earle  of  Bridgwater's 

tenants.  38. 

24  and  39.  Earle  of  Bridgwater's  39. 

tenants.  40. 

25.  Thomas  Stockton, 
William  Moulton, 
Thomas     Whichead.  But 

three  men  here  because  a  41. 
pillar  seat.  42. 

26.  John      Hilditch,      Thomas  43. 

Bebbinton,  sen.,  George  44. 
Unwin,  Thomas  Bicker- 
ton,  Ralph  Bebbinton.  45. 
William  Wright,  Hugh  Tue,  46. 
Thomas  Wicksteed,  Roger  47. 
Harding,  Henry  Strongith-  48. 
arme. 

William   Richardson,  Thos. 

Tudman,   jun.,    Thomas  49. 
Heighfield,  John  Stockton 
of  Stoake,  George  Bull. 
29.  Ralph  Leftwich,  50. 
John  Massey. 
Nyne. 


27 


28 


Richard  Alcocke  of  Poole, 

William  Winington, 

Ralph  Bebbington. 

Nine, 
and  45.  With  their 

Wives,  being  nine  in 
number  and  marked  for 
the  better  knowledge  the 
word  nine  {i.e.  16,  29,  30, 
3i,45)- 

Mr.     William     Allen  of 

Brindley. 
Mrs.    Cicil    Haughton  of 

Hurleston. 
Mr.   Geoffrey  Mynshull  of 

Stoake. 

John    Cheetwood,  esquire, 

of  Raisheath. 
See  21. 

With    their  wives    in  this 

seat.    See  22. 
See  23. 
See  24. 

With  their  wives,  together 

with   Elizabeth   Ithel  of 

Acton  and  Amy  Key  of 

Brindley.    See  25. 
With  their  wives.    See  26. 
With  their  wives.    See  27. 
With  their  wives.    See  28. 
Mr.   Alexander  Elcocke  of 

Poole. 
See  31. 
John  Ankars,  John  Eaton. 
John  Cartwright  and  his  wife. 
Thomas  Blackamore,  William 

Orton,  John  Cartwright, 

Randle  Orton. 
John  Watson  of  the  Hollin- 

green,   William  Trickett, 

Robert  Farrington. 
John  Shenton,  Clark,  seat. 


[South  Side] 


51.  Lord  Viscount  Killmorey. 

52.  Mr.   Roger   Wilbraham  of 

Dorfold. 

53.  Mrs.  Roger  Wilbraham  his 

wife. 

54.  LordViscount  Cholmondeley. 

55.  Earle  of  Bridgwater. 


56.  Sir  Richard  Wilbraham. 

57.  Rich.  Saer,  Richard  Venables, 

Sabboth  Church,  Lord 
ViscountKillmorey,  Arthur 
Sandford,  Mr.  Bryan. 

58.  Mr.  Main  waring,  John  Barker, 

John    Ravenshaw,  Lord 


Acton  Church  Seating  Arrangements  291 


Viscount  Killmorey, 
Robert  Heath,  Richard 
Harrisson. 

59.  Mr.    Edmund  Mainwaring, 

George  Cappur,  John 
Shenton,  William  Basker- 
vile,  William  Allen. 

60.  Webbs  Farme,  Mr.  William 

Shenton,  John  Buckley, 
William  Shore,  Thomas 
Tudman,  sen.,  of  Burland. 

61.  Oliver  Pollett,  John  Yonge, 

Peter  Walton,  William 
Stoakes,  William  Jackson. 

62.  Randle      Hale,  Thomas 

Molton,  Richard  Wixsteed, 
Edward  Massey,  Hum- 
phrey Vernon. 

63.  William  Davenport,  Thomas 

Mullock,  Edward  Wood- 
ward, Thomas  Evanson, 
Humphrey  Blagg. 
63B.  Blank. 

64.  His  tenants  with  their  wives. 

See  57. 

65.  His  tenants  with  their  wives. 

See  58. 

66.  With  their  wives.    See  59. 

67.  With  their  wive^s.  See  60. 
With  their  wives.  See  61. 
With  their  wives.  See  62. 
With  their  wives.    See  63. 


68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 


Mr.  Richard 
Raisheath. 


Wilbraham  of 


72.  With  his  wife. 

73.  William  Wilbraham  and  his 

wife. 

74.  Thomas  Pratchett  and  his 

wife. 

75.  Thomas   Shenton    and  his 

wife. 

76.  Richard  Boote, 
Randle  Walton. 

77.  Thomas  Brayn  of  Faddeley, 
Widow  Cholmeley  of  Hurls- 
ton. 

78.  George  Parson  and  his  wife. 

79.  With  their  wives.    See  62,  69. 

80.  Thomas  Eaton  and  his  wife. 

81.  Thomas     Berde,  Thomas 

French,  John  Prickitt. 

82.  Frances    Betteley,  Thomas 

Brayne  of  the  Banke. 

83.  Robert  Broadbent  and  his 

wife. 

84.  Thomas  Poole  and  his  wife. 

85.  Thomas  Hatton,  John  Dod. 

86.  William  Dawson, 
William  Hussey. 

87.  William  Alcocke, 
John  Stringer. 

88.  William  Alcocke  of  Larden 

Green. 

89.  Henry  Hawkes,  John  Corser, 

Anthony  Hornebey,  John 
Sproston. 


292 


TARPORLEY  IN  1755 


THE  Rev.  William  Cole,  "the  Cambridge  Anti- 
quary" (1714-1782),  visited  Cheshire  in  1755 
in  order  to  see  his  friend  the  rector  of  Tarporley, 
and  being  detained  in  the  place  by  the  accident  he 
speaks  of,  he  amused  himself  in  congenial  fashion 
by  studying  the  history  of  the  district  and  making 
a  search  of  the  parish  registers  and  a  drawing  of 
the  church.  The  results  are  contained  in  vol.  xxxv.  of 
his  "Collections,"  now  in  the  British  Museum  (Addit. 
MS.  5836).  Ormerod  has  used  them  a  little,  but 
the  account  seems  worthy  of  a  fuller  reproduction, 
since  it  is  not  often  that  so  keen-sighted  and  pains- 
taking an  observer  as  Cole  can  be  found  recording 
his  experiences  of  Cheshire  in  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury. The  description  is  dated  September  8,  1755, 
and  reads  thus  (fol.  165) : 

TORPORLEY  IN  CHESHIRE 

Going  to  visit  my  good  Friend  Mr.  Allen  Rector  of  Torporley 
and  one  of  the  Senior  Fellows  of  Trinity  College  in  Cambridge,  I 
had  the  Accident  the  Morning  after  I  got  off  my  Journey  to  fall  from 
my  Horse  in  Little  Budworth  Parish,  just  between  the  2  Houses 
belonging  to  Mr.  Egerton  of  Olton  in  Delamere  Forest,  July  19, 
1755  :  so  that  I  had,  by  breaking  my  Leg  in  the  Fall,  Leisure 
sufficient  to  consult  the  Parish  Register  belonging  to  Torporley, 
it  being  11  Weeks  before  I  could  begin  my  Journey  into  Buck- 
inghamshire :  and  as  I  was  confined  to  my  Chamber  great  Part 
of  the  Time,  which  stood  just  west  of  the  Church  and  very  near 
it,  a  small  Part  of  the  Rector's  Garden  being  between  the  Parson- 
age House  and  the  Lane,  which  divides  the  said  Garden  from  the 
Church  Yard,  I  had  Opportunity,  as  soon  as  I  was  permitted  to 
get  out  of  Bed,  from  the  Window  to  take  the  west  End  of  the 
Church  :  and  tho'  afterwards  I  went  into  the  Church  several 
Times,  yet  I  could  not  with  any  Conveniency  take  any  of  the 
Inscriptions  therein,  for  Fear  of  taking  Cold  and  standing  too 
long:  which  was  a  great  Mortification  to  me,  as  the  Chancel 


Tarporley  in  1755  293 

and  Side  Isles  have  riiany  very  curious  and  elegant  Monuments 
in  them,  erected  chiefly  by  Sir  John  Crew  for  himself  and  the 
Family  of  Done  into  which  he  married ; 1  as  also  for  several  of 
the  Rectors. 

The  Church  consists  of  a  square  Tower,  standing  at  the  west 
End  of  the  south  Isle,  in  which  hang  5  Bells,  a  Chancell,  2  side 


The  West  End  of  Tarporley  Church  in  Cheshire,  1755. 

Isles  with  Chapels  at  each  End  of  them.  The  Altar  is  on  an 
Eminence  of  several  Steps  and  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  elegant 
mural  Monuments  of  Marble :  on  the  north  Side  of  it  are  2  ;  that 
nearest  the  Altar  is  very  neat  and  small  in  an  oval  Form  and 
having  a  half  Length  Figure  of  the  last  Sir  John  Done  in  the 
Dress  of  K.  James  the  first's  Time  by  whom  he  was  knighted  : 
just  below  it  and  at  the  Steps  of  the  Altar,  tho'  on  the  Eminence, 


1  According  to  Ormerod  {Cheshire^  ii.  249)  two  daughters  of  Sir 
John  Done  (d.  1629)  married  Ralph  Arderne  and  John  Crew,  Sir 
John  Crew  being  son  of  the  latter. 


294  Tarporley  in  1755 


is  a  very  large  one  for  Sir  John  Crew  of  white  Marble  against  the 
north  Wall,  with  a  full  Figure  of  Sir  John  lying  on  a  Table  of 
Marble  reclining  on  one  Elbow.  Sir  John  was  a  good  Antiquary 
and  Herald ;  as  appears  from  many  Pedigrees  and  Observations 
in  MS.  which  I  have  seen :  was  very  zealous  for  the  Revolu- 
tion ; 1  for  which  peice  of  Service  this  Part  of  the  Country  are 
under  no  great  Obligations  to  his  Memory  ;  inasmuch  as  he  was 
the  Cause,  as  I  have  been  told,  why  their  Estates  were  given  in 
to  the  full  Value :  while  others  not  so  hearty  in  that  Cause,  had 
theirs  rated  at  a  lower  Taxation ;  and  the  Tax  still  continuing  on 
the  same  Valuation,  this  Part  of  the  Country  have  ever  since  felt 
the  ill  Effects  of  his  Zeal  for  the  Whig  Interest.  In  the  north 
Chapel,  just  below  the  Door  as  you  enter  the  Chapel,  is  a  large 
Altar  Tomb  of  white  Marble  on  which  lie  2  Ladies  at  full 
Length ;  one  being  Lad>  Crew  and  the  other  Mrs.  Jane  Done 
her  sister,  who  founded  and  endowed  a  Schole  in  the  S.W.  Corner 
of  the  Church  Yard.  At  the  west  End  of  the  middle  Isle  or 
Nave,  on  the  Outside  is  built  up  an  House  for  Parish  Herse; 
for  the  Circuit  of  the  Parish,  including  4  Townships,  being  very 
large,  without  such  a  Convenience,  it  would  be  very  troublesome 
to  bring  Corpses  to  the  Church.  The  Nave  was  lately  divided 
from  the  Chancel  by  a  Screen ;  but  that  being  found  to  be  in- 
commodious, Mr.  Allen  took  it  away,  and  has  laid  them 
together ;  and  ceiling  the  whole  Church  also,  it  has  a  very  good 
Effect.  Mr.  John  Arderne,  about  25  years  ago  Fellow  Com- 
moner of  St.  John's  College  in  Cambridge,2  is  the  Patron  of  it, 
and  being  much  acquainted  with  Mr.  Allen  at  College,  on 
Mr.  Beresford's  Death,  he  voluntarily  offered  it  to  him,  without 
any  Application  at  all.  Mr.  Arderne  lives  near  Stockport  at 
Harden  and  sometimes  at  Pepper-Hall  near  Richmond  in  York- 
shire, the  Heiress  of  which  Family  of  Pepper  he  married  and  by 
her,  who  died  about  a  year  ago,  he  has  several  Children  :  for  one 
of  whose  Sons,  as  I  have  heard  Mr.  Allen  say,  probably  some 
Time  or  other  the  Living  may  be  designed ;  and  therefore  the 
present  Incumbent  spares  no  Expence  to  make  the  Parsonage 
House  and  all  belonging  to  it,  handsome  and  commodious  :  tho' 
indeed  Mr.  Arderne  has  but  4  Turns  out  of  6  in  Patronage :  the 
Dean  and  Chapter  of  Chester  and  Mr.  Duckenfeild  who  is  a 
Dissenter,3  having  the  other  two :  Dr.  James  Arderne  the  worthy 
Dean  of  Chester  leaving  his  Turn  to  the  Chapter.  There  are  2  or 
3  other  Families  of  the  name  of  Arderne  in  this  Parish,  who  are 
related  to  the  principal  Branch  Mr.  Arderne,  of  Harden,  who  came 

1  See  the  inscription  on  his  monument,  ibid.,  ii.  230. 

2  Admitted  in  1728  ;  R.  F.  Scott,  Admissions  to  St.  John's  ColL, 
iii.  56,  411. 

3  Nathaniel  Duckenfield,  afterwards  5th  baronet,  according  to 
Ormerod,  Cheshire,  ii.  250,  iii.  819. 


Tarporley  in  1755 


295 


to  this  Estate  on  the  Death  of  Sir  John  Crew  without  Issue ;  as 
also  these  others  of  that  Name,  who  had  a  small  share  of  it  also  : 
they  are  all  Farmers  of  their  own  Lands :  Sir  John  Crew  left  a 
widow,  who  was  his  second  Lady  of  the  Name  of  Aston,  who 
afterwards  married  Dr.  Chamberlain  of  London.  Dr.  James 
Arderne  Dean  of  Chester  gave  all  his  Lands,  about  300  pounds 
per  Annum  in  this  Parish,  to  the  Church  of  Chester :  his  Epitaph 
may  be  seen  in  the  Memoranda  of  that  Cathedral.  The  Family 
Seat  of  the  Done's  and  Crew's  and  now  of  the  Arderne's  is 
about  a  Mile  from  the  Church,  called  Utkinton  Hall,  and  was 
formerly  a  Place  of  good  Eminence ;  it  is  now  contracting  and 
turning  into  a  Dairy  Farm  House,  and  the  Chapel  built  by 
Sir  John  Crew  I  saw  this  Yeer  1755  new  modelled  into  2  or  3 
Rooms  :  there  is  now  a  large  Collection  of  Books  in  the  Library ; 
but  chiefly  wrote  by  Puritanical  Divines  and  those  of  Oliver's 
Stamp,  both  before  and  after  the  great  Rebellion ;  the  Done's 
and  the  Crew's  being  both  much  attached  to  those  Opinions.  In 
it  I  saw,  no  Doubt  brought  there  by  Sir  John  Crew  a  good  Anti- 
quary, a  most  valuable  and  curious  Peice  of  Antiquity ;  being  a 
very  long  and  large  Roll  of  Parchment  with  the  Portraits  drawn 
to  the  Life  in  their  proper  Habits  and  Colours,  a  Procession 
of  all  the  Lords  of  Parliament  at  the  latter  End  of  King  Henry 
the  7th's  Reign  :  the  Abbats  of  mitred  Houses  came  first  all 
dressed  in  Purple  Robes  and  Cowles,  with  their  Names,  Arms  of 
their  Abbeys  conjoined  with  their  own  over  each  Abbat's  Head ; 
then  followed  the  Bishops  of  the  several  Sees  and  episcopally 
habited  with  their  Names,  Arms  and  Sees  Arms  in  the  same 
Manner  and  Warham  ArchBp.  of  Canterbury  mitred  and  very 
Pontifically  accoutred,  supported  by  2  Persons,  brought  up  the 
Rear  of  the  Spiritual  Lords :  then  came  the  Prior  of  St.  John 
of  Jerusalem,  the  Barons  and  other  temporal  Peers  and  the 
whole  concluded  with  the  King  himself  in  his  Parliamentary 
Robes.  It  is  no  small  Curiosity ;  and  as  such  I  had  a  desire  to 
have  prevailed  with  Mr.  Allen  to  have  suffered  me  to  have  taken 
it  Home  with  me  in  Order  some  Time  in  the  Winter  to  have 
carried  it  with  me  to  London  to  shew  to  the  Royal  Antiquary 
Society  and  to  have  done  my  Endeavour  to  have  got  it  engraved. 
See  it  more  exactly  described,  Vol.  30,  p.  1. 

Torporley  stands  in  the  mid  Way  between  Chester  and 
Namptwich,  about  10  Miles  from  each,  on  a  sandy  Rock :  it  was 
a  disused  market  'till  Sir  John  Crew  built  them  a  very  handsome 
Market  House  and  procured  them  a  Market  on  Thursdays ;  w'ch 
however  is  not  yet  greatly  frequented. 

The  Church  is  dedicated  to  the  Honour  of  St.  Helen,  as  was 
that  other  Church  which  Mr.  Allen  had  before  he  was  Vicar  of 
Shudy  Camps  in  Cambridgeshire ;  I  mean  that  of  Colne  in  the 
County  of  Huntingdon  :  which  was  his  first  benefice  :  so  that  it 
is  probable  that  he  will  begin  and  end  with  St.  Helena. 


296 


Tarporley  in  1755 


On  a  black  marble  slab  just  within  the  Rails  of  the  Altar, 
rather  to  the  south  Side  and  almost  before  the  Altar  is  this 
Inscription  which  my  man  Joseph  Burgess  took  for  me,  having 
a  Desire  to  have  this  Inscription  as  I  remember  to  have  seen 
Mr.  Beresford  once  at  Cambridge. 

Here  lie  the  Remains 
of 

Edward  Beresford  B.D. 
Sen'r  Fellow  of  St.  John's 
College  in  Cambridge 
and 

Rector  of  this  Parish  xx  Years. 
He  departed  this  Life  May  iv. 
A  :  D  :  MDCCLII. 
A:  Mi  LIV. 

Mr.  Beresford  was  a  Bachelor  and  a  very  worthy  good  Man, 
doing  a  great  Deal  of  Good  in  his  Parish  :  for  the  last  10  Years 
of  his  Life  he  had  hardly  the  Use  of  his  Limbs,  being  carried 
to  and  from  Bed,  by  an  hereditary  Gout :  yet  he  died  not  of  that, 
but  of  an  Apoplexy  in  his  Chair  by  the  Fireside  one  Evening 
after  Supper,  being  a  short  necked  Man  and  full  of  Blood.  He 
has  a  Sister,  the  wife  of  Mr.  Egerton  Rector  of  Chedle  in 
Cheshire,1  who  is  as  lame  with  the  Gout  as  her  Brother  was : 
he  was  a  very  handsome,  florid,  well-looking  Man,  when  he  took 
his  Bachelor  of  Divinity's  Degree  at  Cambridge. 

Then  follow  extracts  from  the  registers,  in- 
cluding : — 

1655. — Saml.  Clarke  Pastor  of  Leigh ton-Beaudesert  in  Bed- 
fordshire married  Sarah  Dauter  of  Nathaniel  Lancaster 
Clerk  B.D.  and  Rector  of  this  Church,  3  Apr. 

After  these  come  accounts  of  the  rectors  of  Tar- 
porley, chiefly  from  the  registers.  The  following, 
of  the  then  more  recent  incumbents,  contain  per- 
sonal recollections,  and  afford  an  example  of  Cole's 
method  (fol.  180)  : — 

Ralph  Markham  .  .  .  had  [the  rectory]  on  a  Promise  of 
Resignation  to  Mr.  Beresford ;  which,  however,  he  did  not 
comply  with;  probably  as  Mr.  Beresford  was  Fellow  of  a 

1  Thomas  Egerton,  younger  son  of  Sir  John  Egerton  of  Wrinehill, 
was  rector  of  Cheadle  from  1723  till  his  death  in  1762;  Earwaker, 
East  Cheshire,  i.  224. 


Tarporley  in  1755  297 


College,  he  must  have  resigned  his  Fellowship  for  it,  and 
therefore  might  be  the  easier  on  the  Disappointment  'till  he 
came  to  the  Seniority,  when  he  might  hold  them  together ;  and 
I  think  I  have  heard  say  that  Mr.  Markham  allowed  him  some- 
what during  his  holding  it.  He  run  out  his  Income  so  much, 
that  he  was  confined  for  a  long  Time  in  Chester  Goal  for  Debt ; 
and  I  am  not  certain  whether  he  did  not  die  there :  however  that 
be,  he  gave  way  to  Fate  and  was  buried  in  this  Church  May  3, 
1732,  leaving  a  widow  behind  him  and  2  Sons  quite  unprovided 
for ;  but  now,  by  the  Help  of  good  Friends,  both  in  Holy  Orders. 
The  eldest  Ralph  was  baptised  18  Febr.  1725,  and  is  now  Curate 
or  Minister  of  the  Chapel  of  Wore  in  Shropshire.  He  was 
of  a  very  weekly  Constitution  and  having  the  small-Pox  in  a  very 
bad  Manner  it  deprived  him  of  his  Eye  Sight  for  the  greatest 
Part  of  the  Time  which  he  should  have  employed  in  his  Educa- 
tion, the  greatest  Care  of  which  lay  wholly  upon  his  Mother,  who 
was  a  very  sensible  and  clever  woman  and  instructed  him  all 
that  lay  in  her  Power ;  and  moreover  got  him  what  Learning  she 
could  procure  for  him  at  Nantwich  under  Mr.  Adderley  the 
curate  there,  who  was  formerly  of  Trinity  College  in  Cambridge : 
so  that  having  a  natural  Genius  for  Poetry  and  Painting,  it  was 
judged  by  his  Friends  that  he  might  employ  himself  in  those 
Sciences  and  by  their  Means  procure  himself  an  Help  towards 
forwarding  his  Education  at  the  University :  accordingly  he  pub- 
lished a  4to  volume  of  Poems  on  various  Subjects,  which  was 
printed  at  Chester  without  his  Name;  and  for  the  same  End 
he  also  had  a  Picture  of  the  Infernal  Regions,  as  described  by 
Virgil  and  which  he  had  painted,  engraved  by  Subscription, 
which  brought  him  in  a  small  Supply  for  his  Occasions ;  however, 
not  sufficient  to  maintain  him  at  the  University,  whither  his  poor 
Constitution  also  prevented  his  going ;  so  upon  a  proper  Applica- 
tion to  the  present  worthy  Bishop  of  Chester,  who  finding  him 
sufficiently  qualified  for  Holy  Orders,  tho'  he  had  never  had  an 
University  Education  or  Degrees,  conferred  them  upon  him : 
however  conditionally  that  he  should  repair  thither  when  able 
and  take  his  Degrees ;  and  accordingly  he  admitted  himself  at 
Peter-House ;  but  never  has  been  there ;  and  probably  never 
will ;  unless  he  should  suddenly  get  somewhat  better  to  maintain 
him  there  than  the  poor  Curacy  of  Wore :  he  is  a  very  worthy 
young  Man  and  deserving  of  better  Fortune.  His  younger 
Brother  Robert  was  baptised  16  June  1727  and  was  first  of 
St.  John's  College  in  Cambridge ;  but  upon  a  Propriety  Fellow- 
ship in  Baliol  College  being  vacant  he  was  advised  to  apply  for  it 
and  obtained  it.1    He  has  also  the  New-Church  on  Delamere 


1  This  is  not  quite  accurate ;  Robert  Markham,  admitted  to 
St.  John's  in  Cambridge  in  1745,  M.A.  1752,  was  incorporated  at 


298 


Tarporley  in  1755 


Forest  of  the  Gift  of  Mr.  Cholmondeley  of  Vale-Royal,  with 
whom  he  chiefly  resides,  and  who  is  a  good  Friend  and  Patron 
to  both  the  Brothers. 

Edward  Beresford  B.D.  and  Fellow  of  St.  John's  College  in 
Cambridge  succeeded  on  Mr.  Markham's  Death,  and  held  his 
Fellowship  with  his  Living,  to  his  Death,  which  was  occasioned 
by  an  Apoplexy  in  his  Parsonage  House  at  Torporley,  and  was 
buried  in  his  Chancel  there  on  the  Steps  of  the  Altar,  under  an 
handsome  black  marble  Slab  May  11,  1752,  aged  about  55.  He 
had  been  most  cruelly  handled  with  the  Gout  for  many  Years, 
and  for  the  last  10  Years  of  his  Life  was  a  perfect  Cripple  and 
quite  helpless,  and  wholly  confined  to  his  Chamber.  He  was 
a  very  hospitable  and  humane  Man  and  much  beloved  by  his 
Parishioners;  and  dying  a  Bachelor,  his  Effects  went  between 
his  Brothers  and  Sister  who  is  the  wife  of  Mr.  Egerton  Rector  of 
Chedle  and  Son  of  Sir  .  .  .  Egerton  j  one  of  his  Brothers  lives 
near  Derby  on  an  Estate  of  his  own.  His  Epitaph  may  be  seen 
in  the  166th  Page  of  this  Volume,  being  the  only  one  I  took 
while  at  Torporley. 

John  Allen  B.D.  and  one  of  the  Senior  Fellows  and  Bursar 
of  Trinity  College  in  Cambridge,  was  born  at  Uttoxeter  in 
Staffordshire;  in  which  County  also  he  has  a  Sine-Cure.  His 
first  Preferment  from  the  College  was  the  Vicarage  of  Colne  in 
Huntingdonshire,  which  he  quitted  for  that  of  Shudy-Camps  in 
Cambridgeshire,  where  in  a  small  thatched  house  in  which  you 
could  hardly  swing  a  Cat,  but  by  him  most  neatly  fitted  up, 
and  elegantly  furnished,  he  has  frequently  entertained  the  best 
Company  of  the  County,  who  never  were  better  pleased  than 
to  enjoy  his  chearful  and  honest  Conversation  both  at  their  own 
and  his  House.  In  1744  he  was  the  Senior  Proctor  of  the 
University,  and  on  the  Death  of  Mr.  Beresford,  the  Patron 
Mr.  Arderne,  his  old  University  Acquaintance,  who  had  not  seen 
one  another  of  years,  voluntarily  offered  him  the  Presentation  in 
the  most  handsome  Manner :  and  Mr.  Allen,  to  requite  in  some 
Manner  the  Generosity  of  his  Friend,  has  already  laid  out  in 
Buildings  and  Repairs  the  whole  Profits  of  the  Living  to  this 
Time  1755  ;  and  no  Doubt  will  do  more  on  proper  Occasions : 
He  divides  his  Time  equally  between  Cambridge  and  Torporley  ; 
at  the  first  he  spends  his  Winters,  and  his  Summers  at  Torporley. 
As  Fellow  of  a  College  he  must  necessarily  be  a  Bachelor  and  is 
now  about  55  Years  of  Age,  and  is  an  hearty  and  well-looking  Man; 
and  above  all  is  much  esteemed  by  all  the  neighbouring  Gentry 
and  Clergy,  whom  according  to  his  natural  Taste  and  Disposition, 
he  elegantly  and  hospitably  entertains  as  they  call  upon  him. 

Oxford  from  Brasenose  College  in  1753.  He  was  afterwards  rector  of 
Chetwynd,  and  of  St.  Mary's,  Whitechapel,  from  1768  till  his  death  in 
1786  ;  R.  F.  Scott,  Admissions  to  St.  John's  Coll.,  iii.  116,  554. 


Tarporley  in  1755  299 


He  is  an  exceeding  good  Historian  and  an  excellent  Antiquary 
and  Herald;  and  as  such  has  made  Collections  towards  an 
History  of  his  Native  County  of  Stafford,  and  tricked  out  the 
Arms  in  the  Church  Windows  of  various  Churches  in  that 
County,  and  elsewhere:  which  Collections  he  has  given  to 
Dr.  Wilkes  of  Wolverhampton,  who  is  preparing  an  History  of 
that  County  for  the  Press.  His  father  lived  at  Bromshall,  where 
he  had  an  Estate,  near  Uttoxeter. 

The  following  paragraph,  added  at  a  later  time, 
fills  up  the  page:  "  Poor  Mr.  Allen  my  worthy 
Friend,  died  easily  and  rather  suddenly  Saturday 
Jan.  17,  1778,  the  same  Day  that  Mr.  Pepys  of 
Impington  died  at  Bath.  This  was  told  to  me  this 
morning  Jan.  26  by  Mr.  Sam.  Knight,  who  had 
been  at  Cambridge  the  evening  before  with  Mr. 
Whisson  of  Trinity,  who  had  received  a  letter  from 
Mr.  Pepper  Ardern  with  Advice  of  it.  In  the  Cam- 
bridge Chronicle  it  is  said  that  he  died  on  Sttnday 
at  Chester,  after  a  short  Illness,  aged  78  years. 

"Crew  Arden,  A.M.  of  Trin.  College,  son  of  the 
Patron,  succeeded  him  in  March  1778." 

On  the  opposite  page  Cole  has  written  the 
epitaph,  with  these  remarks  : 

As  I  long  knew  my  worthy  Friend's  religious  Principles,  I  was 
no  ways  surprized  when  Mr.  Lort  sent  me  the  following  Epitaph, 
on  Sunday  Morning  Sept.  20,  1778,  to  Milton  from  Trinity 
College,  by  my  Servant,  whom  I  had  sent  to  him. 

Inscription  on  Mr.  Allen's  Tomb  in  St.  Johris 
Church  Yard,  Chester. 

Deus  propitius  esto  mihi 
Joanni  Allen,  Peccatori, 
Rectori  de  Torporley, 
et  Socio  maxime  Seniori 
Trin.  Coll.  Cantab. 
Nato  apud  Uttoxeter. 

Jan.  14,  1699. 
Sepulto  Jan.  23,  1778. 
Quod  Quisque  Vestrum 
mihi  pie  optaverit, 
Illi  feliciter  eveniat  [Argent  two  bars  sabl6j 

VlVO  et  mortUO.  in  chief  three  mul- 

Amen.  lets  of  the  second.] 


300 


Tarporley  in  1755 


I  like  the  Turn  of  Thought  extremely,  and  envy  him  that  he 
first  caught  it :  my  own  is  not  to  be  compared  to  it,  tho'  in  the 
same  Style  and  composed  many  Years  ago :  it  is  at  p.  180,  vol.  7 
of  these  Collections.  It  is  too  long,  but  I  know  not  how  to 
shorten  it. 

On  an  earlier  blank  page  a  letter  of  Mr.  Allen's 
has  been  copied,  and  may  be  reproduced  because 
of  the  local  gossip  it  records  (fol.  168^) : 

To  the  Rev.  Mr.  Cole  Rector  of  Blecheley1  near 
Fenny  Stratford,  Bucks. 

Tarporley,  May  26,  1767. 

My  dear  Friend. — I  put  on  a  Resolution  to  write  to  you 
before  you  begin  your  Expedition  into  Cambridgeshire,  and  to 
inform  you,  that  tho'  I  am  very  weak  both  in  my  Loyns  and  my 
Ankles,  yet  my  Mind  is  more  affected  than  either,  with  the  Loss 
of  poor  Heyrick.  An  intimacy  of  near  50  Years  standing  had 
subsisted  between  us ;  so  that  his  Death  is  really  like  a  Stroke  of 
the  dead  Palsey  on  one  Side.  I  thank  you  for  your  charitable 
Opinion  of  him,  and  hope  you  won't  want  Sollicitation  to  pray 
for  his  Soul :  for  tho'  perhaps  he  was  fitter  for  this  World,  than 
any  other  State,  yet  God  will  draw  a  Score  upon  his  Faults, 
which  were  owing  to  Blood,  rather  than  Corruption  of  Heart.  I 
assure  you,  I  am  at  present  disconsolate,  and  sing,  Oh  !  how  are 
the  mighty  fallen  ! 

The  Poem,  you  mention,  I  have  never  seen :  for  I  had  not  a 
Copy  sent  me ;  and  I  would  not  buy  it,  as  the  real  Author 
disclaimed  it  to  me.  He  is  a  Brother  Antiquarian,  and  has 
wrote  an  History  of  our  antient  City,  or  rather  of  his  own 
obscure  Family :  a  very  Prig  in  Magazines,  Courants  &c.  His 
Name  is  Cooper,  and  he  stiles  himself  M.D.  but  his  true  Title 
should  be  M.W.  i.e.  Man  Widwife  [sic] ;  for  that  is  his  present 
Calling.2 

What  makes  you,  that  wallow  in  valuable  Collections,  so 
ravenous  after  my  Trumpery  ?  I  have  told  you,  you  shall  have 
'em :  but  for  a  particular  Reason  (a  selfish  one  you'll  suppose) 
I  cannot  say  just  when.  Remember,  my  Friend,  you  never 
would  indulge  me  with  the  Loan  of  yours,  tho'  under  the 
stricktest  Engagement  of  being  neither  transcribed  or  com- 
municated. 

Here  has  been  a  House,  kidnapped  by  a  Manchester  Trader, 


1  Cole  was  rector  of  Bletchley  1753  to  1767,  when  he  resigned. 

2  For  William  Cowper,  M.D.,  F.S.A.,  see  Ormerod's  Cheshire, 
i.  374.    The  poem,  //  Penseroso,  is  mentioned. 


Tarporley  in  1755 


301 


would  have  suited  you,  upon  the  River  Dee,  at  a  Place  called 
Farndon,  within  Sight  of  which  I  am  writing :  a  Bridge  and 
Tower  upon  it  divide  it  from  Holt  in  Denbighshire.  I  wish  you 
much  in  this  Neighbourhood;  but  there's  no  engaging  for  any 
Place  'till  you  have  seen  it. 

When  is  the  time  of  your  Moving?  I  suppose  you'll  make  a 
Sale  whenever  it  happens :  if  you  have  no  particular  Passion  for 
the  blew  China  Vase  on  your  Chimney  Peice  in  your  Parlour, 
with  a  Brass  Foot,  I  will  compliment  it  with  a  better  Dress,  and 
shall  be  obliged  to  you  for  it. 

Let  me  hear  from  you  when  you  come  out  of  Cambridgeshire  : 
you  can't  be  too  particular  about  that  Place,  than  about  yourself. 
True  Friends  are  very  scarce :  don't  let  us  cease  to  love  each 
other.  I  am,  my  dear  Joy  (to  speak  in  our  Neighbour's  Phrase), 
most  affectionately  yours,  J.  Allen. 

Mrs.  Richardson  desires  her  best  Respects. 

Cole  appends  a  copy  of  his  answer  to  "  Dear 
John,"  but  there  is  no  need  to  print  it  here.  The 
"  poem  "  is  referred  to  thus  : 

Methinks  you  are  both  very  incurious  in  never  looking  into 
the  Poem,  so  handsomely  inscribed  to  you,  as  well  as  severe  in 
giving  such  an  account  of  your  Client.  To  give  you  my  Opinion 
about  it  (for  I  sent  for  it  directly  on  seeing  your  Name  tacked  to 
it),  the  only  tolerable  Thing  belonging  to  it,  is  the  Inscription 
or  Dedication  to  your  Reverence :  77  Penseroso  itself  is  as  high 
Bombast  and  Fustian  as  ever  I  red. 

Enclosed  was  an  epitaph  suggested  for  Allen's 
deceased  friend,  Nathaniel  Heyrick,  B.D.,  senior 
fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  and  rector 
of  Loddington  in  Northamptonshire  from  1742  till 
his  death  on  13th  May  1767,  aged  seventy.  Part 
of  it  ran  :  "  He  was  a  polite  scholar,  an  excellent 
preacher,  and  a  most  facetious  companion.  His 
style  of  wit  and  humour  was  so  truly  original  and 
so  peculiarly  his  own  that  the  following  observation 
was  never  more  properly  applied  :  None  but  him- 
self can  be  his  parallel."  Allen  in  reply  sent  an 
amended  inscription.1    An  account  of  Mr.  Heyrick 

1  The  epitaph  eventually  placed  in  the  church  was  comparatively 
short  and  simple. 


302 


Tarporley  in  1755 


follows,  in  which  it  is  stated  that  he  succeeded  his 
father1  as  rector  of  Loddington,  and  had  brothers 
Toby  (Vicar  of  Over,  Cambs)  and  Samuel.  He 
was  "  an  excellent  player  at  Whisk,"  but  "  took  such 
Liberties  with  his  Tongue  "  that  he  frequently  gave 
serious  offence  to  his  friends.  The  following  may 
be  extracted,  as  characteristic  of  the  man  and  his 
times,  although  it  has  no  local  connection  :2 

[Mr.  Heyrick]  was  acquainted  with  the  best  of  the  Country 
[i.e.  in  Northamptonshire] ;  and  with  such  only  would  he  be  ac- 
quainted :  altho'  his  Intimacy  and  Friendship  with  the  Earl  of 
Halifax  was  somewhat  cooled  by  a  Peice  of  Drolery  and  Humour 
which  my  Lord  resented  at  his  Hands,  as  Party  Matters  then  ran 
high  in  Northamptonshire ;  and  tho'  Mr.  Heyrick,  out  of  Com- 
pliment to  his  Lordship,  voted  with  the  Whigs,  yet  in  his  Mind 
he  was  a  determined  Tory.  They  were  travelling  up  to  town  in 
my  Lord's  Post  Chaise,  and  just  at  the  Brook,  about  a  Mile  or  2 
before  you  get  to  Dunstable,  there  had  been  a  Highwayman  just 
then  hung  up  in  chains  :  as  they  came  nearer  it,  Mr.  Heyrick  in  his 
slow  drole  Way,  bid  his  Lordship  take  Notice  of  that  Fellow  that 
hung  dingle  dangle  with  his  Legs  in  the  Air  on  the  Gibbet :  and 
on  my  Lord's  enquiring  whether  he  knew  who  it  was,  Yes  my 
Lord,  says  Mr.  Herrick,  I  knew  him  very  well :  it  was  one  of  the 
last  Set  of  Justices  which  your  Lordship  put  into  Commission 
of  the  Peace  for  the  County  of  Northampton.  My  Lord  resented 
it  so  much,  that  from  thence  to  the  Sugar  Loaf  in  Donstable 
there  were  very  few  Words  passed  between  them ;  and  when  they 
got  there,  his  Lordship  put  his  Head  out  of  the  Chaise  Window 
and  ordered  the  Postilion  to  stop,  and  the  Footman  to  get  down 
and  open  the  Door  of  the  Chaise,  and  then  addressed  himself 
to  Mr.  Heyrick,  Sir,  says  he,  I  think  you  always  put  up  at  the 
Sugar  Loaf :  I  go  the  Crown. 

Cole  also  received  from  Allen  considerable  extracts 
from  Williamson's  Collections,  and  notes  of  his  own 
and  Sir  John  Crew's  concerning  the  antiquities  of 
the  county  and  district,  and  lent  a  book  of  Pedigrees. 
From  this  last  a  pedigree  of  Done  is  copied.  An 

1  Samuel  Heyrick  (see  Foster's  Alumni)  became  rector  of  Lodding- 
ton in  1702  ;  he  died  in  1741. 

2  These  Heyricks  were  of  the  same  family  as  Warden  Heyrick  of 
Manchester,  being  descendants  of  John  Eyrick  of  Leicester,  who  died 
in  1 589.   See  the  pedigree  in  J.  H.  Hill's  Market  Harborough^  1 18-124. 


Tarporley  in  1755  303 

entry  l(  March  17,  1694-5,  Sunday  about  4  in  the 
Afternoon,  pious,  innocent  and  grave  Mr.  Sherard 
Rector  of  Torporley  died,"  is  supposed  by  Cole  to 
have  come  from  some  Almanacks  of  Sir  John 
Crew's.  The  following  note  is  accompanied  by  a 
drawing  of  the  Renaissance  panel  described  : 

In  Oct.  1 76 1  Mr.  Allen  sent  me  3  small  Oaken  Pannels  of  old 
Wainscote  which  came  out  of  an  House  just  by  the  Church, 
belonging  to  Mr.  Browne  the  Apothecary ;  who  was  pulling  them 
down  and  going  to  burn  them,  when  Mr.  Allen  thought  they 
would  suit  a  Gothic  Building  in  my  Garden  at  Blecheley  in 
Buckinghamshire,  which  I  call  the  Hermitage.  One  of  them 
has  an  antique  shield  with  a  ragged  Staff  in  Cheif  per  Fesse  from 
which  by  a  Knot  hang  the  following  letters  WW.  D.  Decretorum. 
Who  this  Doctor  of  Decrees  was,  except  it  might  be  some  former 
Rector  of  Torporley,  I  know  not.  Above  it  in  a  Scrole  is 
Sit  Laus  Deo.  On  the  other  2  Panels,  being  all  above  a  foot 
square  are  2  Men's  Heads :  on  the  Collar  of  one  is  a  [Cross 
fleury]  and  the  Letter  C,  and  above  it  on  a  Scrole  Tibi  Honor> 
and  above  the  other  Tibi  Laus. 

Seeing  Mr.  Allen  at  Cambridge  in  December  1 761,  he  told  me, 
that  one  Wm.  Whitter  or  Wittar  Dr.  of  Decrees,  signed  as  a 
Witness  to  some  Deeds  he  had  seen  at  Torporley.1 

Cole  adds  :  "  I  have  them  now  in  my  Hermitage 
at  Milton  near  Cambridge.    July  26,  1773." 

After  leaving  Tarporley  our  antiquary  paid  a 
visit  to  Chester,  and  was  on  the  whole  favourably 
impressed  by  the  Cathedral  : 

It  is  a  Building  of  no  great  Eminence  as  a  Cathedral ;  tho'  not 
without  the  Aspect  and  Appearance  of  its  present  Dignity; 
having  a  capacious  Choir  and  Lady  Chapel  with  a  large  Nave ; 
and  all  built  of  the  red  sandy  stone  of  the  Country,  which  makes 
it  have  an  ordinary  and  even  ruinous  Appearance  on  the  Outside ; 
tho'  very  neat  within  and  in  good  Repair.  The  Choir  is  fitted 
up  on  both  Sides  with  antient  Stalls  and  Tabernacle  Work,  as  they 
call  it,  over  them,  very  elegantly :  I  mean,  lofty  Spire  Work  in 
the  Gothic  Taste :  on  the  south  Side  is  a  small  Organ  Case  to 
the  Choir,  over  these  Stalls,  which  the  Verger  told  me  was  now 
useless  and  only  served  as  a  Seat :  the  great  Organ  is  over  the 
Door  as  you  enter  the  Choir,  as  in  other  Cathedrals.  The 


1  See  Ormerod,  ii.  235,  308  ;  rector  of  Tarporley,  1499-1543- 


304 


Tai'porley  in  1755 


Bp.'s  Throne  is  at  the  east  End  of  the  Stalls  on  the  south  Side, 
of  a  square  Figure,  made  of  Stone  and  very  curiously  carved ; 
and  the  Dean  and  Chapter  have  lately  and  very  commendably 
repaired  it  throughout,  adding  Heads  to  the  great  Quantity  of  neat 
and  small  Images  in  Niches  all  round  it,  and  gilt  them  all :  their 
Heads  were  knocked  off  in  Oliver's  lawless  and  sacrilegious  Times 
and  the  Throne  other  ways  abused;  which  might  be  more  liable 
to  their  fiery  Zeal,  as  it  formerly  was  the  Shrine,  as  I  am  informed, 
of  the  Saint  to  which  the  Church  was  dedicated.  On  the  Stone 
Roof  of  the  north  Transept  I  observed  the  Arms  of  Cardinal 
Wolsey;  and  near  the  Entrance  into  the  south  Isle  by  the  side  of 
the  Choir,  I  also  observed  a  very  old  Chair  of  Stone  curiously- 
carved  a  V  antique,  and  which  I  took  for  the  Abbat's  Chair;  it  seemed 
to  me  to  be  a  Peice  of  great  Antiquity,  tho'  now  flung  aside  as  a 
Peice  of  old  Lumber  and  Rubbish.  The  south  Transept  is  made 
Use  of  and  divided  by  Partitions  from  the  Rest  of  the  Church, 
as  a  Parochial  Church  dedicated  to  St.  Oswald ;  and  being  fitted 
up  in  a  slovenly  Manner  by  Pews  of  all  the  different  Sorts  one 
can  imagine,  has  a  very  mean  Appearance.  From  the  north  Isle 
you  enter  the  Cloysters,  which  are  square  and  perfect,  but 
gloomy :  and  from  the  north  Transept  you  go  thro'  a  neat  square 
Antichamber  supported  by  4  of  the  neatest  and  smallest  stone 
Pillars  I  ever  saw,  into  the  Chapter  House,  lately  fitted  up  with 
Wainscote  and  the  beautiful  ornamental  Pillars  all  round  it, 
newly  furbished  up  and  scraped  :  so  that  it  is  one  of  the  neatest 
Rooms  of  the  Sort  in  all  England :  in  this  Chapter  House,  I 
think  I  was  told,  that  the  famous  Hugh  Lupus  first  Earl  of 
Chester,  the  magnificent  Founder  of  this  Abbey,  was  buried.  On 
the  northwest  Corner  of  the  Church,  by  the  Cloysters,  the  present 
worthy  Bishop  is  building  an  entire  new  Palace,  which  is  an 
handsome  long  Building  of  free  Stone,  fronting  the  Abbey  Court, 
where  several  of  the  Prebendaries  have  and  are  now  building 
very  neat  and  elegant  Houses  for  themselves ;  and  when  all  are 
compleated  it  will  be  a  most  elegant  and  beautiful  Square. 

Cole  adds  a  note,  describing  the  Palace  as  com- 
pleted,1 for  he  dined  there  with  the  bishop  on 
August  6,  1757.  The  bishop  told  him  he  had 
expended  ^2200  on  it,  nearly  three  years'  income 
of  the  bishopric.  "  The  private  Chapel  is  plain 
and  was  used  as  such  by  the  Abbats  :  it  has  a  neat 
Picture  of  our  Saviour  in  painted  Glass  in  the  east 
Window  above  the  Altar,  in  small,  and  the  Figures 
of  the  Apostles  and  other  Saints,  seemingly  done 

1  See  the  plan  of  Chester  in  Ormerod,  i.  180,  for  its  position. 


Tarporley  in  1755  305 

and  put  up  since  the  Restoration.  Vide  p.  219  of 
Vol.  27."  He  then  goes  on  with  his  description 
of  the  Cathedral,  affording  a  characteristic  sketch 
of  a  Whig  prelate  from  the  point  of  view  of  an 
eighteenth — or  rather  perhaps  seventeenth — cen- 
tury Tory. 

Our  Ladie's  Chapel  behind  the  Choir  is  made  use  of  for  six 
o'clock  Prayers  in  the  Morning :  on  the  south  Side  in  this  Chapel 
and  just  behind  the  High  Altar  lies  a  very  ancient  grey  marble 
Slab,  disrobed  of  its  Brasses  and  Inscription ;  but  has  the  Im- 
pression in  the  Stone  of  the  Figure  of  a  Bishop  with  his  Mitre 
and  Crosier,  long  before  the  Erection  of  this  Episcopal  See.  At 
the  upper  End  of  the  north  Isle  on  the  south  Side  just  by  the 
High  Altar,  is  an  old  and  ordinary  Monument  of  Stone,  Altar 
Fashion,  in  which  they  tell  you  that  the  Emperor  Henry  the  4th 
lies  intombed :  and  opposite  to  it  under  the  north  Wall  in  an 
Arch,  lies  a  very  antique  Stone,  no  Doubt,  designed  for  one  of 
the  oldest  Abbats  of  this  Church. 

The  Altar  Piece  is  of  a  fine  Piece  of  Tapestry,  having  a  Scrip- 
ture History  represented  on  it :  By  it  on  the  north  Side  or  Corner, 
Bishop  Stratford  has  a  very  neat  white  marble  mural  Monument, 
and  his  Bust  in  white  Marble  on  the  Top  of  it.  Just  within  the 
Altar  Rails  on  the  north  Side  on  a  small  square  Peice  of  white 
Marble  is  inscribed 

S.  P. 
Ep'us  Cest : 
i752 

This  is  designed  for  Samuel  Peploe  late  Bishop  of  Chester,  who 
died  there  in  1752,  and  who  is  to  have  a  Monument  erected  for 
him,  as  the  Verger  informed  me,  against  the  Pillar  in  the  S.E. 
Corner  by  the  High- Altar,  near  Bishop  Hall's  Monument.  The 
Occasion  of  Bishop  Peploe's  Rise  in  the  Church  was  Party 
Merit:  he  being  Vicar  of  Preston  in  Lancashire  in  17 15  when 
the  Pretender's  Friends  were  Masters  of  that  Town,  and  when 
he  could  not  be  persuaded  to  pray  publicly  for  him,  but  cour- 
agiously  prayed  for  King  George ;  who  afterwards  rewarded  his 
Zeal  in  his  Cause  with  the  Wardenship  of  Manchester  College 
and  this  Bishopric.  The  Bishop  lived  constantly  in  his  Diocese 
and  rarely  went  to  Parliament ;  and  being  a  married  Man  and 
having  a  Family,  he  set  his  Heart  upon  raising  a  Fortune  for 
them ;  and  consequently  lived  in  a  mean  unhospitable  Manner 
and  let  his  Episcopal  House  run  to  such  Decay,  that  the  present 
Bishop  found  it  absolutely  necessary  to  pull  it  quite  down  and 
rebuild  it.  Bishop  Peploe  left  his  Son  the  Chancellor  a  great 
temporal  Estate,  and  heaped  the  cheif  spiritual  Preferments  upon 

U 


306 


Tarporley  in  1755 


him  that  were  in  his  Disposal :  his  Dauter  Mary  had  also  a  good 
Fortune  and  is  now  married  to  Mr.  Joddrell  of  Cheshire. 

Cole  then  supplies  a  contrasting  sketch  of  Dean 
Arderne,  who  has  been  mentioned  above  in  the 
account  of  Tarporley.  His  monument  states  that 
"  tho'  he  bore  more  than  a  common  Affection  to  his 
private  Relations,  yet  gave  he  the  Substance  of  his 
bequeathable  Estate  to  this  Cathedral.  Which 
Gift,  his  Will  was  should  be  mentioned ;  that 
clergymen  may  consider,  whether  it  be  not  a  sort 
of  Sacrilege,  to  sweep  away  all  from  the  Church 
and  Charity  into  the  Possession  of  their  Lay- 
Kindred,  who  are  not  needy."  Thus  ^300  a 
year  in  lands  in  Tarporley  came  to  the  Cathedral, 
and  one  turn  in  five  of  the  presentation  to  the 
rectory  of  Tarporley.  The  Dean,  "  being  a  Cam- 
bridge man  and  a  Writer  .  .  .  and  being  moreover 
a  Person,  whose  Character  pleases  me,"  says  Cole, 
14 1  shall  put  down  in  this  Place  what  occurs  to  me 
concerning  him,"  and  proceeds  as  follows  : 

James  Arderne  descended  from  a  very  antient  Family  in 
Cheshire,  was  born  in  that  County  and  after  having  run  thro' 
his  Schole  Discipline  and  Studies,  was  admitted  a  Member 
of  Christ's  College  in  Cambridge,  into  the  Matricula  of  which 
University  he  was  entered  on  July  9,  1653  :  at  St.  John  Baptist's 
1656,  he  took  his  Degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts  and  proceeded 
Master  at  the  usual  Time:  and  being  a  Person  of  good  Parts 
and  of  great  Ingenuity,  he  was  admitted  as  a  Member  of  a  Club 
or  Society  in  1659  who  used  to  meet  every  Night  at  the  then  Turk's 
Head  in  New- Palace  Yard  in  Westminster,  where  many  Virtuosi 
of  the  Common-Wealth  Stamp  would  commonly  repair  and  where 
James  Harrington,  the  famous  Author  of  the  Oceana  was  wont  to 
preside ;  and  it  was  observed  that  their  Discourses  upon  Govern- 
ment were  the  most  ingenious  of  any  at  that  Time,  when,  as  to  all 
human  Foresight,  there  seemed  no  Possibility  of  Monarchy  ever 
being  established  again  in  this  Kingdom.  However  upon  the 
happy  Restoration  he  took  Orders  and  on  5  April  1666  was 
presented  to  the  Donative  or  Curacy  of  St.  Botolph  Aldgate  in 
London,  which  he  held  till  his  Promotion  to  the  Deanry  of 
Chester,  when  he  privately  resigned  it  to  Dr.  Ric.  Holling worth. 
In  the  years  1673  and  1674  he  was  a  Fellow-Commoner  in 


Tarporley  in  1755  307 

Brazen-Nose  College  in  Oxford,  partly  for  the  Sake  of  the  public 
Library,  and  partly  for  the  Conversation  of  the  Divines  and 
others  of  the  University  of  Oxford,  where  he  had  been  formerly 
in  1658,  incorporated  Master  of  Arts,  as  he  was  also  in  1673 
Doctor  of  Divinity,  both  which  [Degrees]  he  had  regularly  taken 
in  his  own  University.  He  was  Chaplain  in  Ordinary  to  King 
Charles  the  2d.  who  promoted  him  to  the  Deanry  of  Chester, 
where  he  was  installed  in  July  1682.  On  the  Death  of  Bishop 
Cartwright  in  April  1689,  it  was  commonly  reported  that  King 
James  the  2d.  did  then  nominate  the  Dean  to  succeed  him  in 
the  Bishopric  of  Chester :  but  whether  that  be  true  or  not ; 
certain  it  is,  that  King  William  gaining  his  Point  in  establish- 
ing himself  King  of  these  Realms  on  the  Exclusion  of  his 
Father-in- Law  and  own  Uncle,  he  appointed  another  Person 
to  that  See.  In  1688  he  made  his  Will,  by  which  he  left  the 
Substance  of  his  bequeathable  Estate  to  the  Cathedral  of 
Chester,  in  Order  to  Provide  and  maintain  a  public  Library  in 
that  Church,  for  the  Use  of  the  City  and  Clergy  there,  together 
with  all  his  Books  and  a  Turn  of  Presentation  to  the  Rectory  of 
Torporley  in  Cheshire,  where  his  Estate  lay,  to  the  Dean  and 
Chapter.  At  length,  after  he  had  run,  as  Anthony  Wood  ex- 
presses it,  with  the  Humour  of  King  James  the  2d.  and  on  that 
Account  suffered  several  Indignities  and  Affronts  from  the 
Vulgar  of,  and  near  Chester,  when  that  King  withdrew  himself 
into  France  in  1688,  he  gave  Way  to  Fate  on  18  of  September 
[Mr.  Willis  says  18  August]  1691 ;  whereupon  his  Body  was 
buried  in  the  Cathedral  of  Chester,  on  the  south  Side  near  the 
Bishop's  Throne. 

He  then  gives  the  inscription  on  the  tomb  of 
Elizabeth  Gastrell,  1747  (Ornierod,  i.  295),  and 
continues : 

This  year  1755  the  Dean  and  Chapter  have  erected  on  the 
south  Side  of  the  Cathedral  Yard  several  convenient  Linen 
Warehouses,  for  the  Use  of  the  Irish  Traders  in  that  Com- 
modity, who  come  over  at  Midsummer  and  Michaelmass  to  vend 
their  Manufactures :  tho'  many  People  disliked  it  and  tho't  it 
below  their  Dignity  to  accommodate  Tradesmen  so  near  their 
Cathedral  Church. 

The  Walls  round  the  City  of  Chester  are  very  perfect  and  were 
designed  so  conveniently,  as  that  the  Inhabitants  can  walk  upon 
them ;  which  renders  their  City  much  more  convenient,  airy  and 
pleasant  to  them :  and  the  Piazza's  or  Rows,  as  they  call  them, 
within  the  City,  by  means  whereof  the  Citizens  walk  in  their 
streets  under  shelter  in  the  worst  of  Weather,  make  this  City 
have  a  more  singular  Appearance  than  any  I  ever  yet  saw :  tho' 


3o8 


Tarporley  in  1755 


it  must  be  confessed  that  the  Convenience  of  walking  dry  is 
more  than  counterballanced  by  the  necessary  Gloominess  of  their 
forward  Apartments,  and  by  the  continual  ascending  and  de- 
scending the  Steps  which  are  made  to  get  into  them.  For  my 
own  Part,  when  I  was  at  Chester,  I  was  too  lame,  being  just  got 
up  after  a  broken  Leg :  so  could  neither  walk  about  the  City,  or 
stay  so  long  in  the  Cathedral  as  my  Inclinations  would  have  led 
me  to  have  done  otherwise :  however  I  could  not  resist  taking 
Notice  of  the  two  former  Inscriptions  there,  they  being  of  a 
Turn  so  peculiar  and  singular  in  this  Age. 

The  City  is  very  large  and  populous  and  almost  equally  divided 
by  two  principal  Streets  which  cross  one  another  in  the  middle : 
and  bating  the  Rows,  which  certainly  are  no  Ornament,  however 
useful  they  may  be,  it  is  well  built  and  shows  a  great  number  of 
handsome  Houses,  and  the  Streets  are  better  paved  than  in  any 
great  Town  I  have  been  in :  which  makes  some  Sort  of  Amends 
for  the  Vileness  of  their  Pavements  which  lead  to  it  from  every 
Quarter. 

I  was  told  St.  John's  Church  was  more  worth  looking  into 
than  the  Cathedral,  but  as  moving  about,  otherwise  than  in  a 
Coach,  was  very  inconvenient  to  me,  so  I  was  deprived  of  the 
Pleasure  of  seeing  that  old  Collegiate  Church ;  as  also  the  Castle 
and  magnificent  Hall  in  it,  which  I  was  told,  almost  vies  with 
Westminster  Hall  for  Vastness  and  Capacity. 

The  pen-portrait  of  the  then  Dean  of  Chester 
has  been  omitted  here,  and  it  must  suffice  to  allude 
to  the  letters  between  the  friends  Allen  and  Cole 
contained  in  the  ' 1  Collections."  The  index  recently 
compiled  by  Mr.  George  J.  Gray  gives  every 
facility  for  studying  them. 


309 


LANCASHIRE  RECUSANTS  AND 
QUAKERS 


THE  following  lists  afford  some  details  of  the  re- 
ligious conditions  in  Lancashire  and  Cheshire 
in  the  time  of  Charles  II,  and  may  be  regarded  as 
supplementary  to  Mr.  Irvine's  account  of  the  Chester 
diocesan  records  of  the  same  period.  Something 
was  shown  of  the  Nonconformists'  grievances  in 
the  extracts  from  Sir  Roger  Bradshaigh's  Letter 
Book,  in  the  last  volume  of  Transactions. 

Recusants  in  West  Derby  Hundred 

At  the  general  gaol  delivery  at  Lancaster  Castle 
on  6th  September,  18  Charles  II  (1666),  it  was 
presented  that  the  following  persons,  though  all  of 
sixteen  years  of  age  and  upwards  on  1st  December 
1665,  "  did  not  repair"  to  their  parish  church  or 
other  place  of  Common  Prayer,  but  had  obsti- 
nately forborne  to  do  so  for  three  months  or  more.1 
It  will  be  noticed  that  the  names,  about  500  in 
all,  belong  to  West  Derby  hundred,  though  there 
is  not  a  single  Liverpool  one  among  them  ;  but 
the  assize  roll  contains  nothing  to  show  why  the 
other  hundreds,  which  could  have  trebled  this  list, 
were  not  reported  upon.  Perhaps  the  church- 
wardens and  others  had  been  remiss,  or  perhaps  their 
lists  had  been  recorded  on  earlier  rolls.    A  some- 

1  Pal.  of  Lancaster  Assize  Roll,  41,  m.  8. 


310       Lancashire  Recusants  and  Quakers 


what  later  list,  with  Mr.  Joseph  Gillow's  account  of 
the  victims,  will  be  found  in  the  Catholic  Record 
Society's  volume,  Miscellanea,  v. 

It  will  be  observed  that  in  the  majority  of  cases 
a  conviction  was  recorded,  but  that  some  of  the 
accused  contrived  to  defer  sentence.  These  were 
landowners  who  no  doubt  wished  to  stave  off  the 
sequestration  of  two-thirds  of  their  estates  as  long 
as  possible. 

In  the  following  list,  where  no  occupation  is  here 
given,  "  husbandman "  must  be  understood.  The 
names  were : 

Rainhill. — John  Lancaster,  gentleman;  Richard  Ackers, 
yeoman ;  Edward  Stringfellow. 

Kirkby-in-Walton. — Lawrence  Stananought  and  Margaret 
his  wife;  Edward  Tatlock,  yeoman,  and  Jane  his  wife;  John 
Tatlock  and  Mary  his  wife;  Anne,  wife  of  Robert  Norris; 
Dorothy,  wife  of  John  Burton. 

Garston. — Ralph  Plumb,  yeoman;  Henry  Hoole;  Ellen 
Tailor,  spinster ;  Anne  Miller,  spinster ;  Henry  and  Thomas 
Hichmough  ;  William  Dwaryhowse ;  Margaret  Plumb,  spinster. 

Formby.  —  Richard  Formby,  gentleman ;  Philip  Norres, 
William  Blevin,  Cuthbert  Formby,  Edward  Andoe,  John 
Matthew,  Edmund  Ryding. 

Little  Woolton. — William  Hunt,  Elizabeth  Miller,  widow. 

Much  Woolton. — Mary  Quick,  widow;  Robert  Quick  and 
Mary  his  wife;  Sarah  Cooke,  widow;  Margery  Quick,  spinster; 
William  Pendleton  and  Jane  his  wife. 

Rainford. — Mary,  Margaret,  and  Dorothy  Lathome,  spinsters  ; 
Richard  Lancaster  and  Christiana  his  wife ;  William  Callon  and 
Jane  his  wife;  Richard  Nailer  and  Ellen  his  wife;  Mary 
Rainforth,  spinster ;  Jane  Carrow,  spinster. 

Everton. — Thomas  Speakeman,  blacksmith. 

Walton-with-Fazakerley. — [blank]  Breres,  gentleman,  and 
his  wife  [blank];  Mary  Tarleton,  widow;  James  Topping  and 
his  wife  [blank] ;  Anne  Turner,  widow ;  John  Turner. 

Speake. — Thomas  Harrison  ;  Margaret  Ryce,  widow ;  Alice 
Edmondson,  spinster;  Thomas  Crooke  and  Alice  his  wife; 
William  Challenor;  Ellen  Cooke,  widow;  Henry  Mollineux, 
yeoman ;  George  Holme  and  Alice  his  wife. 

Parr. — Bryan  Howard,  yeoman;  Elizabeth  Parr,  spinster; 
Margaret  Owen,  spinster. 

Windle. — Richard  Egerton;  Thomas  Tailer,  yeoman,  and 


Lancashire  Recusants  and  Quakers  311 


Ellen  his  wife ;  Jane  Travis,  widow ;  John  Travis  and  Jane  his 
wife ;  Anne  Wainewright,  widow ;  Margery,  wife  of  John  Eddle- 
ston ;  Ellen  Arrowsmith,  widow ;  Margaret  Holland,  spinster. 

Eccleston-by-Kn  owsley. — Ellenor  Eccleston,  widow;  Thomas 
Walton,  gentleman,  and  Mary  his  wife;  Frances  Hay  ward, 
spinster ;  John  Travis. 

Bold. — Christopher  Jackson,  yeoman;  James  Foster;  Mar- 
garet, wife  of  Gilbert  Arrowsmith  ;  Anne  Cowley,  spinster. 

Allerton. —  William  Lathome,  yeoman;  Henry  Miller; 
Ellen  Hey,  spinster. 

Ditton. — John  Houghton,  gentleman,  and  Elizabeth  his  wife  ; 
Hugh  Rawson;  Esther  Entwisley,  spinster;  Sacra  Tildsley, 
spinster ;  James  Cowley  and  his  wife  [blank]. 

Childwall. — Katherine  Carter,  widow. 

Tarbuck. — Richard  Carter. 

Hyton-with-Roby. — John  Hunt ;  John  Lawrenson. 

Whiston. — Anne  Ashton,  spinster ;  John  Hunt  and  Elizabeth 
his  wife;  Anne  Lyon,  widow;  Alice  Forrest,  spinster;  Mary 
Kase,  spinster ;  John  Ford  and  Margaret  his  wife ;  Anne 
Standish,  spinster;  Jane  Gryffith,  spinster;  Margaret  Hoghton, 
spinster ;  Mary  Challoner,  spinster. 

Lathome. — Richard  Mosse  and  Elizabeth  his  wife ;  Edward 
Mosse,  yeoman  ;  Thomas  Ayscogh,  yeoman,  and  Ellenor  his 
wife ;  Thomas  Burscogh ;  James  Burscogh,  yeoman,  and  Mar- 
garet his  wife ;  Thomas  Waring,  yeoman,  and  Dorothy  his  wife ; 
Richard  Waring  the  elder,  yeoman ;  Elizabeth  Holland,  widow ; 
Henry  Holland,  yeoman. 

[No  place]. — Peter  Aspinwall  and  Cisley  his  wife. 

Skelmersdale. — Henry  Mosse,  yeoman,  and  Elizabeth  his 
wife ;  William  Mosse  and  Elizabeth  his  wife ;  Edward  Mosse ; 
James  Ascrofte,  yeoman,  and  Katherine  his  wife ;  Ralph  Hol- 
land, yeoman,  and  Mary  his  wife;  James  Ascrofte  the  elder, 
yeoman ;  Richard  Mosse,  yeoman,  and  Margaret  his  wife ; 
Michael  Chernock,  yeoman,  and  Anne  his  wife ;  Anne,  wife  of 
Richard  Ashurst,  yeoman;  Edward  Mosse  and  Margaret  his 
wife  ;  Joan  Mosse,  widow  ;  Hugh  and  Henry  Mosse. 

Burscogh.  —  Cuthbert  Halsall,  yeoman ;  John  Fletcher, 
yeoman,  and  Ellen  his  wife ;  Richard  Culcheth  and  Alice  his 
wife  ;  Francis  Massam,  yeoman,  and  Mary  his  wife. 

Aughton. — Gabriel  Hesketh,  esquire ;  Peter  Stanley,  gentle- 
man ;  Edward  Stanley,  gentleman,  and  Margaret  his  wife. 

Scarisbrick. — James  Scarisbrick,  esquire,  and  his  wife  [blank] ; 
Frances  Scarisbrick,  widow ;  Hugh  Worthington,  yeoman,  and 
Margaret  his  wife  ;  Richard  Waring,  yeoman,  and  Ellen  his  wife  ; 
Mary  Sharp,  spinster. 

Sephton,  Netherton,  and  Lunt. — Nicholas  Shepperd, 
yeoman,  and  Ellen  his  wife;  Robert  Shepperd,  yeoman,  and 


312       Lancashire  Recusants  and  Quakers 

Alice  his  wife;  Ellen  Pinnington,  widow;  Margaret,  wife  of 
Richard  Mollineux,  yeoman ;  Katherine,  wife  of  Nicholas 
Bolton ;  Robert  Melling,  yeoman ;  Peter  Hurdes,  yeoman,  and 
Alice  his  wife;  Anne  Hurdes,  widow;  Robert  Fleetwood  and 
Margery  his  wife ;  Richard  Abram  and  Anne  his  wife ;  Margaret, 
wife  of  William  Daile,  yeoman ;  Margery,  wife  of  William  Copple, 
yeoman ;  Nicholas  Aughton  and  Anne  his  wife ;  Peter  Stock ; 
Ellen  Stock,  widow ;  John  Bennett  and  Joan  his  wife ;  William 
Bootle,  yeoman,  and  Ellen  his  wife ;  Margaret  Bolton,  spinster ; 
Robert  Tarleton  and  Alice  his  wife;  Edmund  Booth,  yeoman, 
and  Alice  his  wife;  Anne,  wife  of  Robert  Tristram,  yeoman; 
Thomas  Tyrer  and  Anne  his  wife;  Richard  Gerrard,  yeoman, 
and  Margaret  his  wife ;  James  Nayler ;  Ellen  Nailor,  widow ; 
Anne,  wife  of  John  Gorsuch ;  Richard  Aughton,  yeoman,  and 
Ellen  his  wife ;  Ellen  Greene,  widow ;  Robert  Bolton  and  Mary 
his  wife. 

Great  Crosby. — Jane  Johnson,  widow;  Thomas  Rothwell, 
yeoman,  and  Mary  his  wife ;  Richard  Poole,  yeoman ;  John 
Lunt,  yeoman ;  William  Lunt  and  Margaret  his  wife ;  George 
Mercer,  yeoman,  and  Anne  his  wife ;  Nicholas  Lurting,  yeoman ; 
Henry  Mercer,  yeoman,  and  Katherine  his  wife ;  Edward  Alcock 
and  Jane  his  wife;  Henry  Atherton,  yeoman,  and  Anne  his 
wife ;  Margery  Hatton,  widow ;  Richard  Arnold,  yeoman ; 
Thomas  Thellow  and  Mary  his  wife ;  Alice,  wife  of  Henry  Aspin- 
wall ;  Richard  Hatton,  yeoman,  and  Margaret  his  wife ;  William 
Rydgyate ;  William  Fisher,  yeoman,  and  Ellen  his  wife  ;  Law- 
rence Sharpe,  yeoman ;  Richard  Fazakerley  ;  Richard  Cartwright, 
yeoman,  and  Margaret  his  wife;  William  Johnson,  yeoman; 
Henry  Blundell  of  Ince  Blundell,  esquire,  and  Bridget  his  wife ; 
Edmund  Mollineux,  yeoman,  and  Katherine  his  wife;  Symon 
Worrall,  yeoman,  and  Margaret  his  wife ;  James  Ryce  ;  William 
Blanchard  and  Cisley  his  wife ;  Robert  Holme ;  Richard 
Blundell  and  Jane  his  wife ;  Henry  Formby,  yeoman,  and 
Elizabeth  his  wife;  Margaret  Mollineux,  widow;  Robert 
Formby ;  Robert  Tompson  and  Margery  his  wife  ;  Robert  Hill, 
yeoman,  and  Elizabeth  his  wife ;  Elizabeth  Couldock,  widow ; 
John  Melling  and  Margaret  his  wife;  Lawrence  Blundell, 
yeoman,  and  Ellen  his  wife ;  Elizabeth  Wilson,  widow. 

Little  Crosby.— William  Blundell,  esquire;  Robert  Moore- 
crofte,  yeoman,  and  Katherine  his  wife ;  John  and  Ralph  Barton  ; 
Thomas  Rothwell  and  Ellen  his  wife ;  Margaret  Rothwell,  widow  ; 
John  Marrew  and  Cisley  his  wife ;  Ellen  Davy,  widow ;  Margaret 
Ryce  the  elder,  widow;  Margaret  Ryce  the  younger,  widow; 
Hugh  Reynolds ;  Humphrey  Blundell ;  William  Stock ;  William 
Arnold ;  James  Ryce  and  Joan  his  wife ;  Thomas  Farrar : 
Richard  Davy  and  Elizabeth  his  wife;  Ellen  Worrall,  widow; 
Ellen  Mercer,  widow ;  William  Widdowes  and  Alice  his  wife ; 


Lancashire  Recusants  and  Quakers  313 


Thomas  Tickle ;  Nicholas  Blundell ;  John  Johnson ;  John 
Ryding  and  Anne  his  wife ;  John  Rogerson  and  Ellen  his  wife ; 
Bryan  Bryanson ;  Ellen  Blundell,  widow ;  Robert  Tompson 
and  Anne  his  wife;  John  Blanchard;  William  Bushell;  Brian 
Lea;  Thomas  Mercer  and  Elizabeth  his  wife;  Isabel  Ryding, 
spinster ;  George  Ryding. 

Litherland. — Thomas  Tyrer,  yeoman,  and  Margery  his  wife  ; 
Anthony  Mercer,  yeoman ;  Henry  Tristram  and  Anne  his  wife ; 
William  Lydgate  and  Grace  his  wife ;  Jane  and  Jennet  Bootle, 
spinsters. 

Orrell  and  Ford. — Jane  Worrall,  widow ;  Ellen,  wife  of 
Richard  Worrall;  Anne  Couldock,  widow;  Anne  Hurdes, 
widow;  Elizabeth  Tarleton,  widow;  Alexander  Tarleton  and 
Anne  his  wife. 

Aintree.  —  [blank]  Lathome,  widow ;  Elizabeth  Wignall, 
widow. 

Alkar. — Thomas  Worthington,  gentleman ;  John  Sutton, 
yeoman ;  Cisley  and  Isabel  Sutton,  spinsters ;  William  Wright ; 
Thomas  Reynold ;  John  Lenicar ;  Mary  Lovelady,  spinster ; 
John  and  Thomas  Wilson;  Elizabeth  Wilson,  spinster;  James 
Gore  ;  Thomas  Tickle  ;  William  Speake ;  Jane  Sutton,  spinster ; 
Margaret  Livesay,  spinster ;  William  Ryding ;  Robert  Harvey ; 
William  Prescott ;  John  Arnold ;  John  and  William  Tatlock ; 
Nicholas  Livesay ;  John  Harvey ;  Anthony  Wetherby ;  John 
Speakeman ;  William  Rymer ;  William  Wharton ;  Richard  Love- 
lady. 

Biccursteth. — James  Smith,  yeoman,  and  Jane  his  wife ; 
Alice  Westhead,  spinster ;  James  Westhead  and  Alice  his  wife ; 
Thomas  Webster,  yeoman,  and  Mary  his  wife;  Thomas  Holme 
and  Margaret  his  wife;  Katherine  Greaves,  widow;  Hugh  Heyes 
and  Anne  his  wife;  Edmund  Aspinwall  and  Mary  his  wife; 
Thomas  Aspinwall  and  Margaret  his  wife;  John  Hale  and 
Margery  his  wife ;  Jane  Tayler,  widow ;  Edward  Hunt  and  Alice 
his  wife ;  Ralph  Shepperd  and  Jane  his  wife ;  Margaret  Tailer, 
widow ;  Edward  Tarleton. 

Halsall. — Richard  Simpkin,  yeoman,  and  Mary  his  wife; 
Ellen  Mercer,  widow ;  Joan  Plumb,  widow ;  Richard  Kenyon 
and  Elizabeth  his  wife  ;  Elizabeth  Rymer,  widow ;  Alice  Shorlicar, 
widow;  Francis  Haskeyne;  William  Rymer  and  Margery  his 
wife ;  Margaret,  wife  of  James  Shorlicar ;  Thomas  Harrison ; 
Margery,  wife  of  Cuthbert  Whitehead ;  Elizabeth,  wife  of  Robert 
Sephton ;  Jane  Greene,  widow ;  Richard  Foster  and  Margaret 
his  wife ;  Katherine  Haskeine,  widow ;  Henry  Haskeine  and 
Mary  his  wife. 

Downeholland. — John  Aspinwall,  yeoman,  and  Katherine 
his  wife ;  Thomas  Aspinwall  and  Anne  his  wife ;  John  Farrar ; 
Anne  Farrar,  widow ;  James  Farrar  and  Elizabeth  his  wife ; 


314       Lancashire  Recusants  and  Quakers 


Cisley  Tasker,  spinster  5  Alice  Holme,  widow  ;  Ellen  Wakefield, 
widow;  Margaret,  wife  of  Henry  Hey;  William  Howley  (?); 
Elizabeth  Massam,  spinster;  Margaret  Holland,  widow;  James 
Rymer ;  Anne  Rymer,  Widow ;  John  Hatley. 

Lydyeate.  —  Richard  Pye  and  Ellen  his  wife;  Anthony 
Underwood,  shoemaker,  and  Mary  his  wife;  Bartholomew 
Holme,  yeoman,  and  Jennett  his  wife;  James  Fletcher  and 
Cisley  his  wife ;  Edmund  Holme,  webster,  and  Jane  his  wife ; 
Henry  Otly ;  Katherine  Spencer,  widow. 

Maghull. — Thomas  Gooding,  yeoman  ;  Isabel  Smyth,  widow  ; 
Francis  Cartmell  and  Bridget  his  wife ;  Henry  Parr  and  Anne 
his  wife;  Thomas  Bulling  and  Ellen  his  wife;  Thomas  Hesketh, 
yeoman,  and  Mary  his  wife ;  Ellen  Rawlinson,  widow ;  Ellen 
Lunt,  widow ;  Elizabeth  Bradley,  widow. 

Melling  in  Halsall. — Robert  Mollineux,  esquire ;  Thomas 
Mollineux,  gentleman ;  Ellen  Fazakerley,  spinster ;  Henry  Dam  ; 
James  Halsall,  gentleman ;  James  Hunter  and  Jane  his  wife ; 
Elizabeth  Hunt,  widow. 

North  Meales. — Thomas  Selby,  esquire,  and  Anne  his  wife ; 
Ralph  Cooper ;  Ralph  Ainsworth ;  Henry  Everson ;  Elizabeth 
Jump,  widow;  Alice,  wife  of  Thomas  Bancks. 

Warrington. — John  Turner ;  James  Winterbothome,  and 
Anne  his  wife ;  John  Hawney ;  Henry  Kay ;  Thomas  Kay  and 
Anne  his  wife ;  Robert  Culling  and  Margaret  his  wife ;  Samuel 
Dunbabin ;  William  Booth  and  Mary  his  wife ;  Francis  Wilson  ; 
John  Crowcher ;  John  Allen ;  Humphrey  Catterall ;  William 
and  Robert  Deane;  William  Penkethman;  Bryan  Sixsmith; 
Thomas  Whitwham;  Jennet  Tomlinson,  spinster;  Jane  Murry, 
spinster ;  Hugh  Haslapp ;  John  Pickering ;  John  Ditchfield. 

Rixton. — Richard  Mascy,  esquire. 

Woolston  and  Poolton. — John  Marsh ;  Richard  Booth; 
Thomas  Unsworth ;  Henry  and  Thomas  Lawton. 
Atherton. — James  Thropp. 

Bedford. — Richard  Sale,  gentleman,  and  Anne  his  wife ; 
Frances  Bradshaw,  spinster ;  Richard  Shuttleworth,  yeoman ; 
Christopher  Bradshaw,  yeoman,  and  Jane  his  wife;  Geoffrey 
Lithgo  and  Margaret  his  wife ;  Peter  Urmston ;  William 
Smethurst. 

Shakerley. — William  Berry,  yeoman ;  Lambert  Berry ;  Ellenor 
Parkinson,  spinster. 

Astley. — William  Bradshaw,  yeoman ;  Henry  Hoghton ;  John 
Gant ;  William  Hope ;  Richard  Smyth ;  Ellen  Lithgoe,  widow ; 
Robert  and  William  Lithgoe ;  Ellen,  wife  of  John  Cawdell ; 
Isabel,  wife  of  John  Parkinson ;  Anne,  wife  of  Cuthbert  Halkitt ; 
Ellenor  Holcroft  the  elder,  widow. 

Westleigh. — Robert  Eaton,  yeoman,  and  Mary  his  wife ; 
Thomas  Mossock,  gentleman,  and  Anne  his  wife;  Margaret 


I 


Lancashire  Recusants  and  Quakers  315 

Holcroft,  spinster ;  John  Yeate ;  Edward  Liptrott  and  Margaret 
his  wife;  John  Mather;  Richard  Nailor  and  Mary  his  wife; 
John  Urmston,  gentleman;  Thomas  Ditchfield,  gentleman; 
William  Gerrard,  gentleman ;  Henry  Kearsley. 

Pinnington. — John  Holcroft,  yeoman;  William  Urmston 
and  Grace  his  wife ;  Richard  Smethurst  and  Anne  his  wife ; 
George  Smyth ;  Margaret  Urmston,  widow ;  John  King. 

Winstanley  and  Orrell. — James  Anderton, esquire;  Richard 
Billinge,  gentleman ;  William  Chaddock  :  Thomas,  William,  and 
John  Marsh;  Thomas  Rothwell;  Margaret  Cowley,  widow; 
Miles  Ince ;  Alexander  Leigh  ;  Edmund  Fairehurst. 

Holland. — Richard  Leigh,  yeoman ;  John  Crosse  ;  Thomas 
Pinington ;  Nicholas  Tailor  ;  Bartholomew  Tyrar  ;  Ellen 
Mawdisley,  spinster. 

Dalton. — Alexander  Barker,  gentleman ;  Oliver  Crosse. 

Hindley. — Abraham  Langton,  esquire,  and  Elizabeth  his  wife. 

Abram. — Roger  Culcheth,  gentleman  ;  Richard  Occleshaw  ; 
Hugh  Piatt,  yeoman  ;  Nicholas  Mather ;  John  Unsworth ;  James 
Fazakerley ;  William  Ashton. 

Ince. — Lawrence  Crichley,  yeoman;  Thomas  Grandy;  John 
Ince,  gentleman;  John  Glover. 

Pemberton. — Edward  Winstanley,  yeoman;  Richard  Rylance ; 
Thomas  and  John  Nailor;  James  Orrell. 

Haigh. — Ellen  Rycroft,  widow ;  Thomas  Leigh  and  Alice  his 
wife  ;  Henry  Sothworth  ;  Grace  Rothwell,  widow. 

Culcheth. — Mary  Speakeman,  widow  ;  Robert  Guest ;  Alice 
Stirropp,  spinster  ;  Thomas  Leather. 

Haydock  and  Goldburn. — Bryan  Arrowsmith,  yeoman ; 
Elizabeth  Corles,  widow ;  Geoffrey  Hardman ;  William  Crowch- 
ley ;  John  Peterson ;  Ralph  Thomason ;  Richard  Liptrott ; 
Thomas  Kethley ;  George  Crofte ;  John  Grymshaw  and  Alice 
his  wife ;  Richard  Crofte,  and  Alice  his  wife ;  John  Hasledene. 

Lawton  and  Kenyon. — Robert  Tickle,  yeoman ;  Gilbert 
Unsworth;  Peter  Holcroft;  Henry  Johnson;  Henry  and  John 
Unsworth;  John  Kay;  Robert  Kenyon. 

On  6th  September  proclamation  was  made  before 
the  judges  of  assize  at  Lancaster  (Sir  Christopher 
Turner  and  Sir  Richard  Rainsford)  that  the  bodies 
of  John  Lancaster  and  the  rest  should  be  taken  for 
their  recusancy  and  be  rendered  before  the  next 
assize.  At  which  assize  (before  Sir  Richard  Rains- 
ford  and  William  Spencer),  on  23rd  March  1666-7, 
there  appeared  William  Gerrard,  Abraham  Langton 
and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  John  Urmston,  Thomas 


3 16       Lancashire  Recusants  and  Quakers 

Ditchfield,  Thomas  Mossock,  Robert  Eaton,  Ellenor 
Urmston,  Frances  Bradshaw,  Richard  Sale,  John 
Ince,  Richard  Occleshaw,  William  Ashton,  James 
Anderton  and  Anne  his  wife,  Thomas  Mossock  and 
Mary  his  wife,  Robert  Eaton,  Edward  Stanley  and 
Margaret  his  wife,  Thomas  Selby  and  Anne  his 
wife,  James  Scarisbreck  and  Frances  his  wife, 
Henry  Blundell  and  Bridget  his  wife,  Robert 
Mollineux,  Richard  Shuttleworth,  Margaret  Ryce, 
Henry  Mollineux,  Ellenor  Eccleston,  Mary 
Lathome,  Margaret  Lathome,  Dorothy  Lathome, 
Thomas  Hichmogh,  Peter  Urmston,  William 
Urmston,  Richard  Leigh,  William  Crouchley,  John 
Peterson,  and  John  Yeate,  who  asked  respite  to  the 
next  assize.  At  which  time  John  Lancaster  and 
others  made  no  appearance  or  demur  and  were 
accordingly  convicted  on  29th  August  1667  ;  but 
William  Gerrard  and  the  others  just  named  came 
and  asked  for  further  delay,  which  was  granted. 

Most  of  the  cases  at  the  assizes  were  of  the  usual 
kind — larceny,  assault,  and  so  on.  There  was  one 
case  in  which  Richard  Bisbrowne  of  Thornton, 
yeoman,  was  charged  with  having  uttered  these  sedi- 
tious and  scandalous  words  :  "  The  king  and  queen 
are  both  traitors."  He  was  acquitted.  In  another 
there  was  an  allegation  of  influencing  a  juryman  : 
"  This  deponent  saw  one  Ralph  Worthington  of 
Blackrod  take  Richard  Turner  by  the  hand  and 
wringing  him  by  the  hand  said  to  him,  '  Remember 
to  stick  to  the  poore  man ' ;  to  whom  he  heard  the 
said  Richard  Turner  make  answer  with  a  nodd  and 
a  winck,  shaking  loose  their  hands,  '  He  warrant 
thee,  I  will  stick  to  him,'  or  words  to  the  very  same 
or  like  effect.  And  so  they  parted  and  the  said 
Turner  went  along  with  his  fellow  jurors."  Barker's 
Lane  in  Melling,  Runshaw  Moor  in  Euxton,  and 
Swinton  Moor  also  came  before  the  judges  for  the 
bad  state  of  the  ways. 


Lancashire  Recusants  and  Quakers  317 

Quakers  in  Lancashire  and  Cheshire 

Among  the  manuscripts  in  the  Bodleian  Library 
at  Oxford  {Engl.  Misc.  b.  1  [R.])  is  a  petition  on 
behalf  of  "our  suffering  friends,"  drawn  up  by 
William  Penn,  William  Mead,  Francis  Moore, 
William  Shewen,  John  Osgood,  William  Welch, 
Samuel  Newton,  and  Stephen  Crisp — all  these 
M  signatures  "  being  in  the  one  hand — and  addressed 
to  the  King  and  Privy  Council.  It  states  that  "  the 
peaceable  people  called  Quakers,"  after  imprison- 
ment, even  to  death  in  some  cases,  and  the  loss  of 
goods,  were  being  prosecuted  and  convicted  as 
Popish  Recusants,  and  accordingly  threatened  with 
the  seizure  of  two-thirds  of  their  estates  for  the 
King ;  and  prays  for  relief.  Appended  to  it  is  an 
abstract  of  the  names  of  those  affected,  so  far  as 
known  to  the  petitioners.  The  list  occupies  four 
long  columns  and  is  arranged  under  counties.  The 
whole  of  the  first  column  is  occupied  by  the  West- 
moreland names ;  in  the  second  come  those  of 
Huntingdon,  Cambridge,  Norfolk ;  in  the  third  the 
rest  of  Norfolk  with  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  ;  in 
the  last  Cumberland  (few),  Hampshire,  Dorset, 
Suffolk,  Essex,  Hereford,  Gloucester,  Wiltshire, 
Buckingham,  Surrey,  Sussex,  and  Kent. 

The  following  are  the  Lancashire  and  Cheshire 
names  : 

Lancashire 

James  Sikes  of  Royten,  Mary  and  Nicholas  Rawstorn  of 
Tottington,  Richard  Hargreaves  of  Foulrigg,  John  Hartley  and 
Petter  and  Geofry  Shackleton  of  Srawdon  [i.e.  Trawden] ; 
Thomas  Accringler,  John  Sager,  Roger  Hartley,  Richard 
Michell,  Mary  Hargreaves,  and  William  Whaley  of  Marsden ; 
Thomas  Hind  and  his  wife,  and  George  Satterthwaite  of  Caton  ; 

  Lawson  of  Lancaster ;    William   Satterthwaite,  George 

Braithwaite,  and  William  Walker  of  Hawkshead ;  John  Kerby  of 
Kerby. 

Henry  Holden,  William  Hall,  James  and   John  Bickerstaff 


3'8 


Lancashire  Recusants  and  Quakers 


of  Thornton  ;  Roger  Letherbarrow  and  Jane  his  wife,  Margaret 
Underwood,  widdow,  John  Underwood,  husbandman,  Roger 
Underwood,  webster  [no  addresses]  ;  Mary  Underwood,  spinster, 
of  Winstanly;  Henry  Whistanly,  nayler,  of  the  same;  Richard 
Cubbon,  husbandman,  and  Ann  his  wife;  Anne  Atherton, 
widdow,  of  Whinstanly ;  Godfrey  Atherton,  husbandman,  and 
Mary  his  wife,  of  the  same;  Edward  Lyon,  husbandman,  and 
Alee  his  wife,  Sara  Lyon,  spinster,  Lidia  Lyon,  spinster, 
Jonathan  Lyon,  husbandman,  Ellin  the  wife  of  James  Summer, 
Mary  Summer  spinster,  John  Dike,  wright,  and  Jane  his  wife, 
Danill  Bispham,  collermaker,  Susan  Bispham,  spinster,  Mary 
Bastwell,  spinster,  Mary  the  wife  of  Richard  Tayler,  Jane  Taylor, 
spinster,  George  Barrow,  drover,  Zachary  Barrow,  husbandman, 
Lidia  Barrow,  spinster,  William  Smith,  husbandman,  Mary 
Robinson,  spinster,  George  Shaw,  collermaker  and  Margery 
his  wife,  [all  of]  Whinstanly  [and]  Bickerstaff. 

Bickerstaff :  Elizabeth  the  wife  of  Thomas  Kilshaw,  Lidia 
Kirkham,  spinster,  Richard  Kitchin. 

Ormskirke :  Henry  Foster,  miller,  Henry  Malton,  tanner, 
Mary  the  wife  of  Petter  Swifte,  pedler,  Richard  Johnson, 
yeoman,  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  John  Johnson,  draper,  Robert 
Wilson,  draper,  and  Ann  his  wife,  Joseph  Coppock,  grocer, 
Nathaniel  Atherton,  prentice,  Thomas  Crosbie,  grocer,  and 
Elizabeth  his  wife,  Margrett  the  wife  of  Alexander  Haydock, 
tanner,  Lawrence  Underwood,  Margrett  Kendall,  widdow,  Mary 
Kendall,  spinster,  Katherine  Endo,  widdow,  Joshua  Crosbye, 
grocer,  James  Tomson,  joyner,  and  Ann  his  wife,  Henry  Ashton, 
distiller,  John  Browne,  taylor,  and  Dorothy  his  wife,  Ellin 
Stevenson,  spinster,  Ann  Charnley,  spinster,  Mary  Sutton,  widow, 
Ellin  Sutton,  spinster,  Elizabeth  Knowles  of  Sutton. 

Oughton :  Richard  Beesley,  mason,  and  Alee  his  wife,  Roger 
Harsnepp,  yeoman,  William  Harsnepp,  husbandman,  William 
Bastwell,  husbandman,  Petter  Westhead,  blacksmith,  James 
Bastwell,  sadletree  maker. 

Stermsdall  [Skelmersdale] :  Isacc  Ashton,  husbandman,  and 
Margrett  his  wife,  Ann  Canneby,  spinster. 

Ranforth  :  William  Gill,  husbandman,  Edmond  Stephton, 
husbandman,  and  Ann  his  wife,  John  Billing,  husbandman,  and 
Ellin  his  wife,  John  Hawworth,  husbandman. 

Cheshire 

William  Kent  of  Bradwell,  John  Baddly  of  Malpes,  Henry 
Murry  of  Wigland,  Henry  Fletcher  of  Wrenbery,  Gilbert 
Woollam  of  the  same,  John  Wrench  of  Shepbrook  and  Ann  his 
wife,  Richard  Varrett  of  Picton  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  Thomas 
Powell  of  Rudheath,  Richard  Picton  of  Liftwich,  Thomas 


Lancashire  Recusants  and  Quakers  319 

Norcott  of  Northwich  and  Mary  his  wife,  John  Jackson  of  the 
same  and  Alee  his  wife,  Richard  Dicks  of  Uccleston,  Petter 
Dicks  of  the  same,  James  Dicks  of  the  same,  William  Woodcock 
of  Church-Holme,  Mary  Stretch  of  the  same,  John  Peckoe  of 
Stanthorne  and  Ellin  his  wife,  Robert  Beckett  of  the  same, 
Thomas  Peckoe  of  the  same,  Thomas  Brassey  of  Willaston, 
Joseph  Powell  of  Acton,  John  Sharpies  of  Hatherton,  Daniel 
Moore  of  Hankloe,  Thomas  Come  of  Burthomley. 


320 


NOTE  ON  A  PALIMPSEST  BRASS  IN 
HAWARDEN  CHURCH 

By  Mill  Stephenson,  B.A.,  F.S.A. 

DURING  some  recent  alterations  in  Hawarden 
church,  the  brass  plate  containing  the  in- 
scription to  the  memory  of  rector  John  Price,  who 
died  in  1683-4,  was  removed  from  the  north  wall  of 
the  chancel  to  allow  the  piercing  of  a  doorway  to 
give  access  to  the  vestries. 

The  obverse,  or  later  side,  on  a  plate  22  inches 
in  height  by  24  inches  in  width,  contains  the  follow- 
ing inscription  to  the  memory  of  John  Price,  fellow 
of  New  College,  Oxford,  prebendary  of  St.  Asaph, 
and  rector  of  Hawarden  for  18  years : 

Depositum 

Iohannis  Prioei,  S.  T.  P.    Iohannis  Pric^ei  de  Rhiwlas  Ar. 
Filii  natu  minoris, 
Novi  Collegii  apud  Oxonienses  olim  socii, 
Postea  Ecclesise  Assavensis  Prsebendarii : 
Qui 

Natalium  splendorem,  Pietate  in  Deum  minime  fucata, 
Morum  sanctitate,  Integritate,  suavitate  egregie 
Honestavit 

Ineunte  Adolescentia  pro  Carolo  sub  Gvlielmo  Fratre 
Ordines  duxit 
Deinde  se  totum  Christo  et  Ecclesise  Consecravit  ; 
Et  Sacris  Ordinibus  initiatus, 
Ecclesiam  hanc  per  Annos  octodecim  maxima  cum  laude  rexit 
Vixit  Annos  Lxiii  Menses  ix  Dies  xi  obiit  iv  Non.  Mart.  a.d.  mdclxxxiii 
Iana  ex  Fratre  Neptis, 
Testamento  Haeres  dicta 
Observantiae  et  Gratitudinis  ergo 
H.    M.  P. 


PALIMPSEST  BRASS,  HAWARDEN 


Note  on  Palimpsest  Brass  in  Hawarde7i  Church  321 

The  reverse,  or  earlier  side,  consists  of  the  upper 
half  of  a  large  rectangular  plate  bearing  the  upper 
halves  of  the  figures  of  a  man  in  civil  dress  and  his 
wife,  clasping  hands  and  standing  under  a  double- 
arched  canopy  of  classical  design,  with  a  small 
oval  panel  at  the  intersection  of  the  arches,  but 
unfortunately  not  charged  with  any  armorial  bear- 
ings. On  the  cornice  above  is  a  winged  cherub, 
with  a  scroll  below  bearing  the  words  : 

THE  IVST  SHALBE  HAD  IN 
EVERLASTING  REMEMBRANCE 

Both  figures  are  carefully  engraved  and  possibly 
intended  for  portraits,  as  there  is  much  character  in 
the  faces.  The  style  of  their  costume  dates  the 
plate  to  about  the  year  1630.  The  man  has  a 
pointed  beard  and  moustaches,  and  wears  a  skull-cap 
enriched  with  lace,  a  large  ruff,  a  doublet  buttoned 
down  the  front,  the  sleeves  close  with  frills  at  the 
wrists,  and  over  all  a  fur-lined  gown  with  short 
sleeves.  In  his  right  hand  he  holds  a  book,  his 
thumb  being  inserted  between  the  leaves,  whilst 
with  his  left  he  holds  the  right  hand  of  his  wife. 
For  the  costume  the  figure  may  be  compared  with 
that  of  John  Eldred,  alderman  of  London,  and  a 
great  traveller  in  the  East,  whose  brass  at  Great 
Saxham,  Suffolk,  bears  date  1632.1  The  lady, 
whose  hair  is  dressed  in  curls,  wears  a  head-dress 
composed  of  a  large  veil  which  hangs  down  over 
the  shoulders,  a  broad  stiff  ruff,  short  cape,  under- 
gown  with  short  sleeves  tied  with  bows,  and  over- 
gown  with  full  sleeves  and  turned-back  cuffs.  In 
her  left  hand  she  holds  a  book.  Except  for  the 
head-dress,  her  costume  resembles  that  of  Dame 
Elizabeth   Filmer   on  the  brass  to   herself  and 

1  Engraved  in  Archceologia,  xv.  404,  and  in  J.  Gage's  History  of 
Suffolk,  Hundred  of  Thingoe,  114. 

X 


322  Note  on  Palimpsest  B?^ass  in  Hawarden  Church 

husband  at  East  Sutton,  Kent,  which  was  engraved 
on  the  husband's  death  in  1629.1 

It  is,  of  course,  useless  to  speculate  upon  the 
identity  of  the  Hawarden  figures,  as  there  is  ab- 
solutely nothing  to  give  a  clue.  Palimpsest  brasses 
are  not  usually  found  at  so  late  a  date,  and  the 
engraving  is  too  carefully  finished  for  it  to  have 
been  a  shop  waster.  Possibly  it  may  have  been 
loot  from  some  church  during  the  Civil  War,  which 
had  found  its  way  into  the  brass  engraver's  shop, 
only  to  be  cut  down  and  re-used,  or  the  rector's 
representatives  may  even  have  appropriated  some 
memorial  already  in  the  church  ;  but  this  is  hardly 
likely,  as  the  space  of  time  between  the  two  is  only 
about  fifty  years. 

To  Mr.  W.  Bell  Jones,  a  member  of  the  Society, 
who  examined  the  plate  when  loose,  is  due  the 
credit  of  finding  the  palimpsest,  the  first  to  be 
noticed  in  the  principality  of  Wales.  To  him 
the  writer  is  indebted  for  the  photograph  and  the 
rubbing  from  which  the  accompanying  illustration 
has  been  made  ;  also  for  the  account  of  its  discovery, 
and  for  the  information  that  it  has  now  been  fixed 
in  a  new  oak  frame  and  placed  on  the  south  wall 
of  the  Whitley  chapel. 

1  Engraved  in  J.  G.  and  L.  A.  B.  Waller's  Series  of  Monumental 
Brasses,  pt.  xv.,  and  in  the  Portfolio  of  the  Monumental  Brass 
Society,  vol.  i.  pt.  xi.  pi.  6.  This  interesting  brass  bears  the  en- 
graver's signature,  "  Ed.  Marshall,  sculpsit." 


323 


STRAY  NOTES 

Wigan  Church  in  167 1. — Under  the  above  heading  The 
Genealogist^  ii.  282  (1885),  contains  a  short  but  interesting 
extract  from  the  Chancery  Interrogatories,  &c,  County  Palatine 
of  Lancaster,  Bundle  88,  anno  23  Car.  II.,  Bankes  v.  Pennington 
et  al.  regarding  certain  Arms  and  initials  in  Wigan  Church,  and 
their  value  as  evidence  of  rights  of  burial  and  to  sittings. 
Volume  xxxiii.  of  our  Transactions  contains  a  list  of  the  arms  in 
Wigan  Church,  circa  1590.  F.  C.  B. 

Sale  of  Swarthmoor  Hall. — At  Ulverston,  on  28th  August 
1912,  the  famous  Swarthmoor  Hall,  formerly  the  home  of  George 
Fox,  the  founder  of  the  Society  of  Friends,  was  offered  for  sale. 
The  Hall  itself  was  bid  up  to  ^3500;  four  acres  of  land  to 
^700,  nine  acres  of  land  to  ^550,  and  eleven  acres  of  land  to 
^275,  making  a  total  of  ^5025.  The  estate  was  then  offered  as 
a  whole,  and  was  sold  for  ^5250  to  Mr.  Lawrence  R.  Wilson,  of 
Manchester,  who  was  acting  on  behalf  of  Dr.  Hodgkin,  of  New- 
castle, for  the  English  Society  of  Friends  and  Miss  E.  C. 
Abraham,  of  Liverpool.  It  is  believed  that  some  arrangement  has 
been  arrived  at  to  maintain  the  Hall  and  estate  in  its  present 
condition.  The  old  oak  bedstead  brought  15  guineas,  and 
remains  at  the  Hall.  For  George  Fox's  writing  desk  there  was 
keen  competition,  and  eventually  it  went  to  Mrs.  Myles  Kennedy, 
of  Stone  Cross,  Ulverston,  for  26  guineas. — Lanes.  Daily  Post. 

The  editor  is  informed  that  Miss  Abraham  is  now  the  owner  of 
this  historic  house,  and  that  it  may  continue  to  descend  in  the 
family,  the  Society  of  Friends  having  the  option  of  purchase  at 
a  future  time.  The  owner  proposes  to  restore  and  furnish  part 
for  her  own  occupation. 

Ancient  Cross  at  Gressingham. — Early  in  the  present  year 
(19 1 2)  in  digging  a  grave  in  Gressingham  churchyard  the  sexton 
discovered  the  head  of  an  Anglian  or  pre-Norman  cross,  which 
from  the  design  would  seem  to  belong  to  the  later  part  of  the 
ninth  century.  The  cross  is  in  an  excellent  state  of  preserva- 
tion, and  is  not  unlike  the  one  found  at  Heysham. — Lancaster 
Observer. 


324 


Stray  Notes 


An  Early  Recorder  of  Lancaster. — In  a  plea  roll  of  Lent 
1488  is  enrolled  a  deed  by  which  James  Kellet  granted  to  John 
Hobersty  land  in  Lancaster  fields  on  a  hill  called  Walholme. 
The  witnesses  included  Richard  Gardener,  mayor;  Thomas 
Bolron,  "  recordare  " ;  and  Thomas  Escryk  and  Giles  Drynkale, 
bailiffs.  The  date  of  it  was  3  Feb.  3  Henry  VII.  This  deed 
adds  another  mayor  to  the  list  printed  in  the  last  volume  of 
Transactions \  according  to  which  Gardener  was  later  in  the 
year  followed  by  John  Walton,  who  is  called  "Walkare"  in 
another  deed.  The  same  mayor  and  bailiffs  attested  a  local 
deed  on  20  April  1488  ;  Pal.  of  Lancaster  Plea  Roll  66,  m.  2b. 
Christopher  Leming  was  mayor  and  Robert  Qwhite  and  Robert 
Ley  the  elder  were  bailiffs  in  December  1489;  ibid.  69,  m.  5. 
In  1452  Thomas  Curwen,  yeoman,  is  mentioned  as  "late  mayor 
of  the  vill  of  Lancaster,"  but  his  year  of  office  is  not  defined ; 
ibid.  18,  m.  26.  In  August  1465  William  Skillicorne  was  mayor ; 
ibid.  34,  m.  i*]b. 

Petitions  from  the  Abbot  of  Whalley. — The  following  are 
brief  notes  of  complaints  and  requests  addressed  by  the  Abbot 
of  Whalley  to  the  king  on  various  matters  touching  himself  or 
his  abbey ;  they  are  undated.  They  are  now  preserved  in  the 
Record  Office  in  London  among  the  class  of  "Ancient  Peti- 
tions," and  may  be  seen  there  by  using  the  reference  numbers 
here  prefixed : 

7403. — About  Alice,  widow  of  John  son  of  Rauf  de  Holden,  who 
had  a  writ  v.  the  abbot  in  co.  York.  The  abbot  is  over  80, 
and  asks  leave  to  plead  by  attorney. 

13320. — Complaint  about  a  wrongful  presentation  to  the  chapel 
in  Cliderhou  castle. 

7423. — The  abbot  (who  names  King  Edward  father  of  the  King 
who  now  is)  complains  that  he  has  been  distrained  for  a 
levy  to  the  repair  of  the  bridge  over  Dee,  in  respect  of  his 
lands  in  Cheshire. 

7535. — About  the  natives  of  the  vill  of  More  in  the  hundred  of 
Halton  in  Cheshire. 

7534. — A  complaint  addressed  to  the  Chancellor  about  the  10th 
and  15th  being  levied  without  allowance  for  expenses. 


Stray  Notes 


325 


The  "Five  of  Spades"  at  Ashton-under-Lyne.  —  The 
following  is  Dodsworth's  account  (MSS.  civ.,  fol.  114^)  of  this 
carving ;  from  his  note  it  will  be  seen  that  he  derived  it  from  the 
rector  in  1630 : 


This  name  is  upon  the  church  steeple  at  Asheton 
under  Lyne  in  com.  Lane,  set  ther  by  a  Butcher 
who  playing  at  noddy  promised  that  if  the  Dealer 
turned  the  5  of  spades  He  would  build  a  foot  of 
the  steeple  (then  in  Building)  tempore  H.  5.  wh. 
he  performed. 


At  the  side  is  written :  "  Ita  testatur  Hen.  Fairfax  modo 
rector  ibidem  filius  natu  secundus  Tho.  Baronis  de  Cameron 
2  Apr.  1630." 


326 


REPORT  FOR  THE  YEAR  1912 

Presented  January  23RD,  1913 


J^URING  the  year  13  new  ordinary  members,  paying  £it  is. 

each,  have  joined  the  Society,  while  1 1  resident  and  2  non- 
resident members  have  died,  resigned,  or  been  removed  under 
the  rules,  and  one  ordinary  member,  formerly  "non-resident," 
who  had  raised  his  subscription  to  one  guinea,  having  withdrawn, 
has  been  restored  to  the  non-resident  list.  The  net  financial 
gain  is  10s.  6d.  per  annum.  The  table  annexed  shows  the 
present  membership. 


MEMBERSHIP. 


"  Resident." 

"  Non- 
Resident. " 

Life. 

Associate. 

Honorary. 

31st  Dec.  1911 
31st  Dec.  1912 

173 
174 

36 
35 

10 
10 

4 
4 

I 
I 

Gain 
Loss 

1 

1 

\ 

The  Council  deeply  regret  to  record  the  death  of  the  Rev. 
Francis  Sanders,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Vicar  of  Hoylake,  who  had  been 
a  member  of  the  Society  for  twenty-one  years,  and  the  retirement 
from  membership  of  Mr.  James  Bromley,  who  joined  the  Society 
as  far  back  as  1876. 

Ten  meetings  have  been  held  during  the  year,  the  first  or 
Annual  General  Meeting  being  devoted,  as  usual,  to  a  lantern 
display  arranged  by  the  Photographic  Committee;  at  the  other 
nine  meetings  Papers  have  been  read  dealing  with  some  local 
subject. 


Report,  &c.  $27 

The  sixth  meeting  of  the  Society,  by  kind  permission  of  the 
Library,  Museum,  and  Arts  Committee  of  the  Corporation  of 
Liverpool,  was  held  in  the  Reference  Library,  William  Brown 
Street,  when  Mr.  George  T.  Shaw,  Chief  Librarian,  read  a  Paper 
on  Works  of  Reference  on  Local  History  and  Antiquities,  which 
was  illustrated  by  an  exhibition  of  books,  &c,  from  the  Binns 
Collection. 

It  is  a  satisfaction  to  the  Council  that  the  increased  attend- 
ance of  members  at  the  meetings,  noticed  in  last  Report,  is  fully 
maintained.  The  meetings  are  now  held  in  the  larger  lecture 
room  upstairs,  which  affords  increased  accommodation  as  well  as 
a  better  scope  for  the  lantern. 

The  first  Summer  Excursion  of  the  Society  took  place  on 
Saturday,  June  22nd,  191 2,  to  Dutton  Hall,  Peel  Hall,  and 
Overton  Church.  The  party  assembled  at  Lime  Street  Station 
for  the  1.20  p.m.  train  to  Sutton  Weaver,  arriving  there  at 
1.53  p.m.  They  drove  to  Dutton  Hall,  which  was  visited  by 
kind  permission  of  Mr.  John  Thomas  Baxter:  itas  an  unusually 
rich  specimen  of  black  and  white  domestic  architecture  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  with  earlier  fragments.  Afterwards,  the  drive 
was  resumed  through  some  charming  country,  disclosing  fine 
views  of  the  Weaver  Valley  and  the  heights  of  Delamere  Forest, 
to  Peel  Hall,  Kingsley,  where,  by  the  kind  permission  of  Mr. 
Gleve,  an  inspection  of  the  exceptionally  fine  moat  surrounding 
the  Hall  was  made.  En  route  for  Frodsham  a  visit  was  paid  to 
Overton  Church,  which  the  Rev.  Mr.  Myers  kindly  showed  to 
the  members.  It  contains  manifest  traces  of  Norman  architec- 
ture. Tea  was  served  at  the  Bear's  Paw,  Frodsham,  at  6  o'clock. 
The  second  excursion  planned  by  the  Excursion  Committee  was 
abandoned  owing  to  the  inclemency  of  the  weather. 

Volume  lxiii.  of  the  Society's  Transactions,  for  191 1,  was 
issued  to  the  members  in  May  last,  and  has  received  favourable 
notice  in  the  Press. 

Notices  of  the  Society's  ordinary  meetings  have  appeared  in 
the  Liverpool  Daily  Post,  Liverpool  Courier,  Chester  Observer, 
Chester  Courant,  Birkenhead  News,  Birkenhead  Advertiser,  and 


328  Report,  &c. 

Wallasey  Chronicle,  and  the  thanks  of  the  members  are  due  to 
the  editors  of  these  newspapers. 

The  list  of  Hon.  Local  Secretaries,  which  had  become 
obsolete,  has  been  revised. 

The  Hon.  Librarian  is  arranging  a  catalogue  of  the  Library. 

Downholland  Hall  having  been  purchased  by  the  Lancashire 
County  Council,  your  Hon.  Secretary,  by  direction  of  the  Council 
of  the  Society,  addressed  a  letter  to  Mr.  H.  E.  Clare,  Clerk  to  the 
County  Council,  regarding  its  probable  fate,  and  it  is  satisfactory 
to  note  the  Council  was  assured  particular  care  would  be  taken 
not  to  injure  the  fine  staircase  or  other  interesting  features  of 
the  Hall. 

At  a  special  meeting  of  the  Council  held  on  23rd  September 
last,  the  following  Resolution  was  carried  unanimously,  and 
copies  thereof  ordered  to  be  sent  to  the  Town  Clerk  of  Liverpool, 

the  Liverpool  Daily  Post,  and  Liverpool  Courier : — 

"That  the  Council  of  this  Society,  while  supporting  the 
erection  of  a  memorial  to  His  late  Majesty  King  Edward  VII 
on  a  suitable  site,  strongly  protest  against  any  scheme  which 
involves  the  alteration  of  the  southern  base  of  St.  George's 
Hall." 

The  copy  of  the  Resolution  was  duly  acknowledged  by  the 
Town  Clerk,  and  was  inserted  in  the  newspapers  mentioned. 

A  list  of  the  Society's  exhibits  on  loan  at  the  Liverpool 
Museum  has  been  obtained  from  the  Curator,  Dr.  Clubb,  and 
will  be  printed  in  the  Transactions. 

The  Council  regret  to  notice  that  the  readers  of  Papers  are 
drawn  from  a  very  limited  circle,  and  would  welcome  Papers  or 
Communications  from  other  contributors. 

The  scope  of  the  Society  could  be  considerably  enlarged,  and 
the  annual  volume  might  be  greatly  improved,  if  every  member 
would  induce  some  friend  to  join  the  Society;  the  Annual 
Reports  for  the  three  years  1 910-12  show  that  during  that 
period  47  candidates  were  elected,  having  been  proposed  by  only 
17  members  out  of  a  total  average  membership  of  about  200. 
Of  these  47  candidates  27  were  proposed  by  one  member,  leaving 


Report,  &c. 


329 


20  only  in  a  period  of  three  years  to  the  credit  of  the  whole  of 
the  rest  of  the  members.  The  Council  cannot  regard  these  figures 
with  satisfaction,  and  trust  that  the  members  at  large  will  make 
some  effort  to  bring  forward  candidates  for  election  to  the 
Society. 


LIST  OF  NEW  MEMBERS,  1912. 


Member. 
Chas.  R.  Hand. 
Miss  A.  L.  Barlow. 
Jos.  Kitchingman. 
Chas.  F.  Strype. 
James  Milner  Harrison. 

Lady  Layland-Barratt. 
Joseph  Culbertson  Clayton. 
S.  S.  Barton. 
E.  H.  Mountford. 
Harvard  College. 
W.  Bell  Jones. 
1  Bradford  Public  Library. 
Mrs.  R.  E.  Parker. 


Proposer. 
F.  C  Beazley. 
W.  H.  Barlow. 
F.  C  Larkin,  F.R.C.S. 
A.  Wolfgang. 
Philip  Nelson,  M.D., 

F.S.A.,  F.R.A.I. 
F.  C.  Beazley. 
do. 

E.  C.  Woods,  L.D.S. 
J.  P.  Rylands. 

F.  C.  Beazley. 

do. 
do. 
do. 


1  In  response  to  circular  issued  in  1900,  vide  Report,  vol.  lxii. 


33° 


Report,  &c. 


PAPERS  READ,  1912. 

Jan.     18.    Lantern  evening. 

{Arranged  by  the  Photographic  Committee?) 

Feb.      1.    "  The  Ancient  Painted  Glass  at  Ashton-under-Lyne." 

By  Philip  Nelson,  M.D.,  F.S.A.,  F.R.A.L 

„     15.    "Canting  Arms  in  Cheshire."    By  the  Rev.  E.  E. 
Dorling,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

„     29.    "The  Royal  Manor  and  Park  of  Shotwick."  By 
R.  Stewart-Brown,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

Mar.    14.    "The  Makers  of  Liverpool."    By  Geo.  T.  Shaw. 

Oct.    24.1  "Works    of    Reference    on    Local    History  and 
Antiquities."    By  Geo.  T.  Shaw. 

Nov.     7.    "  Ancient   Screens   in   Lancashire   and  Cheshire 
Churches."    By  A.  Wolfgang. 

„  "Note  on  the  Overchurch  Chalice."     By  F.  C. 

Beazley,  F.S.A. 

„     21.    "The  Early  Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool."  By 
A.  H.  Arkle. 

„  "A  Contest  for  the  Wardenship  of  Manchester." 

By  J.  Brownbill,  M.A. 

Dec.     5.    "Some  Notes  on  Chapter-Houses."    By  the  Rev. 
W.  A.  Wickham. 

„     19.2         Do.  {continued?) 

1  This  meeting  was  held  at  the  Liverpool  Free  Library. 

2  Extra  meeting. 


«o  O  00  vo 
o  o  o  2" 

Hi  N  O  M 


o  vo 

-    •    •  vo  VO  O 

VO  O 

o 

o 

o  o 

o 

o  o 

.    .    .  mciifl 

o 

M 

o 

■8 

o 


c 

o 


D 

WW 


On  §  O 


S  £ 

G  3 


O         CO  *h  »- 

aj  O  O  O 

■     G  G  G 

o  o  o 


12        cs        g  « 


5  « 


o  S 
v.  vJ 


G't3 
2  G 


G 


G 

cu  o  3 

o.tJ  <3 
UW 


o 
§.53 


G 

c:  ; 
o5  U 

PQ 


CO 


co  C  <u  Jr!  cs 

ft.  "13  fc/D'u" 

S  "C  w  o 

(j  c  c  c 

U  bjO  Oh  CO 

,  -  G  G  G 

"  o -5  tjH 


o 


±i  52  J3  P  G  5  vtf 

(73  Ph  CO  W  hJ  W  O 


g  cr 
*S  8 
£co  a 

g 
o 


ooo 

co  rf 

JTs. 

ON  O  m 

ov 

VO 

Tj-  CO  o 

o 

►H  N 

ON  01 

Ti- 
ro 

ionery, 

• 

H 

co 

PQ 


8 


U 

■M  § 

to  O 


ej 
G 
cl 
►J 

"o 

>> 

V 


f4    IN  VO  00  vo 


I  „  rovo  vo  to  O 
N?  00  ON  M 


•   M  VO 

co  o 
.  o  o 


Q.2 


O  (U 


o 
o 

C  O 

O  cl 


o  g 


to 
G 

O  - 

u  >>2h 

(3.2  G 
o 

in 


o  2 
co  vis 

O  o 
u  G 
ai  ci 


WcoGcoPQ 


hJ    I  00  VO  1^00 

c  I  ON  ooo 

dj   "00  ON  ON  ON 

oj  §  bio  > 

Oh  3  G  O  G  OJ 
O  m  00  vo  VO  rj- 
ci 


G 

^Jffi  o  5  "  = 
To 

0  co  oo  i-O  VN 

rj  T3  <-< 

1  c 

cj  COVO  tJ-  u-, 

.  ^3  M  M 

G  .S  Tf  lO  N 

3  Tj-vO  M  <N 


ON  > 
G 

^  U 


O  vo 

VO 

o 

M  O 

CO 

IN 

co 

-  N 

• 

ON  ON 

'el 

CO  ^ 
'—  J? 


G  • 

O  ^ 

"■C  co 
00 


cj 
c? 

Oh 


QJ  4-1 

*X3  'o 


^ 


333 


INDEX 

Names  and  Places  mentioned  more  than  once  on  a  page  are  indexed  only  once. 
Place-names  are  printed  in  italics,  and  follow  personal  names  of  the  same  spelling. 


Aachen,  Council  of,  247 
Abingdon,  247 
Abraham,  Anne,  69 

 Miss  E.  G.,  323 

Abram,  Alice,  69 

 Anne,  69 

 Ellen,  69 

 Robert,  70 

Accringler,  Thomas,  317 
Accrington,  283 
Ackers,  Richard,  310 
— —  Thomas,  67 
Acton,  Peter,  27 

Acton  (near  Nantwich),  319 ;  church 

seating,  289  ;  screen,  20 
Adams,  Richard,  56 

 Robert,  59 

Adderley,  — ,  Rev. ,  297 
Adlington,  277,  278  ;  lord  of,  133 
Agincourt  campaign,  282 
Aighton  of  Aighton,  family  of,  277 

 Richard,  281,  284 

 Thomas,  273,  285 

 See  also  Aughton 

Aighton,  285 
Ainsworth,  Edmund,  283 

 Ellis,  275 

 Joan,  276 

 Nicholas,  276 

Albiniaco,  Philip  de,  89 
Alcock,  Richard,  290 

 William,  291 

Aldersey,  Thomas,  57,  71 
Aldridge,  Charles,  201 
Allen,  — ,  71 

 John,  rector  of  Tarporley,  1755, 

284,  292,  294,  295,  298,  299,  300, 
301,  303 

 William,  290,  291 

Allenson,  James,  63 

 William,  63 

Allerton,  311 

Almond,  Edward,  63 

 Mary,  62 

 Richard,  62 

Alnwick,  173  ;  chapter-house,  217,  229 
Alston,  Christopher,  285 

 William,  284 

Alston,  284 


Altcar,  61,  266 
Altham,  276,  285 
Ambrose,  Daniel,  68 
Anabaptists,  49 

Ancress  of  Whalley,  the  Last,  268-272 
Anderton,  Anne,  316 
 Edward,  277 

 H.    I  nee,    "  A  Blackburnshire 

Puture  Roll,"  273-286 

 James,  71,  316 

■  Peter,  278 

 Richard,  277 

 Roger,  278 

 William,  61 

Andoe,  Edward,  310 
Andrews,  Elizabeth,  57 

 Roger,  57 

Ands worth,  John,  70 
Ankers,  John,  290 
Ansdell,  Mr.,  12 
Appleton,  Edward,  64 

 Henry,  64 

 John,  64 

Archer,  Thomas,  62 

Arderne  family,  294  ;  seat  of,  295 

  Crew,  299 

 James,  294,  295,  306 

 John,  276,  294,  298 

■  Pepper,  299 

 Ralph,  293 

Arkwright,  William,  253 
Arneway  family,  130 
Arnold,  John,  61 

 Richard,  69 

Arrowsmith,  Henry,  65 

 James,  63 

 John,  69 

Ashe,  Thomas,  285 
Ashton  family,  arms,  28 

 Mr. ,  254  ;  Mrs. ,  58 

 Mary,  50,  54 

 Thomas,  55 

 William,  316 

Ashton-under-Lyne ,  "  Five  of  Spades  " 

at,  325 
Ashurst,  Emlin,  68 
Aspden,  Richard,  283 
Aspden,  276 

Aspinall,  name  in  Clitheroe,  283 


334 


Index 


Aspinall,  Henry,  69 

 Thomas,  65,  283 

Aspinwall,  Anne,  65 

 John, 65 

 Katherine,  65 

 Thomas,  65 

Aspull,  277 
Asshawe,  Thomas,  266 
Assheton,  Dorothy,  266 

 Katherine,  266 

 Richard,  266 

Astbury,  27 

Astley,  275  ;  chapel,  62 

Aston,  — ,  295 

 Edward,  290 

 Richard,  289 

Aston,  289,  290 
Atherton,  Anne,  318 

 Elizabeth  (Lady),  265,  266 

 Ellen,  71 

 Godfrey,  318 

 Humphrey,  71 

 John  (Sir),  266 

 Mary,  318 

Atkinson,  Canon,  23 
Auckley,  279 
Aughton,  Anne,  69 

 Ellen,  69 

 James,  278 

 Joan,  277 

 John,  277 

 Margaret,  277 

 Nicholas,  69 

 Richard,  69,  277 

 Thomas,  277 

Aughton,  62,  279,  280,  311,  318 
Axon,  Thomas,  51 

Backford,  50,  54,  58 
Bacon,  Sir  Francis,  120 
Badcock,  William,  290 
Baddeley,  John,  318 
Baddeley,  289 

Badelsmere,  Gunselin  de,  96 
Bageley,  John,  29 
Bailey,  John  de,  279 
Bailey  Hall,  279 
Bainbridge,  Jane,  288 

 Thomas,  288 

Baines'  "  Lancashire,"  37,  204,  206 
Balderston,  Richard,  275 
Balderston,  275,  285 
Ball,  Robert,  60 
Ballard,  Edward,  63 
Bamville,  Annabel,  133 

 Thomas  (Sir),  133 

Bangor,  cathedral,  170,  229 
Banister  (or  Banastre),  John,  275,  277 

 Lawrence,  276 

 William,  275 

Banister  Hall,  275 
Banks,  Alice,  314 

 John  (Sir),  88  n. 

 John,  67 

 Thomas,  314 


Bankvill,  Edwin  de,  142 
Barber,  Archdeacon,  42 
Bardney,  zqj 
Barker,  Alexander,  315 

 Christopher,  81 

 John, 290 

Barlow,  Bishop  W. ,  158 
Barnes,  John,  58,  64 

 Peter,  64 

 Richard,  67 

 Thomas,  64 

 William,  62,  64 

Bar  net,  Mary,  56 
Barnton,  281,  282 
Barrett,  C.  R.  B.,  238 
Barrow,  Dorothy,  68 

 George,  68,  318 

  Lydia,  318 

 Thomas,  65 

 T.  W.,  217 

 William,  50 

 William  de,  133 

  Zachary,  318 

Barrow,  Great  and  Little,  103 
Barthomley,  319;  church,  22 
Barton,  Eleanor,  62 

 Gauther,  62 

 Henry,  64 

 James,  64 

 John,  312 

 Oliver,  283 

 Ralph,  63,  312 

 Richard,  268,  269, 271 

 Robert,  64 

 Thomas,  69 

Barton  (near  Manchester),  17 
Bashall,  281 

Basingwerk,  92,  130,  188,  229,  237 
Baskerville,  William,  291 
Bast  well,  Anne,  62 

 James,  318 

 John,  68 

 Mary,  318 

 William,  318 

Bate,  Alice,  67 

 Jane,  71 

 Thomas,  71 

Bath  and  Wells,  Bishop  of,  268 
Batho,  William,  55 
Batteridge,  Rowland,  56 
Battle,  chapter-house,  229,  237 
Bayham  (or  Beaulieu),  188,  229,  237 
Bayley,  John,  52,  285 
Bearcroft,  Thomas,  283 
Beauchamp,  John  (Sir),  106,  107 

 Richard  (Bishop),  159 

Beaulieu  Abbey,  188,  229 
Beaumaris,  castle,  no 
Beauregard,  Countess  de,  127 
Beauvais,  182 

Beazley,  F.  C. ,  n,  87;  "Notes  on 
Burton,"  288;  "The  Overchurch 
Chalice,"  79 

Bebbington,  Ralph,  290 

 Thomas,  290 


Index 


335 


Bebington,  5,  50,  54,  58 
Becheton,  Henry  de,  133 
Becket,  Archbishop  Thos.,  157,  191 
Beckett,  Geo.,  59 

 Robert,  319 

Bedford  (in  Leigh),  314 
"Bee,  The,"  14 
Beesley,  Alice,  318 

 Richard,  318 

Beeston  arms,  76 
Beeston,  castle,  91,  100,  102 
Bellamy,  Canon,  79 
Bellingham,  Catherine,  266 

 Robert  (Sir),  266 

Belvoir,  172,  173  ;  chapter-house,  229, 
237 

Benedictine  houses,  170,  173 
Benedict,  St.,  146,  247 
Bennett,  Joan,  312 

 John,  312 

 Samuel,  87 

 Peter,  60,  61 

 William,  50 

Benson,  E.   W. ,  Archbishop,  "The 

Cathedral,"  158,  221 
Berci,  Hameline  de,  141 

 Roger  de,  141 

 William  de,  141 

Beresford,  Edward,  296,  298 

 ,  rector  of  Tarporley,  294 

Bernard  the  Welshman,  133 
Berniston,  Hugh  de,  133 
Berry,  Elizabeth,  66 

 Lambert,  66,  314 

 Richard,  140 

 William,  66,  314 

Berwick,  chapter-house,  229 

Berwyn  mountains,  89 

Beston,  Hugh,  118 

Betteley,  Frances,  291 

Beverley,  minster,  170,  172,  174,  229, 

238 

Bible,  first  Italian,  196 
Bible,  "Breeches"  (1599),  81 
Bickerstaff,  James,  317 
 John,  317 

Bickerstaffe  (Bickersteth),  68,  313,  318 
Bickerton,  Thomas,  290 
Bidston,  50,  54,  58 ;  mills,  15 
Bileigh,  church,  174,  185,  188,  229 
Billing,  Ellen,  318 

 John,  318 

Billinge,  Richard,  315 
Billinge,  62 

Billington,  275,  283,  286 
Birch,  Alice,  64 

 George,  64 

Birchell  of  Birchell,  arms,  76 
Birches  of  Birches,  arms,  74 
Bird,  Thomas,  291 
Bird  of  Clopton,  arms,  75 
Bird  of  Yowley,  arms,  74 
Birkenhed,  Joan,  54,  58 
Birkenhead,  5  ;  visit  of  Edward  I,  92; 
chapter-house,  196,  229  ;  Priory,  196, 


201,  202,  229;  Norman  Chapter- 
house, 144  ;  works  relating  to,  201 

Birrell's  "  Rogue's  Memoirs,"  225 

Birtwistle,  Anne,  282 

 Dorothy,  249 

 Oliver,  282 

 Thomas,  265 

 William,  249 

Bisbrowne,  Richard,  316 

Bishops'  Visitation  books,  43 

Bispham,  Daniel,  318 

 Susan,  318 

  William,  54,  57 

Black,  William,  253 

Blackburn,  Thomas,  285 

Blackburn,  274,  286 ;  lord  of  the  hun- 
dred, 274 

"  Blackburnshire  Puture  Roll,"  paper 

by  H.  Ince  Anderton,  273-286 
Black  Hall,  Chipping,  279 
Blackhealh,  111 
Blackmore,  Thomas,  290 
Blackpool,  204 
Black  Prince,  159 
Blackrod,  277,  316 
Blacon,  94, 132,  133 
Blagg,  Humphrey,  291 
Blanchard,  Cecily,  312 

 John,  70,  313 

 Thomas,  70 

 William,  312 

Bland,  Major,  253 
Blaston,  Thomas  de,  101 
Bletchley,  300,  303 
Blevin,  William,  310 
Blimston,  Robt. ,  71 
Blundell  of  Ince,  121 

 Anne,  70 

 Bridget,  70,  312,  316 

 Elizabeth,  68 

 Ellen,  70,  312,  313 

 Henry,  64,  70,  312,  316 

 Humphrey,  312 

 James,  253 

 Jane,  312 

 Laurence,  70,  312 

 Margery,  70 

 Nicholas,  70,  313  ;  Diary,  4 

 Richard,  312 

 Robert,  65 

 William,  70,  312 

Bracy  (or  Brassey),  Robt.  de,  141 
Bradshaw,  Alice,  62,  66 

 Charles,  57 

 Christopher,  66,  314 

 Frances,  66,  314,  316 

 George,  71 

 Henry,  277 

 Hugh,  276 

 Jane,  66,  314 

 John,  276 

 William,  62,  66,  314 

Braddyll  (Billington),  274,  275 
Bradford,  Earl  of,  122 
Bradley,  Elizabeth,  314 


336 


Index 


Bradley  family,  of  Thornley,  281 

 John,  281,  284 

 Mary,  71 

Bradshaigh,  Sir  Roger,  309 
Bradwell,  318 
Brain,  John,  290 

 Thos.  (2),  291 

Brainson,  Margaret,  61 

 William,  61 

Braithwaite,  George,  317 
Bramhall,  Thos. ,  55 
Brancepeth  (Durham),  24 
Branch,  Thos.,  264 

"  Brass,    Palimpsest,    in  Hawarden 

Church,"  320-322 
Brasses,  Cambridge  Camden  Society's 

record,  19 
Brassey,  Thomas,  319 
Breakespeare,  Harold,  175 
Bream,  Richard,  115,  116 
Brecon,  229 
Bredon, John, 135 
Brent  (Breaute),  Falcasius  de,  163 
Breres,  — ,  310 

 John, 68 

 Lawrence,  67 

 Mary,  67 

Brereton  family,  23,  26,  27,  113,  115, 
124 

 of  Brereton  Hall,  125 

 Catherine,  124,  125 

 Eleanor,  25 

 Elizabeth,  26 

  John, 290 

 Lord,  125,  126 

 Owen  Salusbury,  123,  125,  126 

 Randolf  (Sir),  25,  114 

 Robert,  125 

 Thomas,  58,  124,  125,  126 

 Urian  (Sir),  23,  115 

 William  (Sir),  26,  114,  115,  121 

Bresci,  Lawrence,  141 
Brether,  George,  67 
Brett,  John,  55 
Bridge,  Elizabeth,  69 

 George,  63 

Bridgeman,  Bishop,  199 

Bridgwater,  Earl  of,  290 

Bridlington,  173  ;  chapter-house,  229 

Briercliffe,  Laurence,  284 

Briercliffe,  284,  285 

Brightswell,  John,  283 

Brindley,  290 

Briscall,  Michael,  58 

Bristol,  cathedral,  184,  185,  188,  195, 

223,  229,  238,  245 
British  Bucks,  15 
Broadbent,  Robert,  291 
Broad  Green,  Hall,  255 
Broadhurst,  Henry,  58 
 Isabel,  58 

Brokehampton,  Abbot  de,  239 
Bromborough,  46,  50,  54,  58,  60,  92 
Bromfield,  James,  11 
Bromholm,  chapter-house,  230,  238 


Brom shall,  299 

Brooke  of  Leighton,  arms,  75 

Brookes,  Thomas,  63 

Broome,  Anne,  67 

Brown,  John,  pirate,  116 

 J.  Wood  (Rev.),  193,  194,  195 

 (or  Brun),  Roger,  140 

 Thos.,  284 

Brownbill,  J. ,  17 

 Margaret,  67 

 Thomas,  15 

Browne  family,  27;  of  Tarporley,  303 

 Dorothy,  318 

 Ellen,  66 

 John,  318 

 Roger,  66 

Brownett,  Hugh,  60 
Brownwynd,  John,  109,  in 
Bruce,  Capt. ,  254 
Bruen,  James,  52 
Bruzet,  Mr.,  10 
Bryan,  — ,  290 
Bryanson,  Bryan, 313 
Bryne,  James,  46,  51 
Buchard,  Ellen,  62 

 Lionel,  62 

Buckley,  arms,  76 

 George,  56 

■  John,  291 

 Thos.,  25 

Budworth,  Little,  272 

Buildwas,  abbey,  188,  199,  230,  238 

Buillon,  Ralph  de,  141 

Bukeden,  William  de,  99 

Bull,  George,  290 

Bulling,  Ellen,  314 

 Thomas,  314 

Bunbury,  22,  57 
Burbo  Bank,  98 
Burch,  —,58 
Burches,  W.,  58 
Burgess,  Henry,  29 

 Joseph, 296 

 Robert,  64 

Burgh,  Hubert  de,  135 
Burkill,  Ellen,  63 

 Richard,  66 

Burlace,  Anna,  55 

Burland,  289,  291 

Burne,  James,  253 

Burnell,  Robert,  101 

Burnellwood ,  100,  101,  103,  in 

Burnet,  — ,  254 

Burnilhay  Park,  101 

Burnley,  264,  278,  283,  284,  285 

Burros  (or  Bersham),  124 

Burscough,  James,  311 

 Margaret,  311 

 Thomas,  311 

Burscough,  68,  311 
Burton,  Dorothy,  66,  310 
 John,  66,  310 

Burton  (in  Wirral),  50,  54,  58,  84,  119, 
131 ;  Church,  51 ;  Parish,  Notes  on, 
288 ;  Rocks,  129 


Index 


337 


Burton  (Lanes),  250 

Burtonwood  (Warrington),  62 

Bury  St.  Edmunds,  161,  170,  191,  230, 

246,  247 
Bushell,  Sir  Edward,  27 

 Elizabeth,  62 

 Thomas,  63 

 William,  313 

Butler,  William,  253 
By/and,  abbey,  164,  230 
Byrom,  Brian,  69 

Caddock,  John,  64 

Calder  (Cumberland),  chapter-house, 

230,  238 
Calder,  river,  39 
Callon,  Jane,  310 

 William,  310 

Calveley  of  the  Lea,  arms,  73 

 Hugh  (Sir),  25,  107,  108 

 John  (Sir),  108 

Cam,  Dora  Bede,  30 

Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society,  223 

Cambridge  Camden  Society,  19 

Cambridgeshire,  300,  301 

Camden's  "  Britannia,"  123,  128,  162, 

168 

Canneby,  Anne,  318 

Canterbury,  Archbishop  of,  221,  271 

Canterbury,  cathedral,  154,  157,  169, 

170,  174,  179.  185,  188,  191,  201,  230 
Canute,  King,  159 
Capenhurst,  85 
Capernwray,  Hall,  37 
Capper,  George,  291 

 John, 290 

Carden,  John,  56 
Cards  and  dice  in  taverns,  3 
Carlisle,  George  J. ,  9th  Earl  of,  256 
Carlisle,  cathedral,  143,  167,  168,  173, 

200,  230 
Caroe's  "  Sefton,"  40 
Carpenter,  General,  252 
Carrow,  Jane,  310 
Carter,  Mrs.,  69 

 Catherine,  66 

  John, 66 

 Katherine,  311 

 Richard,  66,  311 

 William,  57 

Cartmell,  Bridget,  314 

 Francis,  314 

 Thomas,  253 

Cartmel,  34  ;  chapter-house,  170,  230 
Cartmell  Fell,  34 
Cartwright,  Bishop,  307 

 Bridget,  67 

 Francis,  67 

 John,  290 

 Margaret,  312 

 Richard,  312 

Case,  Mary,  311 

Castleacre,  230 

Cathedrals,  works  on,  149 

"  Catholic  Encyclopaedia,"  247 


Catlow,  Richard  de,  282 
Caton,  317 

Catterall,  Humphrey,  314 

 Richard,  279 

Cattisclive,  142 
Cawdell,  Ellen,  314 

 John,  314 

Cawley,  Anne,  58 
 John,  58 

Celt  (or  palstave)  found  in  Liscard, 
287 

Chaddock,  William,  65,  315 
Chaigley,  284 

Chair  of  stone  at  Chester,  304 
Chalice  at  Overchurch,  79 
Challiner(Challoner,Challinor), James, 
62 

 Jane,  63 

 Mary,  311 

 William,  62,  310 

Chamberlain,  Mrs.,  295 

 Dr. ,  295 

 John, 61 

— —  Richard,  88 

 Robert,  51 

Chantrell  (Chantrill),  Alice,  54 

 Mary,  54,  61 

 Robert,  53,  54,  61 

 William,  50 

*'  Chapter,"  the  word,  145 
Chapter-houses,   Notes  on,  143-248 ; 

meaning  of,  147 ;  use  of,  154 
Charles  I,  accession,  120 
Charles  II,  religious  conditions  under, 

48  309 
Charles,  Nicholas,  62 
Charley,  John,  64 
Charnley,  — ,  254 

 Ann,  318 

Charnock,  Ann,  68,  311 

 Edward,  276 

 Isabella,  277 

 Michael,  68,  311 

 Richard,  36 

Chatburn,  273 
Chatwood,  John,  290 
Cheadle,  23  ;  rector  of,  296 
Cheaves,  Geoffrey,  58 
Cherbourg,  107 

Cheshire,  advowries,  136 ;  ancient 
screens  in  churches,  20-42;  archers, 
163  ;  ballads  and  legends,  83  ;  Cant- 
ing Arms  in,  72-78 ;  castles,  89 ; 
Deputy  Vice-Admiral  of,  121  ;  Es- 
cheator  of,  100,  115  ;  Prince  Edward 
in,  90  ;  religious  conditions  in  seven- 
teenth century,  309  ;  woods  in,  101 

"Cheshire  Sheaf,"  11,  118,  124 

Chester,  Elizabeth,  54,  59 

Chester,  84,  89,  122,  135,  250 

  castle,  91,  100,  102,  105,  308; 

repairing  roof  in  stable,  130 ;  Con- 
stable of,  113 

 cathedral,  143,  144,  148,  149, 162, 

167,  169,  170,  172,  174,  183, 185,  186, 

Y 


33§ 


Index 


188,  190,  igi,  192, 197,  198,  202,  221, 
226,  230,  240,  248  ;  Cole's  descrip- 
tion, 303,  304,  305,  306,  307  ;  public 
library  in,  307  ;  screen,  24  ;  tapestry, 
30S 

 Comptroller  of  records,  115 

 Corporation,  118 

 court  of  histrionics,  136 

 customs  searcher,  116 

 debtor's  gaol,  297 

 Edward  I  visits,  92,  93,  98 

 fishery  rights,  96,  97 

 Henry  III  visits,  90,  91 

 Irish  linen  warehouses,  307 

 James  I  visits,  119 

  mayor  of,  121 ;   mayor  declines 

knighthood,  119 

 merchants  of,  117 

 prioress  and  nuns,  109 

 rows,  307 

 St.  John's  Church,  109,  308 

 St.  Werburgh,  church  of,  85,  87  ; 

monk  of,  113  ;  abbot's  jurisdiction, 

96 

 Saltsway,  130 

 Spanish  ship  seized,  116 

 walls,  307 

Chester  diocese,  church  discipline  in, 
43-71  ;  consistory  court,  281  ;  court 
books,  43;  dean  and  chapter,  137; 
deanery,  307 

Chester  :  Baron  of  the  Exchequer,  125 

 bishops  of,  71,  289 

 ■  chamberlains,  96,  99 

  earls  of,  82,  85,  99,  100,  120; 

Randle,  133;  John  Scot,  89 

 justiciars  of,  88,  89,  90,  91,  93,  96, 

100,  101,  102,  108 

 sheriffs,  111,  136 

"  Chester  Courant,"  129 

Chester  Golf  Club,  131 

Chetham  Society,  20,  205,  211 

Chichester,  cathedral,  chapter-house, 
230,  238  ;  Lady  chapel,  147 

Child-wall,  62,  64,  311 

Chipping,  279,  281,  283,  284 

Chippingdale,  280,  281 

Chirton,  John  de,  105 

Chisenhale,  Thomas,  272 

Cholmondeley  (Cholmondeleigh),  298 

 Elizabeth,  26 

 Richard,  25 

 Thomas ,  59 

 Viscount,  88,  290 

 widow,  291 

Chorley,  Mrs.,  67 

 Ellen,  64 

 Richard,  253 

Chorlton,  58 

Chris  tie  ton,  56 

Church,  283,  285 

"Church  Discipline  after  the  Restora- 
tion," by  W.  Fergusson  Irvine,  43-71 
Church  rates,  49,  56,  59 
Church  screens,  20-42 


Church-Holme,  319 
Churton  (Chirton),  John  de,  105 
Cirencester,  236,  246,  247 
Clapham,  Alfred  W,  206,  208,  209 

 Thomas,  67 

Clarke,  J.,  88 

 John,  258 

 Samuel  (Rev.),  296 

 Sarah,  296 

 Thomas,  55 

C laughton-in- Lonsdale ,  34 
Claverell  Hey ,  278 
Clayton,  Mrs.,  10 

 Ellen  de,  279 

 Henry,  279 

 Henry  de,  276,  279 

 John, 275,  283 

  Mary,  58 

 Thomas,  275 

 Thomas  de,  279 

 William,  58 

Clayton-le-Dale,  275,  286 

Clay  ton- le-Moors,  275,  276,  279,  286 

Cleaton,  — ,  54 

 William,  51 

Cleaveland,  Mr.,  67 
Cleeve,  188,  230,  238 
Clemens,  James,  258 
Cleppon,  Margaret,  65 
Clifford,  Lord,  162 
Clinton,  William  de,  102 
Clitheroe  family,  279 

 Isabella,  280 

 John,  274,  278 

  Richard,  280 

 Robert,  280 

Clitheroe,   275,   277,  278,  283,  285; 

castle,  324  ;  court  rolls,  274,  281 
Cliviger,  276,  280,  283,  285 
Cloisters,  169 
Clotton,  John,  58 
Cocke,  Henry,  67 
Cocker,  river,  204 

Cockersand,  abbey,  144,  167,  173,  181, 
182,  185,  187,  188,  197,  202,  230; 
chartulary,  205  ;  chapter-house  plan, 
203;  west  elevation,  207;  section, 
214;  plan  of  caps,  216 

Coe,  Thomas,  56 

Coffee,  claims  of,  2;  introduction,  1 
Coffee  Houses  of  Liverpool,  Early,  1-16 
Colchester,  246 
Cole,  — ,  250 

  Rev.  William,  33,  292-308 

Colebrand,  —.88 
Collingwood,  — ,  254 
Collins'  Survey  of  the  Dee,  128 
Colne,  35,  284,  298 
Colne  (Huntingdon),  295 
Combe  Smite,  230 
Coney,  Elizabeth,  69 
Connaught,  Duke  of,  218 
Conway,  92  ;  river,  98 
Cooke,  Anne,  63 
 Ellen,  310 


Index 


Cooke,  G.  A.  (Canon),  244 

 John,  62,  63,  67 

 Richard,  56 

 Robert,  140 

 Sarah,  310 

  Ted, 63 

Cookson,  W.,  88 
Coop,  Thomas,  253 
Cooper,  Canon,  64 

 John,  68 

 Margaret,  68 

 Ralph,  314 

Cope,  G.  C. ,  278 
Coppock,  Joseph,  318 

 Thomas,  64 

Coppull  (Copple),  James,  284 

 Margery,  69,  312 

 William,  69,  312 

Corbet,  — ,  26 
Corless,  Elizabeth,  315 
Cornbury,  Henry,  Visct. ,  55 
Corne,  Thomas,  319 
Cornwallis,  Lord,  168 
Corona  of  Adlington,  arms,  75 

 Hugh  de,  133 

Corser,  John,  291 

Cosimo  I,  193 

Cotgreave,  Eleanor,  56 

Cotman  and  Turner's  "  Normandy," 

247,  248 
Cottam,  Colonel,  252 

 Henry,  284 

Cottingham,  George,  53 
Cotton  of  Cotton,  arms,  26,  75 

 William ,  52 

Cotton,  first  sales,  14 
Coubray,  Alfred  de,  142 

 Reginald  de,  142 

Couldock  (Culdock),  Anne,  313 

 Elizabeth,  312 

 Ellen,  70 

 John, 70 

Coulthurst,  S.  L.,  42 
Count,  Richard  le,  140 
"  County  Guy,"  134 
Coventry,  William,  61 
Coventry,  110,  247 
Cowburn,  Henry,  283 
Cowley,  Anne,  311 

 James,  63,  64,  311 

 Margaret,  315 

 Richard,  63 

  Susan, 57 

 William,  68 

Cow  per,  Dr.  William,  300 
Cox,  E.  W.,202 
Crabwall,  88,  94,  130,  138 
Crew  (Crewe),  family  seat,  295 
 Jane,  57 

 ■  John  (Sir),  293,  294,  295,  302 

 John,  25,  57 

 ■  Nicholas  de,  141 

 Thomas,  57 

Crisp,  Stephen,  317 
Crispin,  Abbot  Gilbert,  177 


Critchley,  — ,  61 

 Lawrence,  315 

Croft,  Alice,  315 

 George,  315 

 Richard,  315 

Crompton,  Thomas,  62 
Cromwell,  Oliver,  165 
C ronton,  64 
Crooke,  Alice,  310 

 Thomas,  310 

Crookhall,  Rev.  Mr.,  5 
Crosby  (Crosbie),  Anne,  68 

 Elizabeth,  318 

 Joshua,  68,  318 

 Roger,  64 

 Thomas,  68,  318 

Crosby,   Great   and   Little,    69,  9 
312 

Croscombe  (Somerset),  26 
Crosse,  Mrs.,  64 

 Frances,  67 

 John,  315 

 Oliver,  315 

 T. ,  88 

 Thomas,  64 

Cross,  ancient,  at  Gressingham,  323 

Crossley,  F.  H. ,  42 

Croston,  34 ;  church  goods,  264  ;  a  d 

covery  at,  263-264 
Crouchley,  William,  315,  316 
Crow,  — ,  254 
Crowcher,  John,  314 
Crowther,  J.  S.,  29 
Croxton  (Leicestershire),  187,  212 
Croyland,  -zqj 
Crumpsall,  18 
Cubbon,  Anne,  68,  318 

 Richard,  68,  318 

Cuerdale  (Keuerdale),  275,  285 
Cuerdley,  64 
Culcheth,  Alice,  311 

 Margaret,  71 

 Richard,  311 

 Roger,  315 

Culcheth,  71,  315 
Culdock.    See  Couldock 
Culling,  Margaret,  314 

 Robert,  314 

Culshaw,  Ellen,  68 
Cumbray,  Alured  de,  141 

 Roger  de,  141 

Cunliffe,  Gilbert,  275 
"  Cup  of  coffee,"  2 
Currey,  Thomas,  50 
Curwen,  Thomas,  324 
Cuthbert,  Archbishop,  179 
Cynmeirch,  92 

Daccombe,  Sir  John,  120 
"  Daily  Courant "  to  be  burnt,  14 
Dakyn  (Daukyn),  Hugh,  no 
Dale,  Daniel,  7 

 Margaret,  312 

 William,  312 

Dale,  chapter-house,  185,  188,  230 


34Q 


Index 


Dalton  family  burial  place,  Cocker- 
sand,  208,  213,  217 
Dalton  (Wigan),  315 
Dame,  Eliza,  67 

 Henry,  67,  314 

 John, 67 

Daniell,  William,  117 
Daresbury ,  24 
Darwen,  Elizabeth,  70 
  Robert,  70 

Darwen,  Lower  and  Over,  276 ;  Darwen 

Hall,  275 
Dassti,  Mr.,  10 
Daubigny.    See  Albiniaco 
Davenport  family,  56  ;  arms,  77 

 William,  291 

Davies,  Anne,  59 

 Mary,  52 

Davis,  Mrs.,  10 
Davy,  Elizabeth,  312 

 Ellen,  312 

  Richard,  312 

Dawne,  Thomas,  in 
Dawpool,  84 

Dawson  of  Nantwich,  arms,  76 

 Peter,  54 

 Robert,  61 

 William,  291 

Day,  Mary,  66 

Day's  "  Gothic  Architecture,"  210 
Deane,  Edward,  60 

 Ellen,  54 

 John, 39 

 Robert,  314 

 Roger,  285 

 William,  314 

Dee,  river,  15,  83,  84,  89,  92,  93,  98, 
108,  123,  129,  301;  fisheries,  94,  96, 
104,  113  ;  fords,  130,  131 ;  mills,  104, 
108  ;  repair  of  bridge,  324 

Deer  parks,  101,  103,  117,  120 

Delamere  Forest,  101,  109,  no;  new 
church,  297  ;  forester  of,  119  ;  ranger 
of,  113 ;  rider  of,  115  ;  Swainmote 
in,  136 

Delamore,  Sarah,  51 

 Thos. ,  S3 

Delves  of  Duddington,  arms,  73,  75 
Denhall,  Cross's  farm,  288 
Dentith,  William,  58 
Denson,  Moses,  60 

 Thomas,  56 

Derby,  1st  Earl,  112 

Derbyshire,  Thos.,  64 

Derwentwater,  James,  Earl  of,  249,  253 

Desauboys,  Mr.,  10 

Despenser,  Hugh  de,  103 

Dewhurst,  James,  249 

  John,  283 

 Geoffrey,  285 

Dewhurst,  283 
Dewsbury ,  277 
Dicke,  Jane,  68,  318 

 John,  68,  318 

Dickenson,  Joan,  59 


Dickenson,  John,  62 
Dicks,  James,  319 

 Peter,  319 

 Richard,  319 

Dighton,  Richard  de,  281 
Dilworth,  William,  285 
Dilworth,  284 
Dinasbran,  castle,  93 
Dinckley,  275 

Dineley  (Dynley),  John,  284 
Disley,  24 
Dissenters,  49 
Disserth,  136 
Ditchfield,  John,  314 

 Peter,  64 

 Thomas,  66,  315,  316 

Ditton,  64,  311 
Dobson,  Mrs. ,  67 
Dobyn,  — ,  95,  139 
Dodd,  John,  25,  291 

 Robert,  57 

Doddleston,  57 
Doe  family,  137 
Domesday  Book,  85,  87 
Done  family,  293  ;  pedigree,  302  ;  seat, 
29S 

 Mrs.  Jane,  294 

 Sir  John,  111,  119,  293 

Dorchester,  chapter-house,  230 

Dore,  church,  70,  172,  173,  188,  231, 

238 
Dor/old,  290 

Dorling,  Rev.  E.  E.,  "  Canting  Arms  in 

Cheshire,"  72-78 
Dormer,  Mrs.  Hilda  C. ,  127 
Dormer's  (Brigadier)  Dragoons,  251, 

252.  253 
Dounvill,  Richard  de,  139 
Dowker,  Jane,  51 
Downes  of  Downes,  arms,  74 
Downham,  273,  280,  284,  285 
Downholland,  65,  313 
Drinkal,  Giles,  324 
Drue,  Lawrence,  108 
Drummond,  — ,  254 

 James,  253 

Drury,  Roger,  108 
Dryburgh,  chapter-house,  231 
Dublin,  116;  Christ  Church,  231;  St. 

Patrick's  Church,  231,  238 
Duckinfield,  Nathaniel,  294 
Dugdale,  Richard,  285 
 Sir  William,  90,  205,  239,  244, 

285 

Duckinfield,  25 
Dumbell,  John,  266 
Dunbaben,  John,  64 

 Samuel,  314 

Dunblane,  chapter-house,  231 
Dunham,  17 

Dunkeld,  cathedral,  231,  242 
Dunkenhalgh,  275,  276,  282 
Dunstable,  302 
Dunstanville,  Alan  de,  141 
 Walter  de,  141,  142 


Index 


34 1 


Dunstar,  Thomas,  64 
Dunster,  church,  236 
Durham,  162,  167,  168,  169,  172,  176, 
184,  220 

 cathedral,  143,  154,  156,  181,  185, 

188,  191,  195,  223,  231 
Dutton,  Sir  Hugh  de,  281 

 John, 51 

 Peter  de,  282 

Dutton,  279,  280,  282,  284,  285,  286 
Dwerryhouse,  Henry,  63 

 John,  63 

 William,  63,  67,  310 

Dwight,  John,  50,  52 
Dyffryn-Clwyd,  91 
Dysart,  Earl  of,  122 

Eadmer,  179 

Earwaker's  "  East  Cheshire,"  136,  296 

Easby,  231,  239 

Easthalgh,  John,  283 

Eastham,  Jacob,  283 

Eastham,  50,  54,  59 

East  Horsley,  19 

East  Sutton  (Kent),  322 

Eaton,  John,  290 

 Mary,  314 

 Robert,  66,  314,  316 

 Thomas,  291 

Eaton  (Chester),  charters  at,  86 
Eccles,  Richard,  284 

 Thomas,  284 

 William,  57 

Eccleshill  (Lanes),  286 
Eccleshill,  castle,  102 
Eccleston  family,  26 

 Eleanor,  311,  316 

Eccleston  (Cheshire),  57 
Eccleston  (near  Knowsley),  311 
Eddleston,  John,  311 

 Margery,  311 

Edge,  George,  56 

 Joan,  56 

Edgerley,  John,  63,  64 
Edgley,  Arthur,  289 
Edmondson,  Alice,  310 
Edmund,  King,  247 
Edmund,  John,  57 

Edward  I,  92,  93,  98,  101,  130,  134, 

163,  180 
Edward  II,  98,  99,  102 
Edward  III,  100,  102,  159 
Edward  IV,  112 
Edward  VI,  117,  164 
Edward,  Prince,  go,  92,  99 
Edward,  St.,  the  Confessor,  146,  162, 

175,  177,  180, 181 
Edwards,  —  (Turkey  merchant),  1 
Edwardson,  Alice,  63 

 Robert,  70 

Edyngton,  231 

Egerton,  family,  26  ;  arms,  22 

 of  Olton,  292 

 John  (Sir),  296,  298 

 Ralph  (Sir),  22,  69,  113,  114 


Egerton,  Richard,  310 

 Thomas,  rector  of  Cheadle,  296  , 

298 

Elcock  (?  Alcock),  Alexander,  290 
Eleanor,  Queen,  133 
Eldred,  John,  321 

Elgin,  cathedral,  154,  170,  183,  188, 

218,  231,  239 
Elizabeth,  Queen,  118,  136 
Ellesmere,  93 
Ellis,  Edward,  55 
Ellison,  W. ,  14 
Elslie,  Rev.  W.  J.,  258 
Elton,  — ,  131 

 Richard,  69 

Elton,  131 

Ely,  cathedral,  155,  168,  183,  221, 
^  231 

Elyncham,  John,  108 
Emma,  Queen,  180 
En  do  (PAndoej,  Katherine,  318 
Ensdall,  Robert,  53 
Entwistle,  Edward,  249 

 Esther,  64,  311 

Ernulf,  Bishop,  243 
Erskine,  Capt. ,  253 
Eskrigge,  Thomas,  324 
Essex,  — ,  186 
Essheby,  John  de,  100 
Ethill,  Jane,  56 
Eugenie,  Empress,  127 
Eulowe,  wood,  105 
Eumary,  Richard  de,  100,  102 
Euxton,  316 
Evanson,  Thomas,  291 
Everard,  William,  12,  13 
Everson,  Henry,  314 
Everton,  310 

Evesham,  chapter-house,  173,  188,  231, 

239,  247;  May's  "  History,"  239 
Excise  Bill,  14 

Excommunication  in  the  Church,  47,  48 
Executions  of  Jacobite  rebels,  253,  254 
Exeter,  Duke  of,  108,  114 
Exeter,  cathedral,  152,  172,  173,  174, 

185,  188,  191,  201,  226,  231 
Exeter,  Bishop  of,  17,  19 
Extwistle,  276 
Eyre,  Mrs. ,  252 

 John, 284 

Eyrick.    See  Heyrick 

Eyton's  "  Court  of  Henry  II,"  89 

Faddeley,  291 
Faircliffe,  John,  59 
Fairfax,  Thomas,  Lord,  325 

 Henry,  325 

Farndon,  57,  301 
Farnworth  (Widnes),  35,  63 

 (near  Bolton),  266 

Farr,  James,  3 

Farrar  (Farrer),  Mr.,  211 

 Anne,  65,  313 

 Elizabeth,  65,  313 

 James,  65,  313 


342 


Index 


Farrar,  John,  65,  313 

 T.,14 

 Thomas,  312 

 W.,  276 

 William,  205 

Farrington,  Robert,  290 
Fastolf,  Sir  John,  246 
Fazakerley,  Mrs.,  62 

 Anne,  65 

 Edward,  63 

 Elizabeth,  65 

 Ellen,  314 

 James,  315 

 Richard,  312 

 Thomas,  63 

 William,  67 

Feasey's  "Ceremonial,"  161 

Feet-washing,  161 

Felton,  Robert  de,  99 

Fergusson,  James,  178,  179,  187,  189, 

196,  208,  218 
Ferrers,  Sir  Thomas  de,  105 
Fetherston,  Alexander,  52 
Field  names,  128 
Fiennes,  Celia,  130 
Filcocke,  Thomas,  67 
Filmer,  Lady  Elizabeth,  321 
Filpott.    See  Philpott 
Finch,  James,  253 

 John, 253 

Fire,  fear  of,  3 
Fisher,  Ellen,  312 

 John,  70 

 Margaret,  70 

 Thomas,  63 

 William,  312 

Fisheries,  fish-weirs,  &c,  of  Chester 
and  the  Dee,  97,  98,  112,  113, 
138 

Fishwick,  Ann,  6 

 Colonel  H.,  35,  278 

Fitzherbert,  Sir  A.,  166 
Fitzherbert-Brockholes,  Dorothy:  "A 

Narrative  of  the  '  Fifteen,'  "  249-254 
Fitzwilliam,  Maria,  56 
"Five  of  Spades"  at  Ashton-under- 

Lyne,  325 
Five  Wounds,  Badge  of  the,  266-267 
Flambard,  Ralph,  162 
Flanner,  Philip,  50,  52 
Fleetwood,  Mr.,  312 

 Elizabeth,  5 

 Jane,  69 

 Margery,  69,  312 

 Mary,  5 

 Robert,  69,  70,  312 

Fleetwood,  204 
Fleming,  Dennis,  116 
Fletcher,  Cicely,  65,  314 

 Ellen,  311 

 ■  Henry,  318 

 James,  65,  66,  314 

 John,  69,  311 

 Mary,  66,  69 

 Thomas,  68 


Flint,  92,  98,  131 ;  castle,  100,  102, 

130;   comptroller  of  records,  115; 

sheriffs,  107,  115 
Flintshire,  84 
Flitcroft,  Geoffrey,  71 
Florence,  deanery,  153;  duomo,  194- 

195  ;  Santa  Maria  Novella,  192-196 
Florie,  Hubert  de,  135 
Fontenelle,  178,  180,  190 
Ford,  John,  311 

 Margaret,  311 

Ford,  231,  313 
Fordes,  Richard  de,  89 
Forests,  Royal,  101 
Formby,  Anne,  61 

 Cuthbert,  310 

 Elizabeth,  70,  312 

 Henry,  70,  312 

— -  Jane,  70 

 Richard,  61,  310 

 Robert,  312 

 Thomas,  61 

Formby,  64,  310 

 Channel,  98 

Forrest,  Alice,  311 
Forrester,  Lord,  251 
Forshaw,  Ralph,  68 
Forstard,  Margaret,  65 

 Ralph,  65 

Forster,  James,  63 
Foster,  — ,  250 

 Henry,  68,  69,  318 

 James,  311 

 Margaret,  313 

 Richard,  313 

Foulridge  (Fulrig),  283,  286,  317 
Fountains  Abbey,  148,  154,  162,  185, 

188,  197,  231 
Fowle,  William,  284 
Fowler,  Hodgson,  168 
Fox,  George,  the  Quaker,  323 
France,  chapter-houses  in,  189 
Francis  I  of  France,  114 
Freeman,  E.  A.,  181,  188,  242 
French,  Thomas,  291 
Frith,  Robert,  65 
Frodsham,  102,  282 
Fuller's  "  Church  History,"  154,  167, 

228 

Fullerton,  Sir  John,  120 

Furness  Abbey,  121,  144,  164,  165,  166, 

172,  174,  183,  188,  197,  199,  202,  204, 

205,  210,  212,  231 

Gaddi,  Tadeo,  193,  195 

Gage,  J.,  "  History  of  Suffolk,"  321 

Gamul  family,  137 

 William,  88 

Gandy,  John, 314 

 William,  64 

Gardner,  Anne,  68 

 Henry,  57 

 Richard,  324 

Gargrave  family,  27 
 Anne,  27 


Index 


343 


Gargrave,  Cotton  (Sir),  27 
Garrett,  Margaret,  69 
 Richard,  58 

Garstang,  Jacobite  rebels  hanged  at, 

253 
Gars  ton,  310 
Gartside,  Hugh,  278 
Gascoigne,  — ,  254 
 Bamber,  257 

Gasquet,  Dom,  154,  161,  166,  167,  220 
Gastrell,  Elizabeth,  307 
Gatlin,  John,  57 
Gaunt,  Constance,  159 

 John,  159 

Gay  ton,  84 

Germany,   chapter  -  houses   in,   189  ; 

heraldry,  72 
Gerrard,  Margaret,  312 

 Mary,  63 

 Mrs. ,  69 

 Richard,  312 

 William,  315,  316 

Gibbons,  John,  57 
Gibson,  — ,  250 


Gildas,  183 

Gill,  Elizabeth,  68 

•  James,  68 

•  Henry,  99 

 Roger,  92,  95,  139 

 William,  64,  318 

Gillibrand,  Jonathan,  66 

Gillow,  Joseph,  310 

Glasgow,  cathedral,  188,  218,  232,  239, 

240,  242 
Glasson,  204 

Glastonbury,  abbey,  164,  174,  219,  220, 
232 

Glazebrook,  Thomas,  71 

 William  de,  135 

Glazieur,  Elizabeth,  50,  54,  58 
Glegg  of  Glegg,  arms,  84 

 Anne,  53 

 Edward,  53,  289 

 John,  136 

 Justice,  52 

 Nicholas,  136 

Gloucester,   cathedral,  163,  169,  170, 

181,  187,  188,  201,232,  240,  243 
Glover,  John,  315 

 Robert,  Visitation  of  Cheshire,  72 

Glynne,  Sir  Stephen,  20,  22,  23,  24,  25, 

3°.  3i.  33.  34.  35.  39.  4° 
Gobin,  Henry,  68 
Golbourn,  315 
Golbourne  family,  26 

 James,  65 

 "Mary,  65 

Goldsmith,  James,  282 
Goldson,  Thomas,  53 
Gollinge,  Thomas,  57 
Golofre,  John,  107 
Goodall,  John,  62 
 William,  63 


Gooden,  Edward,  64 

 Ellen,  64 

 Thomas,  64 

Goodfellow,  John,  135 
Gooding,  Thomas,  314 
Goodshaw,  James,  285 
Goore,  Eleanor,  61 
Goose,  Richard,  64 

 Thomas,  253 

Goosnargh,  35 
Gore,  James,  313 
Gorse,  Saraht  55 
Gorsick,  Anne,  70,  312 

 John,  70,  312 

 Thomas,  70 

Gorton,  Alice,  69 

 Robert,  69 

Gough,  — ,  123,  128 

 John, 56 

Gowens,  Henry,  56 
Grace,  Eleanor,  64 

 Richard,  64 

Grandy,  Thomas,  315 
Grappenhall,  257 
Graston,  Randle,  289 
Gray,  George  J. ,  308 
Greasby,  61,  -79 
Greathead,  William,  99 
Great  Saxham  (Suffolk),  321 
Greaves,  Katherine,  313 
Green,  Anne,  69 

 Ellen,  312 

 James,  51,  54,  60 

 Jane,  313 

 Thomas,  69 

Greenacres,  Agnes,  280 

 Joan,  280 

 Sir  Richard  de,  280 

Greenhalgh,  Richard,  50 
Greenhills,  Thomas,  284 
Greenough,  Richard,  59 
Greenwall,  Dr.  W. ,  168 
Greenwich,  114 
Gregg,  Mr. ,  63 
Gregory,  Alice,  71 

 James,  71 

Gregson,  John,  59 
Grenside,  Canon,  34 
Gressingham,  ancient  cross  at,  323 
Grey,  John  de,  90 

 Archbishop,  Walter  de,  156 

Grice,  Henry,  64 

Griffin,  David,  son  of,  91,  92 

 Owen,  son  of,  90 

 Llewelyn,   son  of    (the  Welsh 

prince),  91,  92 
Griffin  of  Cattenhall,  arms,  74 
Griffith,  Jane,  311 

 Thomas,  52 

 William,  62,  63 

Grimshall,  Alexander,  50,  54,  59 
Grimshaw,  Alice,  276,  315 

 Geoffrey  de,  281,  282,  285 

 Henry,  283 

 James,  281,  283 


344 


Index 


Grimshaw,  John,  315 

 Robert,  276,  279 

 Roger,  276 

Grimshaw ,  279 
Groome,  John,  60 

Grosseteste,  Bishop,  152,  153,  157, 
„  IS8>  173 

Grosvenor,  Richard,  118 
Grount,  Hugh,  140 
Guest,  Henry,  64 

 Robert,  315 

Guidalotti,  Mico,  193,  196 
Guillaume,  St.,  180,  181 
Guy,  Elizabeth,  62 
 Robert,  62 

Habergham    Eaves,    273,    276,  283, 
285 

Hacking  Hall,  283 
Haddington,  Countess  of,  33 
Haigh,  71,  315 
Hale,  Alice,  68 

 Edward,  68 

 Henry,  63 

 John,  68,  313 

  Margery,  68,  313 

  Randle,  291 

 Thomas,  63 

Hale,  church,  64,  121 
Halebank,  121 
Halifax,  Earl  of,  302 
Halkett,  Anne,  302 

 Cuthbert,  314 

Hall,  George,  Bishop,  71,  305 

 Gertrude,  71 

 John,  64,  254 

 William,  284 

Hall's  (J.),  "  Nantwich,"  88 
Halliwell,  276 
Hallwood,  John,  55 

 Thomas,  59 

Halsall,  Anne,  67 

 Cuthbert,  311 

 James,  314 

 Richard,  36 

Halsall,  36,  65,  67,  313 
Halsted,  Henry,  285 

■         Robert,  136 

 William,  285 

Halton,  John,  284 

 Thomas,  291 

Halton  (Cheshire),  281 
Hammond,  Margaret,  50 
Hancock,  William,  116 
Hankelow,  319 
Hankinson,  Margery,  56 

 Peter,  56 

 Richard,  64 

Hanmer  (Salop),  55 
Hanshall's  "  Chester,"  129 
Hapsford,  58 
Hapton,  276,  278,  286 
Harding,  Roger,  290 
Hardman,  Geoffrey,  315 
Hargrave,  chapel,  57 


Hargreaves,  Mary,  317 

 Richard,  317 

Harker,  Jane,  62 

 William,  62 

Harkness,  Thomas,  63 
Harlech,  castle,  102 
Harold,  King,  159 
Harper,  Alice,  67 

 Richard,  56 

Harrington  family,  arms,  36 

 James,  306 

 John,  36 

Harris,  William,  253 
Harrison,  Alice,  70 

 Edward,  63 

 John,  54,  70 

 Richard,  50,  70,  291 

 Thomas,  63,  65,  310,  313 

 Tim,  63 

 William,  70 

Harsnape,  Richard,  264 

 Roger,  318 

 William,  318 

Harthill,  arms,  74 

Harthill,  25 

Hartley,  Elizabeth,  62 

 John,  317 

 Roger,  317 

 William,  62 

Harvey,  Anne,  70 

 John, 61,  313 

 Robert,  313 

 Thomas,  70 

Harwood,  Great,  279,  285 
Harwood,  Little,  275,  286 
Haskayne  (Haskin.Heskin,  Heskeyne), 
Catherine,  65,  313 

 Francis,  313 

 Henry,  65,  68,  313 

 Jane,  65,  67 

 Mary,  65,  313 

Hasledine,  John,  315 
 Ralph,  67 

Haslingdeti,  273,  276,  279,  283 
Haslop,  Hugh,  314 
Hassall,  Hugh,  289 
Hatch,  George,  58 
Hatherton,  319 
Hatley,  Eliza,  65 

 John, 65,  314 

Hatton,  Alice,  69 

 Arthur,  67 

 Elizabeth,  66 

 John,  69 

 Margaret,  312 

 Margery,  69,  312 

 Richard,  69,  312 

 William,  66 

Haughmond,  148,  232 

Hazcghton,  278 

Hawarden.    See  Howerden 

Hawarden,   84,  92 ;  rector  of,   320 ; 

palimpsest  brass  in,  320-322 
Hawberk  arms,  77 
Hawkes,  Henry,  291 


Index 


345 


Hawkeston,  Alan  de,  99 
Hawksey,  Richard,  66 
Hawkshead,  317 
Hawky,  James,  117 
Hawney,  John,  314 
Haworth,  John,  318 
Hay,  Henry,  65 

 John  del  (Sir),  107 

 Margaret,  65.    See  also  Hey 

Haydock,  Alexander,  318 

 Margaret,  318 

Haydock,  315 

Hayes,  Ellis,  50,  58.   See  also  Heyes 
Hayhurst,  Catherine,  66 

 Percival,  285 

Hayward,  Frances,  311 
Heath,  Robert,  291 

 Thomas,  63 

Heath  Char?iock,  261 
Heaton  (Heton),  Agnes,  270 

 Isolda  de,  268,  269,  270 

 Richard,  268,  269,  271,  272 

 William,  268,  269,  270,  272 

Helegh,  William  de,  108,  109 

Helme,  William,  284 

Helpeston,  Robert  de,  99 

Henley,  Thomas,  7 

Hennock  (Devon),  29 

Henry  IV,  Emperor,  tomb  at  Chester, 

3°S 
Henry  I,  159 
Henry  II,  89,  159 
Henry  III,  89,  90,  91 
Henry  IV,  103,  165  ;  Joan,  Queen  of, 

160 

Henry  V,  160,  282 

Henry  VI,  161,  265,  268,  271 

Henry  VIII,  113,  115 

Henshaw  arms,  76 

Henthorn,  76,  278,  284,  285,  286 

Hereford,  cathedral,  91,  143,  157,  168, 

174,  208,  232,  240 
Hesketh,  Alice,  62 

 Bartholomew,  62 

 Gabriel,  62,  311 

 Henry,  62 

 Mary,  67,  314 

 Thomas,  67,  275,  314 

Heskeyn.    See  Haskayne 
Heswall,  Alice  de,  133 

 Sir  Patrick  de,  133 

Heswall,  51,  54,  60 
Heton.    See  Heaton 
Hewett,  Richard,  58 

 William,  58 

Heward  (?  Howard),  Peter,  64 
Hexham,  abbey,  37,  232,  240 
Hey,  Ellen,  311 

  Henry,  314 

 John, 63 

 Margaret,  314 

 Richard,  63 

Heyes,  Anne,  313 

  Hugh,  313 

Heyrick  (Eyrick),  John,  302 


Hey  rick,  Nathaniel,  300,  301 

 Samuel,  302 

 Toby,  302 

 Warden,  302 

Hey  sham,  204,  323 
Highfield,  Thomas,  290 
Hignet,  Anne,  58 
 John,  58 

Hilbre,  15  ;  "  Lady's  Shelf,"  83 
Hilcocke  (or  Filcocke),  67 
Hilditch,  John,  290 
Hill,  Alexander,  325 

 Alice,  69,  70 

 Daniel,  51 

 Elizabeth,  70,  312 

 Henry,  65 

 Janet,  68 

 John,  285 

 Margaret,  70 

 Richard,  59 

 Robert,  53,  63,  312 

 William,  57 

Hilton,  Eliza,  66 

 John,  71 

 Roger,  66 

Hind,  Thomas,  317 
Hinde,  E.  Percy,  42 
Hindley,  Janet,  66 

 Joan,  62 

Hindley,  315 
Hitchcock,  Mary,  52 

 Robert,  53 

 Thomas,  88 

Hitchmough,  Henry,  310 

 Margaret,  63,  64 

 Thomas,  63,  64,  310,  316 

Hobersty,  John,  324 

Hockenhull  family,  86,  112  ;  arms,  74 

 John, ii2,  123 

Hodgetts,  Bartley,  6 
Hodgkin,  T. ,  323 
Hodgkinson,  John,  66 
Hodgson,  George,  254 
Hody,  Nicholas,  134 
Hogg,  John,  54 

 William,  139 

Hoghton,  Col.,  250 

 Henry  (Sir),  252,  253,  279 

  Henry,  273,  280,  284,  314 

 Joan, 280 

 Margaret,  311 

 Richard,  280 

Holand,  Sir  John,  108 

 Maud,  103 

Holbrook,  Ralph,  55 
Holcroft,  Eleanor,  62,  314 

 Elizabeth,  66 

 •  John,  315 

 Margaret,  315 

 Peter,  315 

Holden,  Alice  de,  324 

 Christopher,  273,  276,  283 

 Henry,  317 

  John, 284,  324 

 Ralph,  283,  324 


346 


Index 


Holden,  Sibyl,  278 

 Thomas,  279,  283 

Holden,  273,  276 

Holden,  Broad,  273,  281 

Hole,  Hugh  de,  133 

Holgreave,  Henry,  65 

Holker,  Peter,  285 

Holland,  William,  4th  Lord,  275 

 Elizabeth,  311 

 Ellen,  65,  67 

 Henry,  311 

 Margaret,  65,  311,  314 

 Mary,  311 

 Ralph,  311 

 Richard,  65 

Holland.    See  Upholland 
Hollinfare,  66 
Hollingworth,  Richard,  306 
Hollins  family,  278 

 Anne,  278 

 James,  278 

Holme,  Alice,  310,  314 

 Bartholomew,  314 

 Cicely,  66 

 Edmund,  66,  314 

 Elizabeth,  65 

 George,  310 

  Jane,  314 

 Jennette,  314 

  John,  255 

 Margaret,  313 

  Randle,  24,  278,  282 

 Robert,  312 

 William,  68 

Holme,  274 

Holt,  Alan,  282 

Holt  (Denbigh),  57,  301 

Holt  (Worcester),  106 

Honey  wood's  (Brigadier)  Dragoons, 
251,  252,  253 

Hooke  of  Leadbrook,  124 

Hooker,  Reginald,  135 

Hoole,  Henry,  310 

 John,  62 

 Margaret,  50 

Hoole  Heath,  130 

Hooton  family,  88 

Hope,  Eliza,  62 

 John,  no 

 Richard,  66 

 St.  John,  197,  244 

 William,  62,  66,  314 

Horistock,  142 

Horland,  Matilda,  63 

Hornby,  Anthony,  291 

Hornby,  250 

Home,  Bishop,  167,  168 

Horrocks,  Anne,  62 

 John,  62 

Horse-shoes,  discovery  of,  at  Croston, 
263 

Horsley,  East,  19 

Horton,  Ralph,  289 

Houghton  (Haughton),  Alexander,  266 

 Alice,  66 


Houghton,  Cecil  (Mrs.).  290 

 Dorothy,  266 

 Elizabeth,  311 

 George,  64 

 Henry,  66 

 John,  311 

 Mary,  66 

  Richard  (Sir),  279 

Houlcroft,  Ellen,  66 

 James,  66 

 John,  66 

Houlden,  Richard,  64 
Hoult,   James,  "Old  Swan  Charity 
School,"  255-262 

 Richard,  63 

 Thomas,  63 

Hours,  Book  of,  265 
Howard,  Miss,  127 
  Bryan,  310 

 Charles,  W.  G.  (Hon.),  256 

  Jane,  63,  288 

 John, 253 

 Ralph,  69 

Howden,  chapter-house,  172,  174,  183, 

189,  200,  223,  224,  232,  241 
Howell,  Mr.,  5 
Howerden,  Mrs.,  63 

  Edward,  63 

Howett,  Holcroft,  68 

Howley,  William,  314 

Hoxne,  247 

Hoy  lake,  15,  97,  132 

Huddart's  "Coasting  Pilot,"  128 

Hugh,  St.,  of  Lincoln,  151 

Hugh,  Prior  of  Lewes,  243 

Hugh  the  hermit,  204 

Hughes,  Anne,  57 

 William,  57 

Hughson,  James,  50 
Hugolin,  162 

Hulbert's  "  Cheshire  Antiquities."  128 
Hulgreave,  Elien,  63 

 William,  63 

Hulme,  Bartholomew,  65 

 Edmund,  65 

 George,  63 

 Jane,  65 

 Janet,  65 

Hubie,  232 
Hulton,  Alice,  266 

 John,  266 

 Mary,  66 

 Randolph,  56 

 William,  266 

Humpston,  Richard,  55 
Huncoat,  273 
Hunt,  Alice,  313 

 Catherine,  67 

 Edward,  313 

 Eleanor,  69 

 Elizabeth,  311 

 Isabel,  314 

 John, 311 

 Margaret,  69 

 William  62,  69,  310 


Index 


Hunter,  — ,  254 

 James,  67,  314 

 Jane,  67,314 

Huntingdon,  John,  Warden  of  Man- 
chester, 200 
Huntington,  Earl  of,  108,  122 

 Rowland,  59 

Huntroyde,  273,  281 
Hurdes,  Alice,  69,  312 

 Anne,  69,  70,  312,  313 

 Jane,  69 

 Peter,  312 

Hur lesion,  290,  291 

Hussey,  William,  291 

Hutton,  Archdeacon  W.  H.,  225 

Huxley,  Ralph,  289 

Huyton,  36,  66,  311 

Hyde,  William,  of  Urmston,  266 

Idenshaw  (or  Edenchale),  86 
Ightenhill,  278 
Illingworth,  H.  E. ,  42 
Ince,  John,  315,  316 

 Miles,  315 

Ince  (Ches. ),  58,  92 

 (near  Wigan),  315 

Ince-Blundell,  64,  70 
Indulgence,  Act  of,  48 
Ingham,  Oliver  de,  101 
Inman,  Mr.,  79 
lona,  chapel,  &c,  232,  241 
Ireland  family,  arms,  36 

 Ellen,  71 

 Gilbert  (Sir),  71 

 John,  70 

 Mary,  70 

 Mrs. ,  65 

 Thomas,  53,  71 

Ireland,  89  ;  shipments  to,  108,  109 
Irish  yarn,  4 
Irvine,  J.  T. ,  243 

 W.   Fergusson,    "Church  Dis- 
cipline after  the  Restoration,"  43-71 
Ithel,  Elizabeth,  290 

Jackson,  Alice,  319 

 Christian,  284,  311 

 John,  319 

 Joseph,  255,  256,  257,  262 

 William,  291 

Jacobite   Rebellion  (1715),  249-254; 

(i74S).  305 
Jacobs,  Henry,  1 
James,  Dr.,  223 

James  II  visits  Chester,  119,  307 
James  III  proclaimed,  250 
Janion,  John,  60 
Jedburgh,  abbey,  232 
Jeffreys,  William,  57 
Jervaulx,  abbey,  174,  188,  232 
Jenkinson,  Thomas,  61 

 William,  284 

Joddrell,  Mary,  306 
John,  King,  159,  163 
John,  Richard,  son  of,  140 


John,  Thomas,  son  of,  138,  139 
Johnson,  Ann,  318 

 Elizabeth,  51,  67,  68,  70 

 Henry,  315 

 James,  36 

 Jane,  69,  312 

 John,  60,  70,  313,  318 

 Margaret,  69,  70 

 Mary,  70 

 Richard,  68,  70 

 Robert,  318 

 William,  69,  312 

Jones,  Ellen,  52,  54 

 Kendrick,  57 

 Richard,  59 

 Roger,  57 

 W.  Bell,  322 

Jonet,  William,  105,  106 
Jouwe,  Richard,  139 
Jumttges,  177 
Jump,  Catherine,  67,  68 

 Elizabeth,  67,  314 

 Robert,  68 

Kay,  Anne,  314 

 Henry,  314 

 John,  315 

 Thomas,  314 

Kearsley,  Henry,  315 
Keithley,  Thomas,  315 
Kellett,  James,  324 
Kelley,  Bridget,  59 

 William,  59 

Kelsalk  58 
Kempe,  William,  50 
Kendale,  Andrew  de,  98,  99 
Kendall,  Margaret,  318 

 Mary,  318 

Kenilworth,  abbey,  173,  232 
Kenmure,  Viscount,  253 
Kennedy,  Berry,  253 
Kennedy,  Mrs.  Myles,  323 
Kenright,  Edward,  63 
Kent,  Earl  of  (Thomas  Holand), 
108 

 Joan,  fair  maid  of,  106,  108 

Kent,  William,  318 
Kenyon,  Elizabeth,  65,  313 

 Margaret,  65 

 Richard,  65,  313 

 Robert,  315 

Kenyon,  315 
Kerfoot,  Elizabeth,  62 

 Robert,  62 

Kersley,  Henry,  66 

 Margaret,  66 

Kequid,  Thomas,  64 
Kewquicke,  Cuthbert,  68 
Key,  Amy,  290 

 Hugh,  58 

Kidd,  Benjamin,  225 
Kidderminster,  Baron  of,  106 
Killing-worth,  109 
Kilmorey,  Viscount,  290,  291 
Kilshaw,  Cuthbert,  67 


348 


Index 


Kilshaw,  Elizabeth,  318 

 Thomas,  318 

Kinderton,  Baron  of,  26 
King,  John,  315 
Kinnerton,  Higher,  57 
Kirby,  John,  317 

 Jordan  de,  99 

 Richard,  clerk  of,  99 

Kirkby,  317 

 (Walton),  66,  68,  310 

Kirkby  Lonsdale,  250 
Kirkham,  Lydia,  318 
Kirkham,  abbey,  232,  245 
Kirk  Hammerton,  256 
Kirkstall,  abbey,  172,  188,  232,  241 
Kitchen,  Richard,  318 
Kitchingman,  J.,  "The  Liscard  Pal- 
stave," 287 
Knight,  Samuel,  299 
Knowles,  Anne,  54,  60 

 Christian,  284 

 Elizabeth,  318 

 John,  69 

 Lawrence,  273,  279,  284 

 Miles,  279 

 Richard,  284 

 Robert,  50,  54,  60 

Knotty  Ash  ;  Ashfield,  258 
Kynaston,  — ,  57 

Lache,  William,  57 

Lachford,  William  de,  205 

Lacock,  167,  174,  188,  232 

*'  Lady's  Shelf"  at  Hilbre,  83 

Laithwaite,  Ellen,  70 

 James,  66 

 John,  64,  70 

 Peter,  66 

 Thomas,  63 

Lambert,  John,  277 

Lamberton,  Bishop,  244 

Lancashire,  Catholics  in,  49  ;  church 
screens,  34-42 ;  Deputy  Vice- Ad- 
miral, 121 ;  Jacobites  in,  in  1715, 
249-254  ;  people's  sentimental  piety, 
212;  Preachers'  report,  1590,  48; 
Recusants  and  Quakers,  309-319 ; 
religious  condition  in  seventeenth 
century,  309  ;  sheriff,  93 

Lancaster,  Henry,  Duke  of,  268,  271 

 Christiana,  310 

 Edmond  of,  93 

 John,  36,  310,  315,  316 

 Nathaniel  (Rev. ),  296 

 Richard,  64,  310 

 Sarah,  296 

Lancaster,  19,  37,  250,  317 ;  church, 
204,  205 ;  Duchy,  111 ;  early  Re- 
corder, 324 ;  gaol  delivery,  1666,  309  ; 
Jacobite  executions,  254;  Vice- 
Chancellor,  277 

Lancelin,  William,  133 

Lanercost,  232 

Langley,  Elizabeth,  68 

 Ralph,  17,  18,  19,  281 


Langton,  Abraham,  315 

 Elizabeth,  315 

 Henry,  275 

Langtree,  277 
Lapford,  29 
Larden  Green,  291 
Lathes,  Adam  de,  284 

 Richard  del,  284 

Lathom,  Earl  of,  218 

 Dorothy,  310,  316 

  Henry,  62,  239 

 Margaret,  310,  316 

 Mary,  310,  316 

 Mrs.,  313 

 Richard,  62,  70 

 William,  58,  62,  311 

Lathom,  68,  311 

Lauder,  William,  Bishop,  240 

Lawrenson,  Eliza,  66 

 James,  63 

  John, 66, 311 

Lawton,  Henry,  314 

 Thomas,  314 

Lawton,  315 
Lay,  Thomas,  58 

 P  William,  58 

Layamon's  "  Brut,"  183 
Lay  field,  John,  57 
Lea,  Bryan,  313 

 William,  50 

Leadbetter,  Thomas,  59,  64 
Leadbrook,  124,  142 
Leagram,  279 
Leather,  Thomas,  315 
Leatherbarrow,  Alice,  62 

 Jane,  65, 318 

 Roger,  62,  65,  318 

Leche,  of  Carden,  arms,  75 

 of  Nantwich,  arms,  75 

 John,  135 

Ledcome  Regis,  no 
Lee,  William,  66 
Leech,  Zachariah,  67 
Leeming,  Christopher,  324 
Leen,  Thomas,  53 
Leftwich,  Ralph,  290 
Leftwich,  318 
Legh,  crest,  31 

 of  Adlington,  31 

 Hugh,  282 

 John, 282 

 Katherine,  282 

 Laurence,  285 

 Nicholas,  278 

 Thomas,  279,  282 

Leicester  (Leycester),  arms,  28 

 Richard,  289,  290 

Leigh,  Alexander,  315 

 Alice,  315 

 Egerton,  83 

 Richard,  315,  316 

 Thomas,  71,  315 

Leigh  (Lanes),  62,  66 
Leighton,  Roger  de,  133 
Leighton,  54 


Index 


349 


Leighton- Buzzard,  296 

Leland's  "Itinerary,"  4,  122,  128,  204, 

246,  247 
Lennox  (or  Lynnols),  John,  279 
Leominster,  233 

Leonius,  Chamberlain  of  Chester,  96 
Lerpoole  (?  Liverpool),  Alice,  50 
Lestra,  Richard  de,  141,  142 

 William  de,  141 

Le  Strange,  — ,  90 
 John,  89 

 Roger,  93,  94,  96,  97,  98,  138 

Letts,  Rev.  E.  F.,  39 
Leversage  of  Wheelock,  arms,  76 
Lewes,  233 

Lexington,  John  de,  88 

Ley,  Robert,  324 

Librarian's  duties,  12 

Library,  11 ;  public  library  in  Chester 

Cathedral,  307 
Lichfield,  cathedral,  146,  156,  169,  170, 

174,  185,  188,  212,  213,  233 
Lidget.    See  Lydgate 
Lightfoot,  Bishop,  168 

 John,  51 

 Peter,  51 

 Ralph,  50 

Lincoln,  cathedral,  143,  148,  149,  152, 

I5S> IS6i iS7» IS8>  l62> l69> I7°i I72> 
173,  174,  178,  181,  182,  185,  186, 187, 
188,  2ii,  212,  219,  223,  226,  233,  247  ; 
Dean  of,  153  ;  Parliament  at,  163 

Linekar,  Ellen,  61 

 Henry,  53 

 John,  313 

Linford,  Margery,  66 

 Richard,  66 

Liptrott,  Edward,  315 

 Margaret,  315 

 Richard,  315 

Liscard,  palstave  found  at,  287 

Litcham  (Norfolk),  99 

Litherland,  Alexander,  52 

Litherland,  313 

Lithgoe,  Anne,  66 

 Ellen,  62,  66,  314 

 Geoffrey,  66,  314 

 Margaret,  314 

 Robert,  62,  66,  314 

 William,  62,  66,  314 

Littler,  John,  61 

Liverpool,  14,  121,  168,  309 

  cathedral,  183,  239 ;  chapter- 
house, 2ii,  217-227;  Lady  chapel, 
217 

 Chamber  of  Commerce,  first  meet- 
ing, 8 

 Church  discipline,  67 

 Clubs:  Coffee  House,  11;  Con- 
versation, 6;  Talbot,  12;  Ugly 
Face,  5 

 Coffee  houses  :  early  coffee  houses, 

1-16 ;  Angel,  6  ;  Bath,  3,  9,  10,  it, 
13  ;  Common  Subscription,  3  ;  Cus- 
tom House,  3  ;  Dutch,  3;  Exchange, 


3,  4,  7,  9;  George's,  3,  6,  7;  Hiber- 
nia,  3;  Merchants',  3,  9,  10,  11,  12, 

13,  14,  15;  Neptune,  3,  7,  8  ;  Pon- 
tack's,  3,  8,  9  ;  Talbot,  11 

Liverpool  "  Directory,"  256 

 Docks:  Old  Dock,  3;  Georges, 

14.  97 

 French  prison,  11 

  Inns,  &c. :  Coulter's  hotel,  10  ; 

King's  Arms,  7  ;  Waterloo  (Lynn's), 

255 ;  Woolpack,  4 
 Jacobite  rebels  hanged  at,  1716, 

254 

 Libraries :  Athenseum,  16  ;  Liver- 
pool (Lyceum),  11,  12,  13,  15; 
Public  :  Mayer  papers  in,  128 

 M.P.'s  (B.  Gascoigne),  257 

 Mayors,  258  ;  T.  Brereton,  124 

 Newspapers:  2,  3;  "Liverpool 

Advertiser,"  6;  "Liverpool  Chron- 
icle," 9,  11,  288 

 Old  hall,  Sandfield  Park,  258 

 Old  Swan,  255 

 Public  buildings  :  Old  Baths,  9  ; 

Exchange,  3,  4,  6,  15 ;  Royal  In- 
surance Buildings,  15 

 Recorders  (Owen  Brereton),  125  ; 

258 

 Streets :  Brook  Square,  3 ;  Cal- 

lender  Court,  256  ;  Castle  Street,  3 
6;  Dale  Street,  3,  6,  9,  13,  14,  15; 
Derby  Street,  256;  Fenwick  Street, 
10;  High  Street,  3,  7,  8;  John 
Street,  12,  15  ;  Old  Churchyard,  3, 
9,  10,  13,  14  ;  Old  Shambles,  3,  7,  8  ; 
Paradise  Street,  257  ;  Pool  Lane,  3  ; 
Princes  Street,  13 ;  Rainsford's  Gar- 
dens, 9  ;  Ranelagh  Street,  255  ; 
Water  Street,  3,  8;  Whitechapel,  8 
9,  256;  Woolpack  Entry,  8 

 Theatre  Royal  silver  ticket,  8 

 Toxteth  Park  royal  chace,  93 

 Trade,  98 

 Wallace's  "  History,"  3 

Liversage,  William,  118 

Livesey,  of  Holme,  274 

 Alice,  61 

 Ellen,  61 

 Gilbert  de,  279 

 Henry,  70 

 Jane,  313 

 John,  289 

 Margaret,  61,  313 

 Nicholas,  313 

Livesey,  283,  285 

Llananno,  24 

Llandaff,  cathedral,  172,  173,  174,  188, 

226,  233,  242 
Llanthony,  priory,  172,  233,  242 
Llewelyn,  Prince,  93 
Lloitcote,  135 
Lloyd  family,  124 

 Catherine,  124 

 Edward,  125 

 John, 124 


350 


Index 


Lloyd,  Letitia,  124 

 Salusbury,  124 

 Thomas,  57 

■  William,  55,  125 

Lockhart,  Capt. ,  253 

Loddington,  301,  302 

London,  Richard  de,  138,  139 

London:  Bartholomew  Lane,  1  ;  coffee 
houses,  2 ;  coffee  introduced,  1  ; 
Gray's  Inn,  278;  Inns  of  Court, 
117;  Marine  Society,  7;  Old  Ex- 
change, 1;  Rainbow  tavern,  3;  St. 
Botolph,  Aldgate,  306;  St.  Michael's 
Alley,  1 ;  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  172, 
174,  220,  234,  244;  Tower  Hill  exe- 
cutions, 253 

Longueville,  Mrs. ,  ' 1  Narrative  of  the 
'  Fifteen,' "  249-254 

Lonsdale,  3rd  Earl  of,  256 

Lort,  Mr.,  299 

Lostock,  275 

Louvain,  265 

Lovelady,  Eliza,  61 

 Mary,  313 

 Richard,  61,  313 

 William,  Lord,  275 

Lovely  (in  Salesbury),  280 

Lowe,  Arthur,  51 

 John,  66,  67 

 Margaret,  60 

Lowther,  Hon.  William,  256 

Luard,  H.  R.,  175 

Lubke,  W. ,  189,  190 

Lucas,  Anne,  54,  59 

Lune  (or  Lucie),  James,  55 

Lune,  river,  204 

Lunt,  Anne,  67 

 Eliza,  65 

 Ellen,  314 

 Grace,  69 

.  John,  58,  69,  70,  312 

 Margaret,  312 

 Margary,  69 

 Richard,  67 

 William,  312 

Lunt,  31  t 

Lupus,  Hugh,  Earl  of  Chester,  73,  85, 

86,  87,  88,  162,  304 
Lurting,  Jane,  69 

 John,  69 

 Margaret,  69 

 Nicholas,  312 

 Thomas,  69 

Lydgate  (Lidget),  Ellen,  65 

 Grace,  313 

 James,  65 

 Margaret,  65 

 ■  Thomas,  65 

  William,  70,  313 

Lydgate,  65 
Lydiate,  314 
Lyon,  Alice,  68,  318 

 Anne,  311 

 Edward,  68,  318 

 Ellen,  257 


Lyon,  Jonathan,  318 

 Lydia,  318 

 Matthew,  257 

 Sarah,  318 

Lysons'  "  Cheshire,"  88,  124 

Macclesfield  Forest,  101 
Macdonald,  Donald,  253 
Macgallivray,  John,  253 
Mackintosh,  — ,  254 
Mackworth,  Dean,  152 
Madan,  F.,  266 
Maddock,  John,  51 

 Nathan,  55 

 Robert,  61 

Maghull,  67,  314 

Mainwaring  (Menewarin),  family,  94, 
130  ;  of  Baddeley,  289  ;  of  Swanley, 
289 

 Mr.,  290 

 Edmund,  291 

 Elizabeth,  119 

 George,  118,  119 

 Henry,  118 

 John  (Sir),  119 

 >•  Ralph  de,  141 

 Thomas  de,  133 

 William  de,  68,  141 

Malbank,  Philip,  141,  142 

 William,  88 

 family,  87,  141 

Mallory,  Rev.  H.  Leigh,  29 

Mallows,  E.  E.,  174 

Malmesbury,  170,  233,  247 

Malo  Lacu.    See  Mauley 

Malo  Leone,  Savory  de,  89 

Malpas,  25,  26,  124,  318 

Malton,  Henry,  318 

Maltravers,  Walter,  141 

Malvern,  233 

Man,  John,  243 

Man,  Bishop  of,  164 

Manchester:  Blessed  Mary  Church, 
281 ;  cathedral,  37,  144,  169,  171, 
174,  189,  197,  199-201,  202,  218, 
233»  2SI  I  collegiate  church,  17 ; 
Jacobite  rebels  hanged,  253  ;  "  Man- 
chester Guardian,"  29;  merchants 
at,  4 ;  rental,  272 ;  trade  of,  98 ; 
wardenship  of,  17,  305 

Mankynhole,  Henry,  283 

Manley  of  Pulton,  arms,  77 

Manorial  lords,  273 

Manton  (Rutland),  110 

Mara,  Stephen  de,  89 

Margam,  172,  173,  188,  233,  242 

Market  Harborough,  Hill's  ' '  History 
of,"  302 

Markham,  Ralph,  296,  297 

 Ralph,  jun.,  his  poems  and  paint- 
ing, 297 

 Robert,  297 

Marleburg,  Abbot  Thomas  de,  239 
Marrow  (Marrewe),  Cicely,  70,  312 
 Ellen,  70 


Index 


35i 


Marrow,  John,  70,  312 

■  Richard,  70 

Marsden,  Alice,  276 

 John,  283 

 Peter,  276 

Marsden,  Great,  273,  317 
Marsh,  Ellen,  59 

 John,  67,  314,  315 

•  Susan,  63 

 Thomas,  64,  315 

 William,  315 

Marshall,  Edward,  322 
Marter,  Ellen,  62 
Martholme,  275 
Martin,  Henry,  67 

 Jane,  67 

 John, 59 

 Peter,  67 

Martindale,  John,  68 
Mary,  Queen,  117 
Mascy,  Richard,  314 
Mason ,  Anne,  59 
 Thomas,  55 

Mason    and     Hunt's    "  Birkenhead 

Priory,"  201 
Massam,  Elizabeth,  65,  314 

 Francis,  311 

 Lawrence,  61 

— — ■  Mary,  311 

Massey  (Masci,  Massie),  of  Dunham, 
arms,  29  ;  de  Ellerborowe,  29 

 Edward,  13,  50,  54,  58,  59,  291 

 Hamo  de,  109 

■  John  (Sir),  116 

 John,  290 

 Lawrence,  65 

 Richard,  54,  58,  314 

Mather,  John,  315 

 Nicholas,  315 

Matthew,  John,  310 
Maulbrunn,  190,  191 
Mauley  (Malo  Lacu),  E.  de,  99 
Maurice,  Abbot,  239 
Maurice,  Prince,  57 
Mawdsley,  Ellen,  315 

 Henry,  68 

 William,  284 

May,  G.,  "  History  of  Evesham,"  239, 
240 

Mayer,  Joseph,  5 
Mayson,  Henry,  64,  67 

 Randle,  60 

 Savage,  64 

Meacocks,  Robert,  58 

 Thomas,  51 

Mead,  William,  317 

Meadow  (Medowe),  Catherine,  67 

 Margaret,  67 

Mearley,  280,  282,  285 

Melis  (Meols),  Bertram  de,  133 

Melling,  Alice,  67,  70 

 John,  67,  70,  312 

 Margaret,  70,  312 

 Robert,  69,  312 

Melling  (Halsall),  67,  314,  316 


Melling  (in  Lonsdale),  38 
Mellor,  James,  139 

 John,  138,  140 

Mellor,  275,  286 

Melrose,  abbey,  170,  233 

Memmi,  Simone,  193,  195 

Meols,  North,  67,  121,  132,  277,  314 

Meolse,  Great,  53 

Mercer,  Anne,  312 

 Anthony,  70,  313 

 Elizabeth,  69,  70,  313 

 Ellen,  65,  312,  313 

 George,  69,  312 

 Henry,  66,  312 

 Jane,  69,  70 

 John,  70 

 Katherine,  312 

 Margaret,  65 

  Robert,  63 

 ■  Thomas,  70,  313 

 William,  68 

Mere  of  Mere,  arms,  77 
Meredith,  Sir  Amos,  71 
Mersev,  river,  15,  97,  98 
Metz,~  182 
Michael,  St.,  23 

Micklethwaite,  T.  J.,  175,  176,  177 
Middlehurst,  Jane,  66 
 John, 66 

Middleton,  Sir  Thomas,  of  Chirk,  122 
Middleton  (near  Manchester),  screen,  38 
 lord  of,  268 

Middleton  (in  Goosnargh),  hall,  36 
Middlewich,  26 
Milan,  170 

Miller  (Millar),  Anne,  63,  310 

 Elizabeth,  62,  310 

— •■ —  Henry,  311 

 Margaret,  62 

Millington  of  Millington,  arms,  73 
Mills  on  the  Mersey,  15 
Milnes-Gaskell,  Lady  C.,  246 
Milton,  236 

 (near  Cambridge),  303 

Minshull,  Mrs.  Geoffrey,  290 

 Richard,  289 

— —  Thomas,  56 
Mitchell,  Richard,  317 
Mitton,  church,  205,  279 
Mobberley  family,  arms,  28 
Mobberley,  21,  27,  42 
Mollington,  88 

Molyneux  (Mollineux),  Alice,  71 

 Anne,  62 

 Anthony,  265 

 Catherine,  62,  70,  312 

 Edmond,  258,  312 

 •  Edward,  62 

 Eleanor,  Lady,  265,  266 

 Frances,  67 

 Henry,  310 

 John,  61 

 Margaret,  70,  312 

 Margery,  69,  70 

— -  Richard  (Sir),  265,  266 


352 


Index 


Molyneux,  Richard,  62,  312 

 Robert,  67,  69,  314,  316 

 Thomas,  67,  314 

 William,  266 

Moncas,  Hannah,  8,  9 

 Thomas,  8 

Monkhall,  276 
Monmouth,  Geoffrey  of,  183 
Montivilliers,  abbey,  248 
Moonesse,  Henry,  63 
Moore,  Daniel,  319 

 Francis,  317 

 Herbert  (Rev.),  289 

 Margaret,  67 

 Susan,  67 

 Thomas,  59,  67 

Moore  (More  in  Ches.),  324 
Moores,  Thomas,  54 
More,  Thomas,  51 
Morecambe,  204 ;  bay,  204 
Morecroft,  Catherine,  70,  312 

 Ellen,  62 

 Henry,  62 

 Humphrey,  62 

 Margaret,  62,  68 

 Richard,  62 

 Robert,  70,  312 

Moreton,  29 

Moreton  (in  Wirral),  58 
Morgan,  Edward,  56 

 Thomas,  54 

Morley,  John,  277 

 Richard,  275 

Morrell,  Rev.  P.  F.  A.,  288 
Morris's  "  Chester,"  118 
Mort,  Seth,  56 
Moseley,  Margaret,  53 
Moss  (Mosse),  Anne,  68 

 Edward,  68,  311 

 Elizabeth,  68,  311 

 Henry,  64,  68,  311 

 Hugh,  311 

 Joan, 311 

 Margaret,  68,  311 

 Richard,  68,  311 

 Thomas,  8 

 William,  68 

Mossock,  Anne,  314 

 Eleanor,  66 

 Mary,  316 

 Thomas,  66,  314,  316 

Moston  arms,  26 
Moston,  18 
Motel,  Mr. ,  4 
Moulton,  Hawisa  de,  140 

 Thomas,  291 

 William,  290 

Muchebiey,  236 
Mullock,  Thomas,  291 
Muncaster,  Roger,  253 
Munden's  Dragoons,  251 
Murray,  Henry,  318 

 Jane,  314 

 Thomas,  120 

Myers,  Edward,  247 


Nairn,  Major,  253 

Nantwich  (or  Wich  Malbank),  30,  87, 
101,  117,  141,  297;  Baron  of,  141; 
Hall's  "  History,"  88 

Napoleon  III,  Mistress  of,  127 

Nasmyth,  James,  246 

Navarre,  King  of,  107,  114 

Naylor,  Ellen,  310,  312 

 James,  69,  312 

 John, 315 

 Mary,  315 

  Peter,  65 

 Richard,  310,  315 

 Thomas,  51,  65,  315 

 William,  65 

Neath ,  abbey,  188,  233 

Nee,  Mr.  and  Mrs.,  67 

Nennius,  183 

Nesfield  family,  27 

Neston,  51,  54,  60,  61 

Neston,  Great,  54 ;  New  Quay,  130, 
132 

Netherton,  69,  286,  311 
Netley,  abbey,  174,  188,  233,  242 
Newcastle,  250 
Newhouse,  Emlin,  69 

 Margaret,  69 

 Thomas,  69 

Newstead,  church,  188,  233 
Newton,  — ,  251 

 Peter,  113 

 of  Pownall,  arms,  75 

 Samuel,  317 

Newton  (near  Manchester),  18 
Newton-in-Makerfield ',  275 
Newton-with-Scales ,  284 
Nicholls,  John,  57 
Nickson,  John,  65 
Noiers,  Geoffrey  de,  185 
Nonconformists    in    Lancashire  and 

Cheshire,  49,  309 
Norbury,  142 
Norcott,  Mary,  319 

 Thomas,  319 

Norfolk,  29,  179 

Normandy,  Herleve,  Duchess  of,  178, 
190 

 Richard,  Duke  of,  180 

 Robert,  Duke  of,  178 

Norris,  Anne,  66,  310 

 Ellen,  69 

 Margery,  65 

 Philip,  310 

 Robert,  66,  310 

 William,  65 

Northamptonshire,  302 
Northenden,  30 

Northumberland,  Percy,  Earl  of,  162 
Northwich,  134,  135,  282,  319 
Northworthyn  (or  Norden),  Barth.  de, 

104,  105 
Norton,  priory,  24 

Norwich,  cathedral,  143,  162,  168,  188, 

191,  233,  242 
Nostell  (Yorks),  27 


Index 


353 


Nowell,  Alexander,  273,  275,  279,  284 

 ■  Lettice,  278 

 Margery,  277 

 Roger,  277 

Oakenshaw,  276 

Occleshaw,  Richard,  315,  316 

Occleston  (Uccleston),  319 

Offord  Cluny  (Hants),  no 

Ogiven  (Wales),  130 

Oldfield,  Richard,  134 

Oldfield,  84,  133 

Oldham,  Richard,  monk,  113 

Old  Swan,  Charity  school,  255-262  ; 
Fir  Grove,  257,  258;  Mill  Lane, 
259 ;  Moss  House,  258 ;  Oak  Hill 
House,  257 

Oliver,  Alice,  55 

 Robert,  288 

Opendeur,  Godwin,  88 

Orange,  Thomas,  55 

Orchard,  John,  290 

Ordsall,  265 

Or  me,  Frances,  62 

 Henry,  62 

Ormerod's  "Cheshire,"  24,  26,  32,  &c. 
Ormskirk,  39,  68,  318 
Orreby  family,  26 

 Fulke  de,  91 

 Thomas  de,  91 

Orrell,  James,  315 
Orrell,  313,  315 
Orrett,  John,  59 
Orso,  patriarch,  180 
Orton,  Randle,  290 

 William,  290 

Osbaldeston,  Geoffrey,  275,  276 

 Richard,  283 

Osbaldeston,  275,  285 
Osbaldtwistle,  276,  283,  285 
Osbert,  William  son  of  Richard  son  of, 
139 

 Edusa,  widow  of,  139 

Osgood,  John, 317 

Oswald,  Saint,  304 

Oswestry,  castle,  93 

Otterburn  family,  27 

Ottey,  Alice,  65 

 Catherine,  65 

 Henry,  65,  314 

Otwode,  101 

Over  (Cambridge),  302 

Overchurch,  51,  54,  60,  79 

Over  Darwen,  275,  286 

Owen,  Dakin,  139 

 John,  37 

 Margaret,  310 

Oxburgh,  college,  254 

Oxford,  cathedral,  143,  148,  167,  174, 
185,  188,  198,  199,  233;  Bodleian 
Library,  265  ;  first  coffee  house  in,  1 

Padiham,  273,  278,  281 

Paintings,  Mr.  Bruzet's  collection,  10 

Paisley,  233 


Palliser  Thomas,  50,  54 

 William,  54,  58 

Palstave  found  in  Liscard,  287 
Papal  Bull,  17 
Papias,  145 
Papists,  49 
Parke,  Anne,  256 

 Cecilia  Anne,  256 

 Charlotte  A. ,  256 

 Judge  James,  256 

 Mary,  256 

 Thomas,  66,  255,  256,  262 

Parker,  Alice,  59 

 Colonel,  277 

 Henry,  283 

 John, 276 

 Lawrence,  283,  285 

 Oliver,  283 

Parkgate  road,  128 
Parkinson,  Eleanor,  314 

 Isabel,  314 

 John, 314 

Parliament,  first  English,  163;  Roll  of 

Lords  of,  295 
Parr  family,  257 

 Anne,  314 

 Elizabeth,  310 

 Henry,  67,  314 

 James,  8 

 Jane,  62 

 John,  55,  64 

 Joseph,  257,  258 

 Philip,  62 

 Roger,  257 

 Thomas,  257 

 William,  62 

Parr,  310 

Parr's  Bank,  257 

Parson,  George,  291 

Paslew,  John,  Abbot  of  Whalley,  165 

Passavanti,  Fra  Jacopo,  196 

"  Paston  Letters,"  246 

Patten,  Henry,  63,  64 

 Thomas,  63 

Paul,  Rev.  William,  254 
Pavia,  Battle  of,  114 
Paynel,  John,  100,  102 
Peak,  Castle  of  the,  93 
Peckoe,  Ellen,  319 

 John,  319 

 Thomas,  319 

Pedder,  Rev.  W. ,  249 
Peet,  Emlin,  62 

 Thomas,  62 

Pemberton,  George,  52 

  Jane,  58 

 John,  58 

 Richard,  50 

 Samuel,  53 

Pemberton,  315 
Pembridge,  Sir  John  de,  135 
Pembroke,  William,  Earl  of,  136 
Penance,  46,  47 
Pendle  Forest,  278 
Pendleton,  Henry,  290 


Z 


354 


Index 


Pendleton,  Jane,  310 

 William,  62,  310 

Pendleton,  273,  280,  284 
Penketh,  Mr.,  64 

 James,  64 

 Richard,  64 

 William,  64 

Penketh,  64 

Penkethman,  William,  314 
Penn,  William,  317 
Penrith,  250 
Pensby,  133 
Peover,  31,  118,  119 
Peploe,  Mary,  306 

 Bishop  Samuel,  305 

Peppard,  Mr.,  10 

Pepper  of  Pepper  Hall,  294 

Pepys,  of  Impington,  299 

Perkins,  Mr.,  10 

Per  shore,  chapter-house,  233 

Peter,  Hamo  son  of,  140 

 Robert  son  of,  142 

 Roger  son  of,  141 

Peterborough,  167,  168,  243,  246 

 cathedral,  143,  191 

 chapter-house,  233,  243 

Peterson,  John,  315,  316 
Philcocke,  Thomas,  67 
Philpott,  Mary,  52,  61 

 Robert,  52,  61 

Pickering,  John,  314 
Picton,  Sir  James  A.,  7,  8,  14 

 Richard,  318 

Picton,  318 

Pilgrimage  of  Grace  (1536),  165 
Pilkington,  Hugh,  63 

 James,  63 

Pindar,  Sir  Peter,  56 
Pinnington,  Ellen,  69,  312 

 Thomas,  71,  315 

Pinnington,  315 

Pisa,  181,  188 

Pitt's  Horse,  151 

Piatt,  Hugh,  315 

Pleasington,  John,  58,  59 

Pleasington,    275,    284,    286 ;  Seed 

family  of,  283 
Plemstall,  30,  58,  100 
Plumb,  Anne,  65 

 Joan,  65,  313 

 John,  ss,  69 

  Margaret,  63,  310 

 Ralph,  63,  310 

 William,  15,  63 

Plumpton,  Peter,  63 
Pluscardine,  abbey,  234 
Poitiers,  Battle  of,  73 
Pollitt,  Oliver,  291 
Ponthalgh,  276,  281 
Pontigny,  abbey,  191 
Poole,  — ,  of  Poole,  50 

 Ellen,  69 

 James,  54 

 Mary,  54,  58,  59 

 Ralph,  69 


Poole,  Richard,  69,  137,  312 

 Robert  de,  94,  138 

 Thomas,  291 

Poole  (near  Nantwich),  289,  290 
Poole  Hall  (in  Wirral),  58 
Porter,  Agnes,  no,  111 

 Joseph,  253 

 William,  110 

Postlethwaite,  Thomas,  71 
Potinton,  Gilbert  de,  133 
Pott,  William,  289 
Pottery  business  in  Liverpool,  6 
Potts,  Charles,  126,  137 
Poulton  (Warrington),  314 
Powell,  Alexander,  57 

  Joseph,  57,  319 

 Mary,  57 

 Thomas,  318 

Powel's  "Wales,"  89 
Praers,  arms,  74 

 Robert  de,  141 

Pratchett,  Thomas,  291 
Prescott,  Hugh,  62 

 Margaret,  61 

 William,  61,  313 

Prescot,  63,  69 
Prest,  Richard,  138 
Prestbuty,  screen,  31 
Preston,  George,  of  Holker,  34 

 Robert,  258 

 William  de,  133 

Preston,  276,  305 ;  Jacobites  in,  1715, 

249 ;  rebels  executed  at,  253 
Prestwich,  17,  39 
Price,  Anne,  67 

 Hester,  55 

 John,  56,  291,  320 

Procter,  W.  G.,  "A  Discovery  at  Cros- 

ton,"  263-264 
Provence,  Annabel,  133 

 Guy  de,  133,  136,  137 

 Guyonet  de,  103 

 Raymond,  Count  of,  133 

 Simon  de,  134 

Puddington,  50,  54,  58,  84,  85,  109, 
116 

Pudsey,  Hugh,  162 
Pugin,  A.  W. ,  219,  221 
Pulford,  Randle,  56 
Pulford,  58 
Pulle,  Robert  de,  133 
Punterling,  William,  133 
Puture  Roll,  A  Blackburnshire,  273- 
286 

Pye,  Ellen,  314 

 George,  62,  65 

 Margaret,  65 

 Richard,  65,  314 

Pyle,  Roger,  165 

Quakers,  49,  317 ;  in  Lancashire, 

3°9. 3*9 
Queen's  Ferry,  83,  131 
Quick,  Margery,  310 
 Mary,  310 


Index 


355 


Quick,  Robert,  310 
Quirke,  Margery,  63 

 Richard,  63 

 Robert,  63 

Qvvhite,  Robert,  324 

Radcliffe  family  of  Ordsall,  Obits  of, 
265-267 

 Agnes,  280 

 Alexander  (Sir),  265,  266 

 Alexander,  280 

 Alice  (Lady),  265 

 Alice,  266 

 Bridget,  266 

 James,  276 

 John,  S3,  54,  265 

 Mary,  53 

■  Ralph  (Sir),  276 

 Richard,  266,  275 

 Sibyl  de,  280 

 William  (Sir),  265,  266 

 William,  280 

Rainford,  Peter,  68 
Rainford,  310,  318 
Rainforth,  Mary,  310 
Rainhill,  310 

Rainsford,  Sir  Richard,  315 
Raisheath,  290,  291 
Ramsey,  247 
Randle,  Earl,  77 

 Robert,  64 

Randulph,  Abbot,  239 
Ranikars.    See  Renacres 
Raphael,  4 

Rathbone,  Elizabeth,  64 

 John, 50 

Ravenna,  181 
Ravenscroft  arms,  76 
Ravenshaw,  John,  290 
Rawlinson,  Ellen,  314 
Rawson,  Hugh,  311 
Rawsthorne,  Mary,  317 

 Nicholas,  317 

Read,  279,  286 

Reading,  abbey,  184,  185,  234,  243, 
247 

Record  Office,  164 
Recusants,  Lancashire,  309-319 
Redvers,  Richard  de,  141 
Reece,  Jane,  62 

Regnault,  Francis,  "  Book  of  Hours," 
265 

Renacres  (Ranikars),  Judith,  67 

 Nicholas,  67 

Rep  ton,  234 

Resumption,  Act  of,  112 
Reynold,  Anne,  70 
Reynolds,  Bishop,  159 

 Hugh,  312 

 Nicholas,  70 

 Thomas,  61,  313 

Rhodes,  John,  284 

Rhuddlan,  castle,  92,  98,  ioo,  102,  105 
Ribble,  river,  39,  98  ;  bridge,  251 
Ribchester,  39,  279,  283,  285,  286 


Rice,  James,  312 

 Joan,  312 

 John,  63 

 Margaret,  63,  310,  312,  316 

 Thomas,  63 

Richard  II,  103,  106,  108,  163 
Richard,  John,  son  of,  139 

 Ranulph,  son  of,  139 

 Roger,  son  of,  139 

 Simon,  son  of,  138 

 de  Lound,  Thomas,  son  of,  139 

Richardson,  Mrs.,  301 

 Bryan,  70 

 William,  290 

Rickman's  "Niches  and  Screens,"  36 
Ridehalgh,  Thomas,  284 
Ridersplace,  135 
Riding  (Ryding),  Anne,  70,  313 

 Edmund,  310 

 George,  70,  313 

 Isabel,  313 

 John,  283,  313 

 ■  Margery,  70 

 Peter,  70 

 Robert,  70 

 Samuel,  61 

 William,  313 

Ridgate,  John,  63 

 William,  312 

Ridgeway,  Martha,  57 

 Thomas,  57 

Ridley,  first  Viscount,  256 
Ridley,  113 
Rievaulx,  abbey,  234 
Rigby,  — ,  250 

 Alexander,  36 

 Cicely,  65 

 Edward,  71 

 John,  277 

 Mrs.  Mirny,  127 

 Peter,  258 

 Rebecca,  71 

 William,  65 

Rigmaiden  (Rigmadon),  George,  68 

 William,  68 

Riley,  Joan,  278 

 Thomas,  278 

 William,  283 

Rimmer  (or  Rymer),  Anne,  65,  314 

 Elizabeth,  313 

 Ellen,  68 

 James,  314 

 Jane, 65 

 ■  Margaret,  313 

 William,  313 

Ripon,  cathedral,  155,  169,  188,  234, 
243 

Rishton,  Henry  de,  282 

 Richard,  275,  276 

 Roger,  276,  281 

 William,  276 

Rishton,  275,  286 
Ristoro,  Fra,  194 
Rixton,  314 

Robert,  Abbot  of  Jumieges,  239 


35^ 


Index 


Robert,  Nicholas,  son  of,  139 

 Stephen,  son  of,  139 

 Thomas  ap,  57 

Robinson,  A.  M.,  201 

 Henry,  52,  61 

 John, 51,  52 

 Mary,  318 

 Richard,  64 

 r  William,  60 

Rochdale,  40 

Rochester,   cathedral,  143,   168,  234, 

243,  246,  248 
Rock  Point  and  channel,  98 
Roer,  Richard,  103,  105,  135 
Roger,  the  clerk,  141,  142 
Roger,  William,  son  of,  139 
Rogerson,  Ellen,  313 

■  John,  70,  313 

Romans  at  Shot  wick,  132 
Rome:  Rota  Court,  18,  19 
Romsey,  174,  178,  234 
Rooper,  Florence,  127 

 Peter,  135 

Rope,  142 

Roper,  W.  O. ,  205,  213 
Rossall,  lord  of,  121 
Rotel,  Nicholas,  140 
Rothstorme,  James,  68 
Rothwell,  Ellen,  312 

 Grace,  315 

 James,  67 

 Margaret,  312 

 Mary,  69,  312 

 Thomas,  69,  312,  315 

Rough  Shotwick  (Rowe  S.),  141,  142 
Roughstich,  Robert,  63 

 William ,  63 

Roughstich,  63,  64 
Rowbotham,  — ,  42 

 John, 253 

Rowe,  Roger,  58 
Rowley,  Ellen,  65 

 William,  65 

Rowson,  Ellen,  64 

 Henry,  64 

 Hugh,  64 

 Richard,  64 

Roy  ton,  317 

Roxton  (Bedford),  276 

Rudder's  "  Gloucestershire,"  246 

Rudge,  Edward,  239 

Rudheath,  318 

Rufus,  Galfrid,  162 

Runcorn,  31 

Rushes,  carting  of,  95 

Ruskin,  John,  194,  195 

Russell,  Master,  115 

Rutland,  210 

Ryce.    See  Rice 

Rycroft,  Ellen,  315 

 Ellis,  68 

Ryding.    See  Riding 
Rylance,  Richard,  315 

 William,  66,  68 

Rylands,  J.  Paul,  42,  72,  80 


Rylands,  Margaret,  71 

 Richard,  71 

Rymer's  "  Fcedera,"  91 

Sabryge  (Essex),  265 
Sadler,  Richard,  69 
Sager,  John,  317 
 Stephen,  253 

St.  Albans,  abbey,  159,  162,  163,  234, 
246 

St.  Andrews,  cathedral,  234,  244 
St.  Asaph,  cathedral,   170,  172,  234, 
320 

St.  Benigne,  180 

St.  Davids,  cathedral,  170,  234,  244 
St.  Denis,  182 

St.  Edmundsbury.    See  Bury  St.  Ed- 
munds 
St.  Evroul,  159 

St.  Gall,  abbey,  159,  178  190,  247 
St.  John  of  Jerusalem  Hospital  exempt 

from  puture,  274 
St.  John's,  Jerusalem,  247 
St.  Michaels  (Cornwall),  126 
St.  Pauls  Cathedral.    See  London 
Sale,  Anne,  66,  314 

 Gilbert,  66 

 Philippa,  66 

 Richard,  66,  314,  316 

Salesbury,  273,  280,  283 

Salisbury,  Earl  of,  112 

Salisbury,  cathedral,  143,  147,  148,  159, 

161,  162,  163,  169,  172,  174,  182, 183, 

184,  185,  186,  187,  188,  212,  218,  219, 

224,  225,  226,  235 
Saltney,  84,  89 
Saltworks,  122 

Salusbury :  Thomas  Brereton  adopts 

name,  125 

 Letitia,  124 

Salusbury-Trelawny,  W.  L. ,  126 

Salvatore,  Fra,  194 

Samlesbury ,  275,  286 

Sandby,  P. ,  245 

Sanderson,  Allen,  253 

Sandfield  Park,  258 

Sandford,  Arthur,  290 

Sands,  Mr.  ,  of  the  Green  Dragon,  244 

Sanson,  William,  133 

Sarrett,  Elizabeth,  58 

Sarswell,  Patrick,  116 

Satterthwaite,  William,  317 

Saughall,  Cadogan  of,  138 

 John  of,  138 

 Mellor  of,  138 

  Richard  of,  138 

 Roger  of,  138 

 Thomas  of,  138 

Saughall,  84,  85,  86,  87,  94,  95,  101, 

123,  124,  129,  133,  134,  140  ;  Royal 

wood  of,  108,  132 
 Great,  95,  96,  111,  117,  120,  121, 

125,  128,  139 
 Little,  96,  103,  126,  128,  133,  134, 

I36.  r37 


Index 


357 


Savage  family,  arms,  77 ;  of  Clifton,  103 

  Anne,  60 

 Darcy,  51,  54 

 Elizabeth,  23 

 Jane,  60 

 John  (Sir),  118 

 John, 23 

 Thomas  (Sir),  277 

Sawley,  188,  235 
Saxham,  Great,  321 
Saxton,  James,  136 
Say,  Philip  de,  94,  138 
Say  and  Sele,  Viscount,  130 
Sayer,  Richard,  290 
Scandinavian  churches,  179 
Scarborough,  castle,  99 
Scarisbrick,  Frances,  311,  316 

 James,  68,  311,  316 

Scarisbrick,  311 

Schools :  "  Old  Swan  Charity  School," 
255-262 

Scotland,  164 ;  return  of  K.  James,  199 
Scott,  G.  G.,  179,  184,  186,  189,  199, 
242 

 Gilbert  (Sir),  24,  31,  37,  38,  166 

 John, 62 

— —  Leader,  180,  193,  194 
— ■ —  Miles,  63 
 R.  F. ,  294 

Screens  in  churches  of  Lancashire  and 

Cheshire,  20 
Scrope  and  Grosvenor  trial,  107 
Secombe,  Robert,  4 
Seed,  Thomas,  283 
Sefton  (Sephton),  Anne,  67 

 Elizabeth,  65,  313 

 Henry,  69 

 Robert,  313 

Sefton,  40,  64,  69,  265,  311 
Selby,  Anne,  314,  316 

 Thomas,  314,  316 

Selby,  abbey,  235,  247 
Sellar,  John,  56 

 Margery,  56 

Shackleton,  Geoffrey,  317 

 Peter,  317 

Shaftoe,  Capt.,  253 
Shakerley,  Mrs.,  290 
Shakerley,  314 

Shalcross  oi  Stowshaw,  arms,  75 
Sharpe,  Lawrence,  312 
 Mary,  311 

Sharpies  family,  genealogy,  278.. 

 Alexander,  278 

 Ambrose,  52 

 Anne,  278 

 John, 319 

Shaw,  Elizabeth,  70 

 George,  318 

 Janet,  65 

•  John,  59 

 Margery,  318 

 Richard,  65 

 Thomas,  70 

Shenton,  John,  290,  291 


Shenton,  Thomas,  291 

 William,  291 

Shepbrook,  318 
Shepherd,  Simon  Ie,  no 
Shepperd,  Alice,  69,  312 

 Anne,  69 

 Ellen,  311 

 Jane,  313 

 Nicholas,  311 

 Ralph,  313 

 Richard,  69 

 Robert,  69,  311 

Sherard,  — ,  Rev. ,  rector  of  Tarporley, 
308 

Sherborne,  minster,  29,  170,  235 
Sheriffs,  payments  to,  273 
Sherlock,  Anne,  54 

 Thomas,  54 

Shewen,  William,  317 

Shireburn,  Richard,  279 

Shocklach,  Philip,  135 

Shokerwick  (Somerset),  89 

Shone,  John  ap,  52,  54 

Shore,  William,  291 

Shorlikar.    See  Shurlaker 

Shotwick,  46,  51,  54,  60;  Royal  manor 

and  park,  82-142;  ford,  92;  castle, 

128  ;  plague  in,  288 
Show  ley,  275 

Shrewsbury,  Earls  of,  ancestors,  in 
Shrewsbury,  92,  163,  235,  247;  battle 

of,  109 
Shropshire,  101,  130 
Shudy  Camps  (Cambs.),  295,  298 
Shurlaker  (Shurlacre,  Shorlikar),  Mrs., 

59 

 Alice,  65,  313 

 Ellen,  54 

 James,  55,  313 

 Margaret,  65,  313 

 William,  51 

Shuttleworth,  Henry,  316 

 Isabel,  279 

 Richard  (Sir),  118 

 Richard,  66,  253,  279,  314,  316 

 Robert,  283 

 Thomas,  254 

Shuttleworth,  279 
Siddington,  32 
Silvester  arms,  77 
Simonstone,  John,  281 

 Richard,  281 

 Robert,  281 

Simonstone,  278,  279,  281,  285 
Simpkin  (Simkin),  Edward,  65 

 John,  65 

 Mary,  65,  313 

 Richard,  65 

Sisto,  Fra,  194 
Sixsmith,  Bryan,  314 

 William,  64 

Skelmersdale,  68,  311,  318 
Skillicorne,  William,  324 
Skip  ton,  277 
Skypton,  John,  211 


358 


Index 


Slaughter,  Mrs.  Elizabeth,  137 
Slaves,  6 

Smallshaw,  Ellen,  71 

 John,  71 

Smethurst,  Anne,  66,  315 

 Catherine,  66 

 Richard,  66,  315 

 William,  66,  314 

Smith  family,  crest,  77 

 George,  66 

 Henry,  64 

 Isabel,  63 

■  James,  68,  313 

 Jane,  68,  313 

 Mary,  62 

 Richard,  55,  62,  66 

 William,  318 

Smithfield:  St.  Bartholomew's  church, 

200,  235 
Smithills,  118,  276 
Smolt,  John,  63 
Smyth,  George,  315 

 Isabel,  314 

 John, 265 

 Randle,  290 

 Richard,  314 

Snelston  of  Snelston,  arms,  74 
Snikley,  Randle,  290 
Society  of  Antiquaries,  295 
Somerset,  Duke  of,  162 
Somersetshire,  Barrett's  "History,"  238 
Sorel,  William,  133 
Sotheren,  Geoffrey,  284 

 Robert,  58 

South,  Margaret,  68 

 William,  68 

Southall,  John,  113 
Southall,  115 
Southorn,  Robert,  50 
Southwark,  236 

Southwell,  minster,  24,  143,  148,  156, 
169,  170,  171, 172, 173, 174, 183, 189, 
212,  219,  220,  224,  226,  235,  244 

Southworth,  Henry,  315 

 Richard,  275 

Sowerbutts,  Christopher,  284 

Spann,  William,  55 

Speake,  William,  313 

Speakman,  Dorothy,  61 

 Ellen,  61 

 John,  61,  313 

 Mary,  315 

 Thomas,  310 

Speke,  258,  310 

Spence,  Mary,  68 

Spencer,  Catherine,  65,  314 

 William,  315 

Sproston,  John,  291 

Spurstow  of  Spurstow,  arms,  76 

Spurstow,  57 

Stafford,  Bishop  John,  268,  271 

 William  de,  135 

Stafford,  governor  of,  102 
Staffordshire,  Wilkes'  "  History,"  299 
St  an  den  family,  278  | 


Standish,  Alexander,  268,  269 

 Anne,  311 

 Catherine,  69 

 Gilbert,  272 

 Isolda,  268,  269 

 John, 277 

 Ralph,  106 

Standish,  257,  266,  272 
Stanhope,  Colonel,  250 
Staniforth,  Thomas,  255,  262 
Stanley  family,  88,  113 

 Bishop  (1485-1520),  199 

 •  Edward,  62,  311,  316 

 Eleanor  (Lady),  111,  112 

 George,  112 

 Henry,  59 

 James,  37 

 John,  112 

 Margaret,  62,  311,  316 

  Peter,  62,  311 

 Thomas  (Lord),  in,  112 

 Thomas,  62 

 William  (Sir),  51,  109,  110 

 William  de,  105,  108 

Stananought,  Jane,  66 

 Lawrence,  310 

 Margaret,  66,  310 

Stanney,  Bryan  de,  133 

 Catherine,  52 

 Robert,  52 

Stansfield,  James,  283 

Stanthorne,  319 

Starkey  of  Stretton,  arms,  75 

 Edward,  55 

Starkie  family,  281 

 Alice,  282 

 E.  A.  Le  Gendre,  273 

 Edmund,  281,  282 

 Elizabeth,  281 

 Geoffrey,  281 

 Hugh,  282 

 Margaret,  282 

 Nicholas,  281 

  Ralph,  282 

 Thomas,  282 

 William,  281,  282 

Steel,  Edward,  50 

Stephenson,  John,  69 

 Mill, ' '  Note  on  a  Palimpsest  Brass 

at  Hawarden,"  320-322 
Stephton,  Anne,  318 

 Edmond,  318 

Stevenson,  Ellen,  318 

 F.  S.,158 

 John,  69 

 Margaret,  69 

 Margery,  69 

 Mary,  58 

 Nicholas,  55,  69 

 Thomas,  63 

Stewart,  Bishop  David,  239 
Stewart-Brown,  R.,  "The Royal  Manor 

and  Park  of  Shotwick,"  82-142 
Stidd,  40 

Stirropp,  Alice,  315 


Index 


359 


Stock,  Alice,  69 

 Ellen,  69,  312 

 Peter,  312 

 William,  312 

Stockton,  Henry,  56 

 John, 290 

 Thomas,  290 

Stodard,  Roger,  60 

Stoke  (in  Wirral),  32,  51,  54,  60 

 (near  Nantwich),  290 

Stokes,  William,  291 
Stone,  chapter-house,  209 
Stonyhurst,  279 
Strange  family,  26 

 Lord  (1572),  118 

 George  (Lord),  112 

Street,  Samuel,  10 
Stretch,  Mary,  319 
Stringer,  John,  291 
Stringfellow,  Edward,  310 
Strongitharm,  Henry,  290 
Strutt,  J.,  129 
Sturtivant,  John,  284 
Sudell,  Thomas,  253 
Suffolk,  179 
Summer,  Ellen,  318 

 James,  318 

— —  Mary,  318 

Sunderland  (in  Balderston),  280 
Sutton  family,  27 

 Cicely,  313 

 Ellen,  318 

 Isabel,  313 

 Jane,  313,  318 

 John,  61,  313 

 Mary,  318 

Sutton  (near  Macclesfield),  106 

 (St.  Helens),  318 

Sutton,  East  (Kent),  322 
Swan  ley,  289 

Swarthmoor  Hall,  sale  of,  323 
Swettenham  arms,  76 
Swift,  Evan,  67 

 Mary,  318 

 Peter,  318 

Swimbridge,  29 

Swinden,  273,  275 

Swynnerton,  Sir  Roger  de,  102,  104 

 Sir  Thomas,  103 

Syer,  Catherine,  69 

 Philip,  69 

Syers,  Capt.  Robert,  6 
Sykes,  James,  317 

Tait,  Prof. ,  205 

Talbot  family,  of  Bashall,  281 

 Edmund  (Sir),  276,  281 

 Jane,  71 

 John, 280 

 William,  280,  283 

Talenti,  Fra  Jacopo,  193,  194 

Tanat,  Edward,  25 

Tanner,  Bishop,  205 

Tapestry  in  Chester  cathedral,  305 

Tarbocke,  John,  63 


Tarbuck,  311 

Tarleton,  Alexander,  70,  313 

 Alice,  69,  312 

 Anne,  70,  313 

 Edward,  313 

 Elizabeth,  313 

 Margaret,  70 

 Mary,  310 

  Robert,  312 

 William,  70 

Tarporley,  32,  38;   in  1755,  by  W. 

Cole,  292-308 
Tarvin,  58 
Tasker,  Cicely,  314 

Taswell,  S.  T.  T.,  "  Whalley  Church," 
41 

Tatlock,  Edward,  310 

 Elizabeth,  61 

 Jane,  310 

 John, 61,  66, 313 

 Margaret,  61 

 Mary,  66,  310 

 Thomas,  63,  66 

 William,  313 

Tattenhall,  Thomas  de,  25 
Tattersall,  Edmund,  283 

 Thurstan,  284 

Tatton,  John,  136 

 Robert,  136 

 William,  136,  137 

Tavistock,  parish  church,  173,  235,  244, 
247 

Taylor,  Ellen,  63,  310,  311 

 Esther,  13 

 Jane,  313,  318 

 Janet,  68 

 Margaret,  313 

 Mary,  318 

 Nicholas,  315 

 Richard,  55 

 Thomas,  310 

 William,  51 

Tempest,  Mrs.,  273 

 John, 67 

Tetlow,  18 

Tewkesbury,  235,  245 
Tharpe,  Lawrence,  69 
Thellowe,  Mary,  69,  312 

 Thomas,  69,  312 

Theodoric,  baptistery,  &c,  of,  181 
Thingwall  (Cheshire),  53,  142 
Thomason,  Henry,  66 

 Ralph,  315 

Thompson,  Anne,  70,  313 

 Margery,  70,  312 

  Robert,  70,  312,  313 

 Thomas,  70 

Thornache,  Thomas,  264 
Thorney  (Cambs. ),  abbey,  247 
Thornley,  279,  281,  284,  286 
Thornton  (near  Chester),  58 
Thornton  (Sefton),  69,  316,  318 
Thornton  (Lines.),  abbey,   173,  223, 

23S.24S 
Thornton  Curtis,  221 


360 


Index 


Thropp,  James,  314 

Thurland,  266 

Thurnham,  hall,  211 

Thurstan,  abbot  of  Glastonbury,  164 

Thurstaston,  47,  52,  54,  60,  84 

Tickle,  Anne,  62 

 Ellen,  70 

 Margery,  61 

 Robert,  315 

 Thomas,  61,  70,  313 

Tilston,  manor  house,  121 

Timbs'  "  Curiosities  of  London,"  244 

Tintern,  abbey,  174,  188,  235 

Tinwell,  278 

Tockholes,  280 

Todmorden,  280 

Toft  of  Toft,  arms,  75 

Tomlinson,  Jennet,  314 

Topping,  James,  310 

Torcello,  145,  176,  181,  184,  190 

Totnes,  235 

Tottington,  317 

Totty  (Tottie),  John,  59 

 Robert,  60 

Touzeau's  "  Liverpool,"  97 
Tower  of  London,  constable,  102 
Towneley,  Henry,  273,  280,  285 

 Richard,  276 

Towneley,  273 
Townsend,  Lord,  250 
Toxteth  Park,  93 
Trafford,  —  de,  263 

 Anne  (Lady),  265 

 Edmund  (Sir),  265 

Travis,  Jane,  70,  311 

 John,  311 

 Matthew,  70 

Trawden,  317 
Trelawny  family,  137 

 Miss,  124 

 Col.  C.  B.,  126 

 Charles,  126 

 Clarence,  126,  127 

 Harry  B.,  126,  127 

 Horace  D.,  126,  127 

 Lilian,  127 

 William  (Sir),  124 

 William  Lewis  (Sir),  126 

Trentham,  26 
Trevor,  Sir  Thomas,  120 
Trickett,  William,  290 
Trigg,  William,  288 
Tristram,  Anne,  70,  313 

 Henry,  70,  313 

 Robert,  312 

Troutbeck  arms,  28,  76 

 John,  in,  136 

 William,  110,  in 

Troutbeck,  chapel  (St.  Mary's,  Chester), 
55 

Truro,  cathedral,  168 
Trussell,  Sir  W. ,  90 
Tudman,  Thomas,  290,  291 
Tue,  Hugh,  290 
Tunstall,  Francis,  266 


Tunstall,  John,  69 
Turner,  Anne,  310 

 Christopher  (Sir),  315 

 John, 310, 314 

 Richard,  316 

 Thomas,  60 

Turton,  F.  T.,  36 
Twiston,  277,  280,  282 
Twisleton,  286 

Tyburn,  Jacobite  executions  at,  254 
Tykesore  ( Rutland ) ,  1 10 
Tyldesley,  Sacra,  311 
Tynemouth,  church,  235 
Tyrer,  Anne,  312 

 Bartholomew,  315 

 Elizabeth,  70 

 John, 70 

 Margaret,  70 

 Margery,  313 

 Mrs. ,  69 

 Roger,  62 

 Thomas,  62,  70,  312,  313 

 William,  62 

Ubriachi,  Baldassare,  193 
Uccleston.    See  Occleston 
Ugly  Face  Club,  Liverpool,  5 
Ulverston,  323 

Underwood,  Anthony,  65,  314 

 Ellen,  55 

 John,  65,  318 

 Lawrence,  68,  318 

 Margaret,  65,  318 

 Mary,  314,  318 

 Roger,  318 

Uniformity,  Act  of,  48,  49 
Unsworth,  Gilbert,  315 

 Henry,  315 

 John,  315 

 Thomas,  66,  314 

Unwin,  George,  290 
 T.  Fisher,  2 

Upholland  (or  Holland),  40,  65,  315 
Upton,  Nicholas  de,  103 
Upton  (Over church),  79,  119 
Urmston,  Eleanor,  316 

 Grace,  66,  315 

 Jane,  66 

 John, 315 

 Margaret,  66,  265,  315 

 Peter,  66,  314,  316 

 William,  66,  315 

Utkinton,  hall,  295 

Vale  Royal,  59,  119,  202,  298 
Valentine,  James,  66 
 John, 63 

Vallance,  Aylmer,  33,  34,  36,  37,  38, 

39,40,41,42 
Valle  Cruets,  abbey,  183,  188,  235,  245 
Vallitort,  William  de,  141 
Varrett,  Elizabeth,  318 

 Richard,  318 

Vaux,  William,  71 

Venables  family,  26,  27  ;  arms,  31 


Index 


361 


Venables,  Anne,  27,  282 

 Edmund,  282 

 John, 282 

 Margaret,  282 

 Peter,  26 

 Richard,  290 

 Thomas  (Sir),  111 

 ■  Thomas,  26,  27,  282 

Vernon,  Humphrey,  291 

 William,  128,  137 

Vizelay,  abbey,  148, 171,  190,  191,  192, 

246,  248 
Viollet-le-Duc,  E. ,  192 
Vose,  Catherine,  68 
 Elizabeth,  68 

VVacke,  Ellen,  65 

 Henry,  65 

 Robert,  65 

Waddington,  Robert,  283 

 W.  A.,  "Sketches  on  Calder,"  39 

Wadsworth,  Joseph,  253 
Waine,  John,  58 

  Mary,  58 

Wainwright,  Anne,  311 

 Ellen,  63 

 ■  George,  63 

 John,  54,  64 

— —  Mrs. ,  63 

 Richard,  68 

 Thomas,  64 

Waite,  James  A.,  79 

 William  le,  139 

Wake,  Bishop,  158 
Wakefield,  Ellen,  314 

 George,  69 

 Henry,  63,  65 

 Janet,  65 

Wakefield,  168 

Walcott,  Mackenzie,  154, 169,  173, 175, 

186,  189,  190,  243 
Wales,  Prince  of,  93,  103,  107, 119, 135 

 Arthur,  Prince  of,  113 

 Henry,  Prince  of,  135,  160 

 Marches  of,  91 ;  castles  and  mills, 

109 

Waley,  Robert  de,  133 
Walker,  Alice,  58 

 John,  284 

 William.  317 

Wall,  Rev.  G.  W.,  40 
Wallace's  "  Liverpool,"  3,  4 
Wallasey,  52,  54,  61,  98 
Wallingford,  107 
Walmesley,  — ,  276 

 Christian,  283 

 Richard,  276 

Walpole,  Sir  Robert,  14 
Walsh,  Jane,  62 

 Thomas,  62 

Walter,  Sir  John,  120 
Waltham,  abbey,  170,  235,  247 
Walton,  Banister  de,  275 

  Henry,  275 

 John,  275,  324 


Walton,  Mary,  311 

 Peter,  291 

 Randle,  291 

 Thomas,  311 

Walton  on  the  Hill,  62,  64,  66,  68,  310 
Walton-le-Dale,  277,  283,  285 

 Lord  of,  275 

Ward,  Alexander,  278 

 John,  283 

 Joseph,  71 

Wardon,  chapter-house,  235 
Waring,  Dorothy,  311 

 Ellen,  311 

 John, 36 

 Richard,  311 

 Thomas,  311 

Warrington,  61,  62,  66,  71,  257,  314  ; 

trade  of,  98 
Warton,  Elizabeth,  61 

 Lydia,  61 

 William,  61 

Warwick,  Margaret,  80 

 Maud,  80 

 Joseph,  80 

 Richard,  Earl  of,  112 

Warwick,  St.  Mary's  Church,  171,  235, 

Waschet,  Adam,  141 

 William,  141 

Washington,  Rev.  M.,  288 
Watson,  John,  290 

 Robert,  284 

Watt,  Miss  (Speke),  257 

 Richard  (Speke),  255,  257,  258, 

262 

 Robert,  59 

Waver  ton,  58 

Wavertree  Enclosure  Act,  257 
Wavertree  Nook,  257 
Wavertree,  Lord  of  the  Manor,  257 
Weaver,  Urian,  57 
Weaver  ham,  33 

Webb's  "  Itinerary,"  117,  119,  123, 
128 

Webster,  George,  60,  79 

 Mary,  313 

 Richard,  68 

 Thomas,  66,  313 

Weedon,  Alice,  70 

Weever,  Robert,  162,  289 

Welch,  Mr.,  239 

 William,  317 

Welles  family,  27 

Wellington  (Salop),  55 

Wells,  169,  170,  171,  174,  248  ;  cathe- 
dral, 143,  148,  183,  188,  219,  224; 
chapter -house,  219,  226,  235  ;  Dean 
of,  176 

Welsh  attacks  on  Cheshire,  88 
Welsh,  Henry  II's  army  against,  89  ; 

Henry  Ill's  army  against,  90 
Welsh  wars,  92,  130 
Wenlock,  abbey,  148,  201,  235,  245 
Wensleydale,  Lord,  256, 
West  Derby,  62,  63,  261,  309 


362 


Index 


Westhead,  Alice,  68,  313 

 James,  313 

 Peter,  62,  318 

West  Kirby,  52,  53,  54,  61 

West  Indies,  257 

Westleigh,  34 

Westminster,  173,  199,  212;  Abbey, 
143,  148,  162,  164,  165,  174,  175, 
183,  188,  247;  chapter-house,  219, 
224,  226,  236;  St.  Edward's,  177, 
178,  181 ;  Henry  VIFs  chapel, 
218 

Weston  John,  272 

 Ralph,  25 

 Thomas,  56 

Wether  by,  Adam  de,  102 

 Anthony,  61,  71,  313 

 Edith,  71 

 Elizabeth,  61 

 ■  William,  63 

Whalley,  Humphrey,  290 

■  Ralph,  Abbot  of,  282 

 William,  253,  317 

Whalley,  abbey,  41,  144, 165,  274,  275  ; 
Abbots  of,  278  ;  last  Ancress  of,  268- 
272  ;  chapter-house,  200,  236  ;  peti- 
tions from  the  Abbot,  324 

Wharton,  William,  313 

Wheasted,  Anne,  62 

Wheelock  arms,  76 

Whisson,  — ,  299 

Whiston,  311 

Whitaker,  Christopher,  278 

 Doctor,  204,  205,  206,  208,  210, 

211,  213 

 Henry,  278 

 James,  278 

 •  Joan,  278 

■       John,  278,  284 

 Lettice,  278 

 Nicholas,  278 

 Nowell,  278 

 Peter,  278 

■        Robert,  283 

 Thomas,  278 

Whitaker's     "  Richmondshire,"     34 ; 

"  Whalley,"  270,  282 
Whitby  (Ches.),  60 
Whitby,  chapter-house,  236 
Whitchurch,  142 
White  (Qwhite),  Robert,  324 
Whitehead,  Cuthbert,  65,  313 

  John,  59 

 Margery,  65,  313 

 Thomas,  290 

Whitfield,  Alice,  63 

 Dorcas,  53,  54 

 John,  63 

 Robert,  53 

 William,  62 

Whitley,  Margery,  53 
Whitley,  Over,  282 
Whitwam,  Thomas,  314 
Whyte,  Prior,  244 
Wich  Malbank.    See  Nantwich 


Wickham,  Rev.  W.  A. ,  42 
  "Some     Notes    on  Chapter- 
Houses,"  143-284 
Wickstead,  Ralph,  290 

 Richard,  291 

 Thomas,  290 

Widby.  See  Whitby 
Widdowes,  Alice,  312 

 Richard,  67 

 William,  312 

Widhound,  Adam,  88 

 Agnes,  88 

 Colebrand,  88 

 Simon,  88 

Wigan,  41,  62,  65,  71,  251  ;  Church  in 

1671,  323;  Jacobite  rebels  hanged 

at,  253 
Wigland,  318 
Wigmund,  164 
Wignall,  Elizabeth,  313 

 Robert,  71 

Wilbraham  family,  117,  124 

 Lady  Elizabeth,  122 

 Sir  Richard,  88,  117,  118,  120, 

121,  123,  290,  291 

 Mr.  and  Mrs.  Roger,  290 

 Sir  Thomas,  118,  119,  120,  121, 

122, 125 

 William,  291 

Wilding,  Robert,  62 
Wild  Marsh  (river  Dee),  131 
Wilkinson,  Robert,  264,  290 
Willaston,  142,  319 
William,  Ellen,  58 
William  I,  180 
William  III,  307 
William  of  St.  Carilef,  162 
William  of  Worcester,  246 
William  the  Welshman,  133 
Williams,  — ,  129 

 Edward,  62 

 Gomer,  14 

 Henry,  55 

 Jane,  62 

  John, 51 

 Sarah,  51 

 Thomas,  57 

Williamson,  Richard,  14,  67 

 Thomas,  63,  67 

Williamson's  collections,  302 
Willis,  Browne,  208,  240,  243,  244 

246,  247 
Wills,  General,  250,  251 
Wilme,  John,  71 
Wilms  low ,  33 
Wiltshire,  283,  286 
Wilson,  Anne,  53 

 Elizabeth,  312,  313 

 Francis,  314 

 John,  313 

 Lawrence  R.,  323 

 Robert,  47,  50,  52,  68 

 Thomas,  61,  313 

 William,  54,  55,  59 

Wimbolds  Trafford,  58 


Index  363 


Winchelcombe,  246 

Winchester,  167,  168,  172,  246,  248 ; 
cathedral,  143,  148,  188,  191,  236, 
246 

Winchester,  Earl  of,  103 
Windermere,  Storrs  Hall,  255 
Windham,  Sir  Thomas,  162 
Windle,  Jane,  64 
Windle,  310 

Windsor,  chapter-house,  236 
Winkley,  Elizabeth,  277 

 John,  254 

 Roger,  277 

 Thomas,  273,  280,  284 

Winmarleigh,  275 
Winnington,  William,  290 
Winstanley,  Edward,  315 

 Henry,  71,  318 

Winstanley,  315,  318 
Winterbottom,  Anne,  314 

 James,  314 

Winwick,  41,  71 

Wirral,  83,  84,  132,  135,  142 ; 
Deanery,  50,  54,  58;  forest,  77,  93, 
105,  134,  135 ;  Mortimer's  "  His- 
tory," 88;  Sulley's  "History,"  120, 
129,  132,  134 

Wistaston,  141,  142 

 Amice,  lady  of,  141 

 William  of,  141 

Wiswall,  Alice,  63 

Wiswall,  273,  286 

Withington,  John,  64 

Witter,  William,  303 

Witton,  33,  273,  283,  286 

Wolfgang,  A. ,  "  Screens  in  Cheshire 
and  Lancashire  Churches,"  20-42 

Wolsey,  Cardinal,  arms  in  Chester 
Cathedral,  304 

Wood,  Anthony,  307 

Wood  of  Badersley  arms,  77 

Woodbank,  John  de,  133 

Woodbank,  85,  87,  88,  94,  95,  96,  109, 
112,  117,  128,  138,  139 

Woodchurch,  Gilbert  de,  89 

Woodchurch,  5,  53,  54,  61,  102 

Woodcock,  William,  319 

Woodhead,  George,  60 

Woodhey,  117,  119,  120 

Woodhouse,  John  de,  106 

Woodnoth,  William,  105 

Woodward,  Edward,  291 

Wooley,  Edward,  63 

Woollam,  Gilbert,  318 

Woolstanwood,  101 

Woolston,  314 
Woolton,  310 

Worcester,  cathedral,  159,  172,  173, 
175,  177,  178,  181,  185,  188,  208, 
223,  247,  251  ;  chapter-house,  201, 
226,  236 

Worden,  — ,  55 

Wordsworth,  Christopher,  Sub-Dean, 
rS5»  *Sb>  159.  160,  161,  163,  225 


Woore  (Shropshire),  297 
Worrall,  Anne,  65 

 Ellen,  70,  312,  313 

 Hugh,  46,  51 

 Jane,  70,  313 

 Margaret,  312 

 Richard,  70,  313 

 Robert,  65 

 Simon,  312 

Worsley,  Alice,  282 

 Henry,  280 

 James  E.,  42 

 Joan,  280 

 John, 280 

 Margaret,  277 

 Richard,  280 

 Robert,  280,  282 

Worsthorne,  273,  285,  286 
Worston,  273,  284 
Worthington,  Frances,  56 

 Hugh,  65,  68,  311 

 J. ,  200 

 Margaret,  311 

 Margery,  68 

 Ralph,  316 

 Richard,  68 

 Thomas,  313 

Wrenbury,  318 
Wrench,  Anne,  318 

  John,  318 

Wright,  Catherine,  51 

 John,  63 

 Richard,  57 

 Samuel,  62 

 William,  61,  290,  313 

Wybourne,  Walter,  135 
Wyford,  Richard  de,  134 
Wymondham,  chapter-house,  236 
Wynkley,  Thomas,  284 
Wynn's  Dragoons,  251 
Wythenshaw  family,  136 

Yarford  (Yerford),  John,  son  of,  138, 
139 

Yate,  Eliza,  66 

 Hugh,  66 

 Jane,  66 

 John,  66,  315,  316 

 Margaret,  66 

Yates,  Agnes,  51 

 Richard,  59 

Yonge,  John,  291 

York,  cathedral,  143,  163,  169,  170, 
174,  183,  187,  189,  219,  220,  224, 
226,  236,  248  ;  St.  Mary's  Abbey,  174, 
236 

Young, Joan, 53 

 Margaret,  47,  52 

 Thomas,  60 

Yukfiet,  Nicholas  de,  94,  138 

Zamora,  Roderic  of,  224 
Zouche,  Alan  la,  90 
 Eudo  la,  91 


Printed  by  Ballantyne,  Hanson  6*  Co. 
at  Paul's  Work,  Edinburgh 


KEPOKT  of  the  COMMITTEE 

ON 

ANCIENT  EARTHWORKS  AND 
FORTIFIED  ENCLOSURES, 

Prepared  for  presentation  to  the  Congress  of 
Archaeological  Societies,  June  27th,  1912. 


COMMITTEE. 


Loed  Balcarres,  M. 

Mr.  A.  Hadrian  Allcroft,  M.A. 
Mr.  W.  J.  Andrew,  F.S.A. 
CoL  F.  W.  T.  Attree,  F.S.A. 
Mr.  G.  A.  Auden,  M.A.,  M.D., 

Cantab.,  F.S.A. 
Mr.  C.  H.  Bothamley,  F.I.C. 
Mr.  A.  G.  Chater. 
Mr.  J.  G.  N.  Clift. 
Mr.  E.  S.  Cobbold,  C.E.,  F.G.S. 
Mr.    Robert    Cochrane,  I.S.O., 

LL.D.,  F.S.A. 
Mr.  S.  Denison. 
Mr.  Willoughby  Gardner. 
Mr.  A.  R.  Goddard,  B.  A. 

Mr.  Albany  F.  Major,  Hon.  Sec. 


P.,  F.S.A.  {Chairman). 

\  Professor  F.  Haverfield,  M.A., 
!  F.S.A. 

!  Mr.  W.  H.  St.  John  Hope,  M.A., 
Lit.  Doc. 
Mr.  H.  Laver,  F.S.A. 
Mr.  C.  Lynam,  F.S.A. 
Mr.  D.  H.  Montgomery,  F.S.A. 
Sir  C.  H.  Read,  LL.D.,  P.S.A. 
Mr.  J.  Horace  Round,  LL.D. 
Col.  0.  E.  Ruck,  F.S.A. Scot. 
Mr.  W.  M.  Tapp,  LL.D.,  F.S.A. 
President    B.    C.    A.  Windle, 
F.R.S. 

of  Committee  on  Ancient  Earthworks. 


(Address:  30,  The  Waldrons,  Croydon.) 


REPORT  OF  THE  EARTHWORKS 
COMMITTEE. 


The  Committee  regret  that  their  Eeport  this 
year  includes  more  cases  than  usual  of  damage,  or 
destruction,  actual  or  threatened.  The  causes  are 
various,  but  attention  has  again  been  called  to  the 
increasing  number  of  cases  in  which  it  is  due  to  the 
use  of  the  land  on  which  earthworks  are  situated  as 
golf  links.  A  letter  appealing  to  committees  of  golf 
clubs  to  prevent  injury  to  ancient  earthworks  on  courses 
under  their  charge  has  been  sent  to  various  papers  that 
deal  with  golfing  matters.  The  Committee  also  beg 
archaeologists  who  are  votaries  of  golf  to  use  their 
influence  in  the  same  direction.  Damage  from  this 
cause  is  the  more  to  be  deplored,  as  it  is  generally 
avoidable  and  threatens  monuments  on  uncultivated 
land,  which  have  hitherto  been  comparatively  safe. 

It  will  be  observed  on  the  other  hand  that  the 
reports  received  testify  to  increasing  interest  in  earth- 
works. The  appointment  of  Koyal  Commissions  on 
Ancient  and  Historical  Monuments  in  England  and  in 
Wales  has  called  attention  to  the  value  of  trustworthy 
records  of  such  remains,  and  work  under  this  head  is 
reported  from  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,  Dorset, 
Hampshire,  Somerset  and  Surrey. 

The  proposed  application  of  the  Ancient  Monuments 
Protection  Acts  by  the  County  Council  of  Hertfordshire 


3 


to  the  Roman  roads  in  the  county,  is  an  example  to  be 
commended  to  the  attention  of  other  public  bodies. 
Bills  proposing  to  strengthen  and  extend  those  Acts  are 
now  before  Parliament,  and  the  Hon.  Secretary  of  this 
Committee  has  given  evidence  before  a  Joint  Committee 
of  the  two  Houses  appointed  to  consider  those  Bills. 

The  earthworks  in  Cranborne  Chase  have  been 
scheduled  by  Mr.  Heywood  Sumner,  F.S.A.,  and  plans 
made  which  have  been  laid  before  the  Committee.  They 
should  interest  the  archaeologists  of  at  least  three 
counties,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  means  may  be  found 
for  their  publication.  The  Committee  are  also  glad  to 
learn  that  the  plans  of  the  Defensive  Earthworks  of 
Hampshire,  made  by  Dr.  Williams-Freeman,  which  have 
been  mentioned  several  times  in  their  Reports,  are  likely 
to  be  published  this  year  with  a  description  and  specially 
prepared  map.  Dr.  Williams-Freeman's  catalogue  of 
the  barrows  and  ancient  roads  of  the  county  is  in 
progress. 

Mr.  H.  S.  Toms  is  continuing  the  work  of  tracking 
down  a  series  of  minor  earthworks,  which  have  hitherto 
to  a  great  extent  been  overlooked. 

The  Council  of  the  Congress  have  drawn  attention 
to  the  increase  in  the  number  of  Societies  that  subscribe 
for  copies  of  the  Committee's  Report.  The  Committee 
propose  to  try  the  further  experiment  of  offering  copies 
of  the  Report  to  Societies  not  affiliated  to  the  Congress 
at  a  price  slightly  higher  than  is  charged  to  those  that 
belong  to  the  Congress.  They  trust  that  the  Congress 
will  support  them  in  this  endeavour  to  make  known  as 
widely  as  possible  the  work  it  is  doing  in  a  branch  of 


archaeology  which  cannot  be  described  as  popular  in 
spite  of  its  importance. 

The  items  of  information  that  have  reached  the 
Committee,  classified  under  their  several  heads,  are 
appended.  They  include  for  the  first  time  a  report  from 
Ireland,  which  Dr.  E.  Cochrane,  I.S.O.,  LL.D.,  F.S.A., 
President  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland,  has 
supplied. 

Dr.  Cochrane  has  further  kindly  consented  to  join 
the  Committee  and  Dr.  G.  A.  Auden,  F.S.A.,  has  also 
been  appointed  a  member. 

In  conclusion  the  Committee  beg  to  tender  their 
thanks  to  the  Secretaries  of  Societies  and  other  corres- 
pondents who  have  helped  them  in  their  work  and  in  the 
compilation  of  their  Eeport. 


ENGLAND    AND  WALES. 


PRESERVATION   AND  RECORD. 

Carmathenshire. — Carmathen. — The  Carmarthenshire  Anti- 
quarian Society  and  Field  Club  has  taken  further  steps  for  the 
protection  of  "  the  Bulwarks  "  in  the  county  town. 

Cumberland  and  Westmorland. — The  earthworks  of  these 
counties  have  been  catalogued  for  the  County  Councils  by  a  sub- 
committee of  the  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and 
Archaeological  Society,  with  a  view  to  steps  being  taken  for  their 
preservation  under  any  Acts  passed  for  the  protection  of  Ancient 
Monuments. 

Dorsetshire. — The  Earthworks  Committee  of  the  Dorset 
Natural  History  and  Antiquarian  Field  Club  are  taking  a  census  of 
the  principal  camps,  barrows,  enclosures,  etc.,  in  the  county,  with 
a  view  to  steps  being  taken  to  bring  them  under  the  Ancient 
Monuments  Acts. 

 Swan  age. — Captain  J.  E.  Acland  of  the  Dorset  County 

Museum  reports  that  some  barrows  on  the  heathland  near  Swanage 
were  being  destroyed  for  the  sake  of  the  sand.  He  wrote  to  the 
trustees  of  the  property,  who  promised  to  stop  further  destruction 
and  especially  to  safeguard  three  very  interesting  barrows  that 
stand  in  a  group. 

Durham. — Coxhoe  Bridge. — Mr.  Edward  Wooler,  F.S.A.,  reports 
the  discovery  of  a  camp  at  Coxhoe  Bridge  presenting  unusual 
features,  which  he  believes  to  be  unique.  No  exploration  has  been 
made,  but  it  is  suggested  that  the  camp  may  be  mediaeval. 

Hampshire. — The  Hampshire  County  Council  have  asked  the 
Hampshire  Field  Club  to  submit  a  list  of  ancient  monuments, 
which  they  think  should  be  scheduled  by  the  Government. 


6 


Hertfordshike. — It  is  reported  that  the  County  Council  are 
taking  steps,  presumably  under  the  ancient  Monuments  Act,  to 
schedule  all  the  Koman,  or  reputed  Roman,  roads  in  the  county. 

 Hertford.  —  The    Corporation  of    Hertford   has  been 

granted,  by  Lord  {Salisbury,  a  75  years'  lease  of  Hertford  Castle 

at  the  nominal  ground  rent  of   2s.  6d.  a   year.      The  grounds 

contain  the  keep-mount,  the  bailey  with  its  curtain -wall,  turret, 
and  fifteenth  century  gate-house. 

Lancashire. — Mr.  J.  D.  M.  Dobson,  President  of  the  North 
Lonsdale  Field  Club,  reports  that  in  his  district  the  owners  of 
property  on  which  ancient  earthworks  are  situated  generally  concern 
themselves  in  their  preservation. 

Leicestershire — Kirkby  Muxloe. — Major  R.  N.  Winstanley,  of 
Braunstone  Hall,  the  owner  of  Kirkby  Muxloe  Castle,  has  placed 
it  under  the  care  of  the  Inspector  of  Ancient  Monuments. 

Somerset.  —  The  Somersetshire  Archaeological  and  Natural 
History  Society  has  drawn  up  a  short  list  of  camps,  earthworks, 
and  other  ancient  monuments  in  Somerset,  which  are  suffering 
from  neglect  or  active  interference.  This  list  was  submitted  to  the 
County  Records  Committee  of  the  Somerset  County  Council  and 
has  been  forwarded  by  them  to  H.M.  Office  of  Works. 

Surrey.  —  The  Surrey  County  Council  has  appointed  a 
Committee  to  consider  the  question  of  the  preservation  of  Surrey 
antiquities,  and  the  Council  of  the  Surrey  Archaeological  Society 
has  decided  to  compile  a  list  of  all  the  important  ones. 

 St.  George's  Hill,  Weybridge. — At  the  annual  meeting 

of  the  Surrey  Archaeological  Society  in  April  last  it  was  reported 
that  serious  danger  from  building  operations  had  threatened  St. 
George's  Hill,  Weybridge.  There  is  an  exceptionally  fine  early 
British  camp  on  the  hill,  whose  importance  has  recently  been 
enhanced  by  numerous  finds  of  pottery  and  weapons  in  the 
neighbourhood.     The  most  interesting  features  of  the  hill  were  in 


7 


peril,  but  the  efforts  of  Dr.  Gardner,  the  Society's  local  secretary, 
had  met  with  a  ready  response  from  the  new  owner  of  the 
property  and  the  worst  dangers  had  been  averted. 

Sussex. — Mr.  H.  S.  Toms  reports  that  the  Brighton  and  Hove 
Archaeological  Club  has  been  at  work  locally  recording  many  earth- 
works hitherto  unobserved. 

Westmorland. — Ambleside. — The  Roman  Camp  at  Ambleside 
(Windermere  Waterhead)  is  threatened  by  the  builder,  but  attempts 
are  being  made  locally  to  buy  the  ground  at  a  cost  of  £4,000  with 
the  help  of  the  National  Trust,  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  and  the 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and  Archaeological 
Society. 

(See  also  under  "  Cumberland  and  Westmorland.") 

Wiltshire.  —  Alton. — The  extension  of  a  chalk-pit  was 
endangering  a  long  barrow  known  as  "Adam's  Grave"  on  Walker's 
Hill,  near  Alton,  Vale  of  Pewsey,  but  at  the  instance  of  the 
Wiltshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society,  the  occupier 
of  the  land,  Mr.  A.  Stratton,  of  Alton  Priors,  promised  that  the 
chalk-pit  should  not  be  extended  any  further  towards  the  barrow. 


DESTRUCTION. 

Berkshire. — Little  Wittenham. — A  report  was  received  by 
the  Committee  of  damage  being  done  by  excursionists,  etc.,  at 
Wittenham  Clumps.  There  was,  however,  no  evidence  that  the 
earthworks  at  Sinodun  were  suffering,  or  in  danger,  and  the  damage 
to  trees,  etc.,  reported  hardly  called  for  the  intervention  of  this 
Committee.  The  matter  was  however  brought  to  the  notice  of 
the  Inspector  of  Ancient  Monuments  and  the  writer  was  advised  to 
communicate  also  with  the  Secretary  of  the  National  Trust. 

Carmarthenshire.  —  Pen  y  Gaer. —  The  Carmarthenshire  Anti- 
quarian Society  reports  that  one  of  the  recurving  tips  of  the  main 


8 


entrance  to  Pen  y  Gaer  camp,  in  Llanybyther  parish,  together  with 
some  150  feet  along  the  ramparts,  has  been  removed  for  farming 
operations  in  ignorance  of  its  value.  The  damage  is  the  more  to 
be  deplored  as  this  is  one  of  the  finest  camps  in  the  county. 

Carnarvonshike. — Penmaenmawr. — The  quarrying  operations 
referred  to  in  previous  reports  are  steadily  eating  into  the  heart  of 
this  notable  ancient  fortress,  the  ultimate  destruction  of  which 
appears  to  be  unavoidable.    (See  also  under  "  Exploration.") 

Cheshire. — Dodleston. — It  has  been  reported  to  the  Chester 
and  North  Wales  Archaeological  and  Historic  Society  that  some 
remains  of  ancient  earthworks  have  been  removed  from  the  grounds 
at  Dodleston  Vicarage,  near  Chester,  in  order  to  improve  the 
garden. 

Dorsetshire. — Bincombe. — The  Rev.  C.  W.  H.  Dicker  sends  a 
report  that  damage  is  being  done  to  one  of  the  finest  barrows 
above  Bincombe.  The  nature  and  extent  of  the  damage  is  not 
stated. 

 Came. — He  also  forwards  a  report  that  "  three  flattened 

barrows  on  the  Came  Golf  Links,  close  to  Dorchester,  have  been 
partly  destroyed  by  conversion  into  sand  bunkers."  There  are 
sixteen  barrows  on  the  links  and  representations  will  be  made  to 
the  Golf  Links  Committee. 

 Gorwell.  —  Dr.  Colley  March  has  also  reported  that 

unauthorized  digging  has  taken  place  in  the  Gorwell  Stone  Circle 
near  Portesham. 

(See  also  under  Preservation — Swanage.) 

Essex.  —  Witham.  —  The  historic  earthworks  at  Witham  are 
being  injured  by  digging  gravel.  Attention  was  first  called  to 
this  during  the  past  winter  by  Mr.  W.  M.  Tapp,  LL.D.,  F.S.A.,  a 
member  of  this  Committee,  and  local  antiquaries  were  asked  to 
take  up  the  matter.  They  report  that  the  local  authorities  are 
doing  what  they  can  to  stay  further  damage,  but  are  not  very 


9 


hopeful  of  success.  The  matter  has  also  been  reported  to  the 
Royal  Commission  on  Ancient  Monuments,  England,  who  will,  no 
doubt,  use  their  influence,  but  have  no  power  to  intervene  actively. 
The  latest  report  from  the  Hon.  Secretary  of  the  Essex  Archaeo- 
logical Society  says  that  the  damage  done  so  far  is  not  very  great. 
Authorities  are  generally  agreed  that  this  is  the  "  burh,"  recorded 
by  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  as  having  been  built  by  Edward  the 
Elder  at  Witham,  in  913.  It  is  one  of  the  few  pre-Norman 
earthworks  whose  date  and  origin  can  be  definitely  fixed  and  its 
destruction  would  be  deplorable.     (See  report  for  1907.) 

Hampshike.  —  Hengistbury  Head.  —  Reports  have  appeared  in 
the  public  press  of  proposals  for  the  development  of  Hengistbury 
Head  as  a  seaside  resort.  Nothing  definite  appears  to  be  known 
by  local  antiquaries.  The  matter  will  be  watched  in  view  of  the 
risk  of  injury  to  the  "double  dykes"  across  the  base  of  the 
promontory.     So  far  they  are  reported  to  be  safe. 

Lancashire. — Stainton-in-Furness. — The  small  "  British  Settle- 
ment" at  Stone  Close  (erroneously  mentioned  in  last  year's  report 
as  finally  obliterated),  is  reported  to  be  disappearing  fast  before 
advancing  quarrying.  Mr.  J.  Dobson,  of  Urswick,  is  watching  the 
results  and  has  reported  some  recent  finds  of  the  Roman  Period. 

(See  Bibliography — Dobson.) 

Shropshire. — Abdon  Burf. — Efforts  made  by  the  Council  of 
the  Shropshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society  to  save 
Abdon  Burf,  on  Brown  Clee  Hill,  from  farther  destruction,  have 
been  unsuccessful,  and  it  is  now  being  rapidly  destroyed  by 
quarrying  operations.    (See  report  for  1907.) 

Somerset. — Banwell  Camp. — This  camp  is  in  danger  of  damage 
from  being  planted.  Two  acres  of  land  at  the  entrance  to  Banwell 
Woods  from  Castle  Hill  have  recently  been  planted,  but  the  work 
has  stopped  short  of  the  cruciform  earthworks  near  the  camp.  The 
interior  of  the  camp  will  probably  be  planted  next  season.  The 


10 


Somersetshire  Archaelogical  and  Natural  History  Society  has, 
however,  been  consulted  by  the  owners  with  regard  to  this,  and  it 
is  expected  that  approaches  will  be  left  to  the  mound  in  the  centre 
of  the  camp. 

Suffolk. — Brandon. — A  new  golf  course  is  being  laid  out  at 
Brandon,  according  to  newspaper  reports,  which  stated  that  some 
fine  old  "  Roman "  camps  on  the  course  would  form  splendid 
natural  hazards.  No  confirmation  of  this  report  has  been  received, 
but  the  attention  of  the  Suffolk  Institute  of  Archaeology  and  Natural 
History  has  been  called  to  it  in  view  of  the  possible  risk  of 
earthworks  being  damaged. 

Sussex. — Mount  Caburn. — It  has  recently  been  reported  that 
Mount  Caburn,  near  Lewes,  is  in  danger  of  being  destroyed  by  the 
operations  of  a  local  cement  company  excavating  for  chalk  at  the 
base  of  the  hill.  Endeavours  are  being  made  to  save  the  well- 
known  earthworks  on  the  summit  from  damage. 

Wiltshire — Warminster. — Two  round  barrows,  reported  to  be 
Bronze  Age,  on  the  links  of  the  West  Wilts  Golf  Club,  have  been 
destroyed  in  order  to  make  a  teeing  ground.  The  smaller  of  the 
two  was  removed  bodily  and  its  material  heaped  up  over  the 
other,  completely  obliterating  it.  Local  archaeologists  un- 
fortunately received  no  warning  before  the  destruction  was 
accomplished. 

Yorkshire.  —  Bowes  Castle.  —  Damage  has  been  done  at 
Bowes  Castle,  the  fosse  which  sweeps  round  the  Norman  keep 
having  been  partially  filled  up  by  tipping  rubbish  into  it. 
Attention  has  been  called  to  this  and  it  is  hoped  that  no  further 
damage  will  be  done.  The  combination  of  Roman  and  mediaeval 
remains  at  Bowes  has  never  been  fully  worked  out  and  the 
obliteration  of  the  ancient  fosse  would  help  to  obscure  the 
evidence. 


11 


EXPLORATION. 

Buckinghamshire. — Norbury  Camp,  Whaddon  Chase. — A  report 
has  been  received  of  excavations  carried  out  here  in  1910  with  the 
main  object  of  discovering  the  width  and  depth  of  the  fosse  and 
solving  certain  problems  of  construction.  These  objects  were 
successfully  attained.  No  relics  were  found  of  any  value  for 
dating  purposes,  but  the  indications  are  that  the  camp  is  pre- 
Roman.    (See  Bibliography,  Berry.) 

Carnarvonshire. — Penmaenmawr. — Realising  that  this  ancient 
fortress  is  doomed  to  ultimate  destruction,  the  Cambrian 
Archaeological  Society  is  having  a  careful  survey  made,  and  is 
conducting  excavations  within  the  ancient  dwellings  along  a  line 
in  advance  of  the  quarry  operations.  The  survey  and  excavation 
are  in  the  able  hands  of  Mr.  Harold  Hughes,  and  reports  are 
published  from  time  to  time  in  "  Archaeologia  Cambrensis."  (See 
Bibliography,  Hughes.) 

Cumberland. — Birdoswald. — High  House  Milecastle  and  three 
turrets  on  the  Roman  Wall  have  been  excavated  by  Messrs.  J.  P. 
Gibson  and  F.  G.  Simpson.  A  short  report  has  appeared  in  the 
Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
and  a  full  report  will  appear  in  the  "  Cumberland  and  Westmor- 
land "  Transactions. 

Denbighshire.  —  St.  George,  Abergele.  —  Mr.  Willoughby 
Gardner  sends  a  report  of  excavations  now  being  carried  out  by 
the  Abergele  Antiquarian  Society  at  Parc-y-Meirch  in  Kinmel 
Park,  a  promontory  camp  with  triple  vallum  and  ditch  across 
the  base.  The  excavations  have  shown  that  the  inner  vallum 
had  a  rubble  core  and  was  faced  with  dry  stone  walling.  The 
top  of  the  wall  is  believed  to  have  originally  stood  over  50  feet 
above  the  bottom  of  the  ditch.  The  cuttings  in  the  interior  of  the 
camp  have  revealed  traces  of  a  former  large  population.  Quantities 
of  animal  bones  and  much  pottery  have  been  found,  while  both  animal 


12 


and  human  remains  have  been  found  in  the  ditches.  Much  of  the 
pottery  is  undoubtedly  Roman  and  some  Romano-British.  A 
small  series  of  bronze  coins  ranging  from  the  second  to  the  fourth 
century  has  also  been  found. 

Devonshire. — Old  Burrow  Camp,  Exmoor. — Excavations  were 
carried  out  here  last  autumn  by  Mr.  W.  M.  Tapp,  LL.D.,  F.S.A., 
and  Mr.  H.  St.  George  Gray.  The  relics  found  were  very  few, 
chiefly  small  shards  of  much  weathered  pottery,  but  they  also 
included  an  uncommon  form  of  an  iron  axe-adze  of  a  type  found 
on  the  Continent,  although  rarely,  with  remains  of  the  Roman 
period.  The  finds  generally  point  to  the  camp  belonging  to 
Romano -British  times.  The  earthworks,  which  present  some 
unusual  features,  were  thoroughly  examined  and  an  elaborate 
contoured  plan  was  made  by  Mr.  Gray,  and  several  cuttings  dug. 
His  illustrated  report  will  appear  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Devon- 
shire Association  for  1912. 

Dorset.  —  Maumbury  Rings,  Dorchester.  —  Work  here  was 
temporarily  suspended  last  year,  but  arrangements  are  being  made 
to  carry  on  excavations  for  about  three  weeks  from  the  end  of 
August  next. 

Durham. — Hamsterley. — Mr.  Edward  Wooler,  F.S.A.,  reports 
the  examination  of  a  camp  at  Hamsterley,  known  as  "  the  Castles." 
It  is  stated  to  be  built  to  a  large  extent  on  the  Roman  plan,  but 
with  walls  of  dry  stone  rubble.  It  is  suggested  that  it  is  of 
British  origin,  but  constructed  under  Roman  influence. 

Essex. — Mersea  Island.  —  The  Morant  Field  Club  has  been 
examining  a  barrow  at  West  Mersea  and  a  Roman  burial  was 
discovered  containing  a  glass  vessel  enclosed  in  a  leaden  case,  now 
in  the  Colchester  Museum. 

Hampshire.  —  Grim's  Ditch.  —  Mr.  Heywood  Sumner,  F.S.A. 
has  cut  two  sections  across  Grim's  Ditch,  one  on  Breamore  Down, 
near  the  "Shoulder  of  Mutton"  clump,  where   it   forms  the 


13 


boundary  between  Hampshire  and  Wiltshire,  the  other  on  Damer- 
ham  Knoll  in  Hampshire,  where  it  is  shown  on  the  Ordnance  maps 
as  a  continuation  of  Bokerley  Dyke.  The  main  object  was  to  test 
the  theory  that  it  had  served  as  a  covered  way.  In  neither  section 
did  the  floor  or  sides  of  the  ditch  show  any  signs  of  use.  The 
only  relics  found  were  four  very  small  shards  of  pottery  and  a 
rubber  stone  at  the  bottom  of  the  ditch  in  the  second  section  and 
two  similar  shards  within  the  bank.  The  evidence  is  insufficient 
for  dating  purposes. 

 Spring   Pond   Enclosure.  —  Mr.    Sumner   also  reports 

that  he  has  been  excavating  in  a  large  enclosure,  described  as  a 
Romano-British  pastoral  enclosure,  near  Spring  Pond  on  Rock- 
bourne  Down.     An  account  will  be  issued  hereafter. 

Hampshire.  —  Silchester.  —  Mr.  J.  B.  Karslake  has  been 
examining  some  earthworks  at  a  point  known  as  "the  Beeches"  to 
the  south-east  of  the  eastern  gate  of  the  Roman  "  Calleva."  The 
excavations  revealed  the  eastern  entrance  through  the  outer  entrench- 
ment at  this  point  and  at  the  same  time  proved  that  this  outer 
entrenchment  extended  to  the  east  of  the  city,  which  had  hitherto 
been  doubtful.  The  entrance  was  flanked  by  two  oval  and  three 
circular  enclosures,  surrounded  by  earthen  banks,  the  object  of  which 
is  obscure.  A  pit  was  also  found  in  rear  of  the  entrance  which  may 
have  served  as  a  soakaway.  A  heavy  flint  hammer-stone,  fragments 
of  Roman  tiles,  and  some  shards  of  coarse  pottery  were  found  in  the 
filling  of  the  ditches,  etc.,  and  a  fragment  of  the  handle  of  a  Roman 
amphora  in  the  soa.kaway  pit. 

Lancashire. — Birkrigg. — The  "Druid's  Circle"  at  Birkrigg,  in 
the  parish  of  Urswick,  near  Ulverston,  has  been  excavated  by  the 
Rev.  C.  Gelderd,  D.Sc,  and  Mr.  J.  Dobson.  A  double  pavement  was 
found  beneath  the  turf  and  at  least  four  cremation  burials,  described 
as  Bronze  Age,  were  unearthed,  with  one  of  which  an  earthenware 
vessel  was  found.  (See  Bibliography,  Gelderd).  A  small  barrow  on 
Birkrigg  was  also  partly  explored  and  inhumation  burials  (disturbed) 
were  found. 


14 


Leicestershire. — Kirkby  Muxloe. — The  ditch  of  Kirkby  Muxloe 
Castle  has  been  cleared  out  and  the  position  of  the  drawbridge 
discovered. 

Lincolnshire.  —  Horncastle.  —  The  Committee  have  been 
consulted  respecting  some  earthworks  which  were  being  examined 
by  Mr.  A.  M.  Livesey,  of  Stourton  Hall,  Horncastle.  The  attention 
of  Lincolnshire  archaeologists  was  accordingly  called  to  the  work, 
which  was  visited  by  several  experts.  Canon  J.  Clare  Hudson  is 
of  opinion  that  the  discoveries  included  pre- Roman,  Roman  and 
monastic  remains,  but  no  one  who  has  visited  the  place  has  been 
able  to  draw  any  definite  conclusions. 

Norfolk. — Heac ham-on- Sea. — Mr.  Bellerby  Lowerison,  in  con- 
junction with  the  Prehistoric  Society  of  East  Anglia,  proposes 
this  summer  to  investigate  a  group  of  mounds  in  this  parish 
which  may  prove  to  be  long  barrows.  The  mounds,  which  are 
seven  in  number,  are  stated  to  have  been  originally  40  yards 
long. 

Northumberland — Corbridge. — Work  was  again  carried  on 
last  year  on  the  site  of  Corstopitum.  The  discoveries  included  a 
curious  carved  slab,  probably  funereal,  various  remains  of  inscrip- 
tions and  sculptures,  and  a  hoad  of  159  gold  coins. 

Somerset. — Bath.  —  The  Bath  and  District  branch  of  the 
Somersetshire  Archaeological  Society  has  carried  out  several 
excavations  during  the  year.  Besides  the  discovery  of  various 
interments  in  the  neighbourhood,  several  barrows  on  Lansdown 
were  examined.  A  Roman  inhabited  site  was  also  discovered  in 
the  same  locality  near  the  camp  above  Northstoke,  and  a  cutting 
made  in  this  camp  disclosed  an  apparent  well. 

Except  for  the  above,  exploration  work  in  the  county  is 
reported  to  be  at  present  confined  to  Glastonbury  Abbey  and 
Meare  Lake  Village. 

Surrey. — Chelsham. — Cuttings  were  made  last  year  by  the 
Croydon  Natural  History  and  Scientific  Society  in  some  earthworks 


15 


in  Henley  Wood,  Chelsham,  not  shown  on  the  Ordnance  maps. 
(See  report  for  1911.)  Many  fragments  of  mediaeval  pottery  were 
found  and,  as  the  enclosure  contained  a  well  in  which  tiles,  etc., 
were  discovered,  there  may  have  been  an  occupied  building  in 
mediaeval  times,  probably  of  wood.  No  foundations,  however,  have 
so  far  been  found.  The  clearing  out  of  the  well,  140  feet  deep,  gave 
results  of  some  value,  as  the  last  few  feet  of  the  filling  were  damp 
and  appeared  to  have  been  deposited  in  water.  The  general  water- 
level  of  the  district  is  now  very  much  lower  than  this.  Pottery, 
probably  thirteenth  century,  and  the  iron  tip  of  a  crossbow  bolt 
were  found  at  the  bottom.  These  earthworks  present  many  unusual 
features,  which  the  Committee  would  like  to  see  examined.  Apart 
from  the  purely  earthworks  point  of  view,  such  an  examination 
might  conceivably  throw  light  on  the  origin  and  object  of  an 
entrenchment  which  is  at  present  a  riddle. 

Sussex. — Selsey. — Excavations  were  carried  out  in  1911  at  a 
circular  earthwork  at  Selsey,  consisting  of  a  vallum  and  ditch, 
apparently  meant  to  protect  the  entrance  to  the  harbour.  The 
stratum  on  which  the  vallum  rests  was  found  to  contain  pottery  not 
only  of  the  Eoman  period,  but  also  of  a  type  considered  to  be  four- 
teenth century,  or  later.  The  evidence  points  to  the  truth  of  the 
local  tradition  that  the  work  was  thrown  up  at  the  time  of  the 
threatened  Spanish  invasion  in  1588. 

Westmoeland. — Heaves. — An  enclosure  and  late-Celtic  tumulus 
have  been  excavated  by  Professor  I.  McKenny  Hughes,  F.R.S.  (See 
Bibliography,  Hughes.) 

Wiltshire. — Avebury. — No  excavation  work  has  been  done  here 
this  year,  but  in  April  and  May  last  Mr.  H.  St.  George  Gray  was 
engaged  on  a  survey  plan,  worked  to  the  scale  of  40  feet  to  1  inch. 
The  plan,  which  is  some  6  feet  square,  will  show  when  finished  the 
exact  form  of  the  earthworks  and  the  relative  position  of  all  the 
remaining  stones.  Excavation  work  at  Avebury  will  probably  be 
resumed  next  spring. 


16 


 Casterley  Camp. — Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  H.  Cunnington 

continued  their  excavations  at  Casterley  Camp,  on  Salisbury  Plain, 
and  hope  to  finish  them  this  year. 

 All  Cannings. — Some  trenching  was  done  by  Mr.  and 

Mrs.  Cunnington  last  summer  on  an  inhabited  site  near  All  Cannings. 
Much  interesting  pottery  of  late-Celtic  type  was  found.  No  report 
has  yet  been  published. 

 Old  Sarum. — The  excavations  being  conducted  here  by 

the  Society  of  Antiquaries  were  continued. 

See  also  Hampshire. — Grim's  Ditch. 

Yorkshire. — Harrogate. — An  earthwork  near  Harrogate,  partly 
situated  on  Grange  Farm  and  partly  on  Car  Dyke  Farm,  has  been 
examined  by  Dr.  F.  Villy.  Its  nature  is  uncertain,  but  it  is  not 
Roman,  and  probably  dates  between  1500  and  1700  a.d.  A  report 
will  appear  in  "The  Yorkshire  Archaeological  Journal." 

Yorkshire. — Place  Newton.  —  Digging  has  been  done  on  the 
site  of  the  so-called  "  Roman  Camp "  in  the  North  Park  at  Place 
Newton,  eight  miles  east  of  Malton,  by  Mr.  A.  J.  Cholmley.  Some 
small  fragments  of  mediaeval  pottery  have  been  found,  and  the 
indications  at  present  seem  to  point  to  a  moated  site  of  mediaeval 
date.     Work  is  to  be  continued  during  the  present  summer. 

 Sowber  Gate,  Northallerton.  —  Mr.  John  Hutton  has 

been  conducting  further  excavations  (see  report  for  1905)  on  the 
site  known  in  Domesday  as  "Solberge."     There  are  several  mounds 
here,  apparently  tofts  of  former   dwellings,  within  a  rectangular 
entrenchment.     One  of  the  excavations  has  revealed  what  appear 
to  be  the  foundations  of  a  mediaeval  building.     Later  researches 
have  uncovered  a  platform   of  considerable  size,  roughly  oblong, 
built  up  of  small  cobbles  and  approached  at  one  end  by  steps.  A 
various  points  on  this  were  larger  stones  and  stone  settings.  On 
of  the  latter  was  a  circle,  about  four  feet  in  diameter,  depressed  i 
the  centre,   showing  very   strong    marks   of   burning.  Anoth 


17 


appears  to  be  formed  somewhat  in  the  shape  of  an  S  reversed  and 
some  have  suggested  that  it  represented  a  serpent.  Both  Roman 
and  mediaeval  pottery  was  found  on  this  platform,  as  well  as 
fragments  of  querns,  possibly  Roman,  and  other  relics.  Its  first 
syllable  shows  the  name  "  Solberge "  to  be  Scandinavian  in  form, 
not  Anglo-Saxon.  The  foregoing  particulars  are  from  a  report  by 
Professor  W.  G.  Collingwood,  F.S.A.,  who  kindly  visited  the  site 
at  the  instance  of  the  Earthworks  Committee,  to  whom  Mr. 
Hutton  had  applied  for  advice  as  to  the  problem  presented  by  his 
discoveries.  Some  of  the  remains  may,  in  Professor  Collingwood's 
opinion,  be  the  foundations  of  early  mediaeval  dwellings,  as  records 
show  that  two  halls  stood  here  at  the  time  of  Domesday,  and  that 
the  place  was  subsequently  raided  by  the  Scots,  but  the  nature  and 
origin  of  the  singular  platform  with  its  relics  of  various  periods 
is  very  doubtful.  Mr.  Hutton  hopes  to  continue  the  work,  which 
will  be  watched  with  interest. 

 Sowerby. — The  low  mound  at  Castle  Farm,  Sowerby, 

near  Halifax,  traditionally  said  to  be  the  site  of  Sowerby 
Castle,  was  examined  last  year  by  the  owner,  Mr.  J.  E.  Rawson. 
No  foundations  were  found,  and  it  seems  probable  that  it  has  been 
formed  by  tipping  excavated  material.  No  signs  of  urns  were 
found. 

 Wilsden.  —  Dr.  Villy  has  mapped  a  new  ring  earth- 
work near  Wilsden,  and  has  cut  one  section.  No  finds  are 
reported.     A  report  will  appear  in  the  "Bradford  Antiquary." 


18 

IRELAND. 

PRESERVATION. 

Cork.  —  Under  the  Irish  Land  Act,  1903,  several  earthworks 
have  been  accepted  by  the  Cork  County  Council,  though  the  vesting 
order  has  not  yet  been  made  by  the  Estates  Commissioners. 

The  Board  of  Works  has  accepted  for  preservation  an  earth- 
work in  Co.  Cork  called  Caherragliar. 

Kerry. — The  latter  body  has  also  accepted  an  earthwork  called 
Callinafercy  in  Co.  Kerry,  as  well  as  the  guardianship  of  about  a 
hundred  stones,  cahers,  earthworks,  beehive  huts,  etc.,  scattered  over 
the  peninsula  of  Dingle,  on  the  estate  purchased  by  the  Congested 
District  Board  from  Lord  Ventry. 

DESTRUCTION. 

In  Ireland  generally  there  is  an  increasing  number  of  instances 
of  the  levelling  and  mutilation  of  earthworks  by  tenant  owners,  who 
have  obtained  possession  of  their  farms  under  the  Land  Purchase 
Acts.  In  Co.  Roscommon  an  earthwork  was  levelled  to  make  a  site 
for  a  labourer's  cottage  under  the  Act  for  providing  such  cottages. 
Some  years  ago  workmen  could  not  be  prevailed  on  to  touch  such 
remains.  Near  Dunmanway,  Co.  Cork,  a  stone  circle  has  been 
destroyed,  only  one  of  its  seven  stones  being  left  to  serve  as  a 
rubbing-post  for  cattle. 

EXPLORATION. 

Cork. — The  great  rath,  or  earthen  fort,  of  Knockshan-a-wee, 
near  Crookstown,  Co.  Cork,  has  been  excavated,  and  a  souterrain 
discovered  9  feet  square.  The  chamber  was  roofed  with  large  flag- 
stones, supported  on  massive  uprights.  Each  of  the  stones  exposed 
bore  Ogham  characters. 


19 


Meath. — A  grant  has  been  made  by  the  Royal  Society  for  assist- 
ing in  investigating  earthworks  in  Ireland,  chiefly  in  Co.  Meath, 
and  a  Committee  has  been  appointed  by  the  Royal  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries in  Ireland. 

 Knowth. — Plans  and  sections  have  been  made  of  the 

mound  of  Knowth,  pending  the  permission  of  the  owner  and  tenant 
for  the  excavations. 

 Taka. — Arrangements  have  been  made  for  a  contour 

survey  on  a  large  scale  of  the  extensive  earthworks  on  the  Hill  of 
Tara,  which  will  be  commenced  this  year.  A  model  will  be  made 
from  this  for  the  National  Museum  in  Dublin.  When  the  survey 
has  been  completed  and  levels  taken  such  excavation  as  may  be 
necessary  to  investigate  the  character  of  each  mound  will  be  under- 
taken by  the  Committee.  After  excavation  the  contour  of  the 
original  surface,  where  displaced,  will  be  carefully  restored  according 
to  the  lines  of  the  survey. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Royal  Commission  on  Ancient  and  Historical  Monuments  (Wales). 
County    of    Montgomery. — An   Inventory   of    the  Ancient 
Monuments.    Includes  the  earthworks  of  the  county 
with  plans  and  sections  of  the  more  important. 

Victoria  County  History. 

Somerset,  Vol.  II.,  contains  a  chapter  on  Ancient  Earthworks 
by  C.  H.  Bothamley,  with  plans. 

Amongst  other  recent  contributions  to  the  literature  of  the 
subject,  the  following  may  be  noticed  : — 

Armstrong  (E.  C.  R). — See  under  Macalister. 


20 


Berry  (J.),  and  Bradbrook  (W.). — Excavations  at  Norbury 
Camp,  Whaddon  Chase.  (Kecords  of  Bucks,  Vol.  X. 
No.  2,  1911.) 

Bruton  (F.  A). — "  The  Roman  Forts  at  Castleshaw  (York- 
shire), Second  Interim  Report.  (The  University 
Press,  Manchester,  1911.) 

Bush  (T.  S). — "  Report  on  Lansdown  Explorations  and 
Discoveries  in  Bath  and  Vicinity,  1911.  (Proc.  Bath 
and  District  Branch,  Somerset  Arch,  and  N.  H.  Soc.) 

Baker  (James). — "  A  Neolithic  British-Romano  Settlement." 
[Stokeleigh  and  Observatory  Camps] .  (The  Anti- 
quary, August,  1911.) 

Clarke  (E.  Kitson). — "  A  Prehistoric  Route  in  Yorkshire." 
(Proc.  Soc.  Ant.  2nd  series,  Vol.  XXIII.,  No.  if.) 

Croydon  Natural  History  and  Scientific  Society. — "Report 
on  the  Earthworks  at  Henley  Wood,  Chelsham." 
(Proc.  1912.) 

Cunnington,  (Mrs.  M.  E.) — "  Knap  Hill  Camp."  (Wilts 
Arch,  and  N.  H.  Mag.,  Vol.  XXXVI.) 

Curwen,  (J.  F). — "  Trostermount-on-Ullswater.)  (Trans. 
Cumb.  and  Westm.  Ant.  and  Arch.  Soc.  N.S.  Vol. 
XII.,  June,  1912.) 

 "  The  Castlestede,  near  Hornby,  Lancashire."  (Trans. 

Cumb.  and  Westm.  Ant.  and  Arch.  Soc.  N.S.  Vol. 
XII.,  June,  1912.) 

Dobson  (John). — "  Report  on  an  Ancient  Settlement  at 
Stone  Close,  near  Stainton  in  Furness."  (Trans. 
Cumb.  and  Westm.  Ant.  and  Arch.  Soc.  N.S.  Vol. 
XII..,  June,  1912.)    See  also  under  Gelderd. 

Evans  (G.  E.). — "  Pen  y  Gaer,  parish  Llanybyther."  Illus- 
trated.   (Trans.  Carm.  Ant.  Soc,  Vol.  VI.) 


21 


Gelderd  (Rev.  Charles)  and  Dobson  (J.). — "Report  on  Ex- 
cavations carried  out  at  the  1  Druid's  Circle '  on  Birk- 
rigg,  Furness."  (Trans.  Cumb.  and  Westm.  Ant.  and 
Arch.  Boo.,  N.S.,  Vol.  XXII.,  June,  1912.) 

Gibson  (J.  D.,  the  late)  and  Simpson  (F.  G.). — "The  Mile- 
castle  on  the  Wall  of  Hadrian  at  the  Poltross  Burn." 
(Trans.  Cumb.  and  Westm.  Ant.  and  Arch.  Soc,  N.S., 
Vol.  XL,  June,  1911). 

Graham  (T.  H.  B.).—"  Extinct  Cumberland  Castles"  [in- 
cluding earthworks  at  Irthington  and  Castle  Sowerby] . 
(Trans.  Cumb.  and  Westm.  Ant.  and  Arch.  Soc. 
N.  S.,  Vol.  XL,  June,  1912.) 

Gray  (H.  St.  George). — "Report  on  the  Excavations  at  Ave- 
bury,  1911."    (Brit.  Assoc.  Reports,  1911.) 

 Roman  Remains  found  at  Puckington.  (Proc.  Somer- 
set Arch,  and  N.  H.  Soc,  Vol.  LVIL,  1912). 

Harris  (Rev.  H.  A.).—"  Eye  Castle,"  a  fortified  Earthwork. 
(Proc.  Suffolk  Inst,  of  Arch,  and  Nat.  Hist.,  Vol. 
XIV.,  1911.) 

Haverfield  (Professor  F.). — "Report  on  the  Corbridge  Ex- 
cavations of  1910."  (Proc.  Soc.  Ant.,  2nd  Series,  Vol. 
XXIIL,  No.  II.). 

Heelis  (Rev.  A.  J.). — "  Maybrough  and  King  Arthur's  Round 
Table."  (Trans.  Cumb.  and  Westm.  Ant.  and  Arch. 
Soc,  N.S.,  Vol.  XIL,  June  1912.) 

Hope  (W.  H.  St.  John)  and  Hawley  (Lt.-Col.  W.).— Report 
of  the  Excavations  at  Old  Sarum,  1909,  1910,  and 
1911. 

Hughes  (Harold). — "Prehistoric  Remains  on  Penmaenmawr." 
(Archaeologia  Cambrensis,  6th  Series,  Vol.  XIL,  Part 

ii.) 


22 


Hughes  (Prof.  T.  McK.). — "On  some  Interments  near  Hynmg, 
Westmorland."  (Trans.  Cumb.  and  Westm.  Ant.  and 
Arch.  Soc,  N.S.,  Vol.  XII.,  June,  1912.) 

 "On  an  Ancient  Enclosure  and  Interment  on  Heaves 

Fell."  (Trans.  Cumb.  and  Westm.  Ant.  and  Arch. 
Soc,  N.S.,  Vol.  XII.,  June,  1912.) 

Knox  (H.  T.). — "  The  Croghans  and  some  Connacht  Kaths 
and  Motes."  (Proc.  R.  Soc.  Ant.,  Ireland,  Vol.  XII., 
Parts  2,  3,  and  4.) 

Lawrance  (Rev.  H.). — Melandra  Castle,  Excavations,  1908- 
1911.  (Journal,  Derbys.  Arch,  and  N.  H.  Soc,  Vol. 
XXXIV.,  1912.) 

Lewis  (Henry). — "  Excavations  at  the  Praetorium  at  Castle 
Collen,  1911."  (Archaeologia  Cambrensis,  6th  Series, 
Vol.  XII.,  Part  II.). 

Macalister  (R.  A.  C),  Armstroug  (E.  C.  R.),  and  Praegei 
(R.  LI.) — "Bronze  Age  Cams  on  Carrowkeel  Mountain, 
Co.  Sligo."  (Proc.  R.  Irish  Acad.,  Vol.  XXIX.,  Sec. 
C,  No.  9). 

Maclean  (Rev.  Hector). — "  Caerthannoc  or  Maiden  Castle, 
Soulby  Fell."  (Trans.  Cumb.  and  Westm.  Ant.  and 
Arch.  Soc,  N.S.,  Vol.  XII.,  June  1912.), 

May  (Thomas).— "  The  Roman  Forts  at  Elslack."  (The 
Antiquary,  September,  1911.) 

Orpen  (Goddard  H.) — "  Rathgall,  Co.  Wicklow."     (Proc.  R 
Soc  Ant.,  Ireland,  Vol.  XLL,  Part  3,  June,  1911.) 

Praeger  (R.  LI.) — See  under  Macalister. 

Simpson  (F,  Gerald.) — See  under  Gibson. 

Toms  (H.  S.)— "  The  Problem  of  Ancient  Cultivations."  (The 
Antiquary,  November,  1911.) 


23 


 Piddletrenthide  Valley  Entrenchments.    (Proc.  Dorset 

Nat.  Hist,  and  Anti.  Field  Club,  1912.) 

Tristram  (Edward). — "  Fin  Cop  Prehistoric  Fort."  (Journal 
Derbys.  Arch,  and  N.  H.  Soc,  Vol.  XXXIV.,  1912.) 

Villy  (Francis). — "  The  Eoman  site  at  Kirk  Sink,  Gargrave, 
near  Skipton."    (Bradford  Antiquary,  1911.) 

Ward  (John). — "  Notes  on  digging  in  a  tumulus  on  Bigning 
Mountain,  Laugharne  parish."  Illustrated.  (Trans. 
Carm.  Ant.  Soc,  Vol.  VI.) 

Westropp  (T.  J.) — "  Cahermurphy  Castle  and  its  Earthworks, 
with  certain  Forts  near  Milltown-Malbay,  Co.  Clare." 
(Proc.  R.  Soc.  Ant.,  Ireland,  Vol.  XLL,  Part  3,  June, 
1911). 

 "  Carrigaholt   (Co.   Clare)   and  its  Neighbourhood " 

Part  II.    (North  Munster  Arch.  Soc,  Vol.  I.) 

 "  Clare  Island  Survey,  Part  2,  History  and  Archae- 
ology."   (Proc.  R.  Irish  Acad.,  Vol.  XXXI.) 

 "  Prehistoric  Remains  (Forts  and  Dolmens)   in  the 

Burren,  Co.  Clare."  (Proc.  R.  Soc.  Ant.,  Ireland, 
Vol.  XLL,  Part  4,  December,  1911.) 

  "  The  Promontory  Forts  and  Early  Remains  of  the 

Coasts  of  County  Mayo."  Part  I.  The  North  Coast 
(Tirawley  and  Erris).  (Proc.  R.  Soc.  Ant.,  Ireland, 
Vol.  XLIL,  Part  1,  March,  1912.) 

 "  Types  of  the  Ring-Forts  remaining  in  Eastern  Clare 

(Killaloe,  its  Royal  Forts,  and  their  History)."  (Proc. 
R.  Irish  Acad.,  Vol.  XXIX.,  Sec.  C,  No.  7.) 

ALBANY  F.  MAJOR, 
[Hon.  Secretary  to  the  Committee), 

Bifrost,  30,  The  Waldrons, 

Croydon. 


24 


CLASSIFICATION. 

The  classification  of  defensive  works  recommended  by  the 
Committee  now  stands  as  follows  :  — 

a.  Fortresses   party   inaccessible   by   reason   of  precipices, 

cliffs,  or  water,  defended  in  part  only  by  artificial  works. 

b.  Fortresses  on  hill-tops  with  artificial  defences,  following  the 

natural  line  of  the  hill. 

Or,  though  usually  on  high  ground,  less  dependent  on 
natural  slopes  for  protection. 

c.  Rectangular  or  other  enclosures  of  simple  plan  (including 

forts  and  towns  of  the  Romano-British  period). 

d.  Forts  consisting  only  of  a  mount  with  encircling  moat  or 

fosse. 

e.  Fortified  mounts,  wholly  or  partly  artificial,  with  remains 

of  an  attached  court  or  bailey,  or  showing  two  or  more 
such  courts. 

f.  Homestead  moats,   consisting   of   simple  or  compound 

enclosures  formed  into  artificial  islands  by  water  moats. 

g.  Enclosures,  mostly  rectangular,  partaking  of  the  form 

of  F,  but  protected  by  stronger  defensive  works,  ram- 
parted and  fossed,  and  in  some  instances  provided  with 
outworks. 

h.  Ancient  village  sites  protected  by  walls,  ramparts  or  fosses. 

x.  Defensive  or  other  works  which  fall  under  none  of  the 
above  headings. 


CONGRESS 

OF 

in  Union  with  the 

Snrirfg  of  llttttqitaros  of  bonbon, 

JUNE  27th,  1912. 


The  Twenty-third  Congress  of  Archaeological  Societies  was  held  on 
June  27th,  at  Burlington  House ;  Sir  Hercules  Bead,  President  of  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries  in  the  Chair.* 

The  Congress  was  attended  by  Delegates  from  the  Society  of  Antiquaries 
of  London,  the  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Ireland,  the  Boyal 
Archaeological  Institute  (2),  the  Cambrian,  the  British  Record,  the  Folklore 
(2),  and  the  Huguenot  Societies,  and  the  Societies  for  Berkshire  (2),  Cam- 
bridge, Cambs.  and  Hunts.,  Cumberland  and  Westmoreland  (2),  Derbyshire, 
Dorset  (2),  Essex  (2),  Hants  (2),  East  Herts.,  Kent  (2),  Lancashire  and 
Cheshire,  Leicestershire,  Somersetshire  (2),  Suffolk  (2),  Surrey  (2),  Sussex 
(2),  Notts.  (Thoroton),  Wiltshire,  Yorkshire,  members  of  the  Council  and 
Earthworks  Committee,  and  other  Delegates  who  omitted  to  sign  the  register. 

The  Report  of  the  Council,  for  the  year  1911-12,  was  read  and  approved, 
and  the  Statement  of  Accounts,  audited  by  Mr.  W.  Minet,  F.S.A.,  was  read 
and  adopted.  The  thanks  of  the  Meeting  were  given  to  Mr.  Minet  for  his 
services  and  he  was  appointed  Honorary  Auditor  for  the  ensuing  year. 

Council  for  the  year  1912-13: — The  following  were  elected  as  the 
Council : — 


The  Officers  of  the  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries of  London. 
Col.  Attree,  R.E.,  F.S.A. 
W.  Paley  Baildon,  F.S.A. 
Lord  Balcarres,  M.P.,  V.P.S.A. 
William  Dale,  F.S.A. 
Rev.  P.  H.  Ditchfield,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 
Major  Freer,  D.L.,  V.D.,  F.S.A. 
Sir  Laurence  Gomme,  F.S.A. 
Emmanuel  Green,  F.S.A. 


W.H.St.  JohnHope,M.A.,Lit.Doc. 

P.  M.  Johnston,  F.S.A. 

Henry  Laver,  F.S.A. 

William  Martin,  M.A.,  LL.D. ,  F.S.A. 

William  Minet,  F.S.A. 

Rev.  Canon  Rupert  Morris,  D.D., 

F.S.A. 
Ralph  Nevill,  F.S.A. 
Horace  Round,  M.A.,  LL.D. 
J.  B.  Willis-Bund,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 


Dr.  William  Martin,  F.S.A.,  was  re-elected  Hon.  Secretary  and  the 
thanks  of  the  Meeting  expressed  to  him  for  his  services  in  the  past  year. 


*  Congress  is  indebted  to  Mr.  Ralph  Nevill,  F.S.A.,  for  his  compilation  of  these 
Minutes. 


2 


Archaeological  Index,  1908: — Sir  Edward  Brabrook,  Dir.  S.A.,  the 
Chairman  of  the  Archaeological  Index  Committee,  stated  that  1,000  copies 
only  of  the  annual  Index  for  1908  had  been  printed,  and  350  of  these  were 
still  available.  Unless  the  publication  was  better  supported  in  the  future, 
the  Index  must  be  abandoned,  which  would  be  a  great  loss  to  archaeologists; 
if,  however,  the  350  remaining  copies  were  disposed  of,  the  expenses  would 
be  met. 


Mr.  Johnston,  F.S.A.  (Surrey),  thought  that  the  lack  of  support  would  be 
found  to  be  due  to  the  greatly  increased  price,  8d.  instead  of  l£d.  Large 
Societies,  such  as  his,  could  no  longer  afford  to  take  copies  for  all  their 
members,  and  his  Council  had  felt  that  it  was  impossible  to  ask  their  Hon. 
Secretary  to  undertake  the  onerous  task  of  endeavouring  to  sell  copies  to 
individual  members  ;  as  far  as  sending  a  notice  to  members,  however,  they 
would  endeavour  to  assist  the  sale. 


Mr.  Ralph  Nevill,  F.S.A.,  stated  that  he  did  not  see  that  it  would  be 
possible  for  Societies  to  undertake  the  distribution  to  individuals,  although 
it  was  a  simple  matter  to  distribute  copies  to  every  member,  as  had  been 
done  originally.  His  Society  would  have  continued  to  take  the  Index  at 
the  old  price,  which  had  been  sufficient  at  one  time  to  meet  the  cost,  but 
had  involved  too  much  labour  for  an  Hon.  Secretary ;  the  attempt  to 
devolve  the  sale  to  publishers  had  been  unsuccessful. 


Major  Freer,  F.S.A.  (Leicester),  said  that  his  Society  had  taken  copies 
for  all  their  members  for  this  year,  but  felt  it  was  a  great  strain,  and 
expressed  a  hope  that  large  reductions  might  be  made  for  Societies  taking  a 
quantity.  Several  other  delegates  took  part  in  the  debate,  and  Sir  Hercules 
Read  in  summing  up  expressed  his  sense  of  the  great  loss  which  would 
come  about  should  the  Index  cease,  and  hoped  that  some  way  might  be 
found  to  continue  it. 

Report  oj  the  Earthworks  Committee. — Mr.  Albany  F.  Major,  Hon. 
Secretary  of  the  Earthworks  Committee,  read  the  Report  of  his  Committee. 
It  set  out  in  a  complete  and  compendious  manner  what  had  been  done 
during  the  year  by  way  of  preserving,  exploring,  recording,  and  destroying 
these  monuments  of  antiquity. 

A  new  feature  was  a  Report  from  the  Royal  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
Ireland,  from  which  it  appeared  that  much  work  was  being  done  in 
exploration  and  record.  The  effect  of  the  Land  Act  had  been  most 
prejudicial,  as  numbers  of  cases  occurred  in  which  the  new  proprietors 
destroyed  the  remains  previously  preserved  by  the  unwillingness  of  the 
peasantry  to  meddle  with  them.  In  one  case  a  fine  circle  of  seven  stones 
had  been  destroyed  by  the  removal  of  all  stones  but  one,  and  this  had  been 
left  as  a  rubbing  post  for  cattle.  A  thorough  exploration  was  being  made 
of  the  famous  Hill  of  Tara. 

Dr.  Cochrane  had  been  added  to  the  Earthworks  Committee  as  the 
representative  of  Ireland. 


3 


Considerable  destruction  had  been  caused  to  ramparts  and  barrows  by 
Golf  Clubs,  but  it  was  hoped  that  by  the  help  of  the  Golfing  Press  and 
representations  to  Clubs,  this  would  be  stopped  for  the  future. 

Many  County  Councils  were  having  lists  of  camps  and  other  ancient 
monuments  compiled  with  a  view  to  their  preservation. 

All  but  ten  of  the  Societies  in  Union  now  subscribed  for  the  Earthworks 
Report.  It  was  proposed  to  sell  copies  of  the  Report  to  Societies  outside 
the  Union  at  a  sightly  increased  price. 

The  thanks  of  the  Congress  were  expressed  to  Mr.  Major  for  his  labours. 
The  Report  will,  as  usual,  be  printed  and  circulated. 

Dr.  Philip  Norman,  Hon.  Treasurer  of  Congress,  pointed  out  that  there 
was  an  adverse  balance  of  about  £5  as  regards  the  Earthworks  Committee 
expenses,  and  that  it  would  be  for  the  Congress  to  decide  whether  the  charge 
to  Societies  for  copies  of  the  Committee's  Report  should,  consequently,  be 
increased. 

Mr.  Ralph  Nevill  said  that  it  was  at  his  suggestion  that  a  charge  was 
made  for  the  Report,  but  it  was  then  contemplated  that  half  the  cost  might 
be  recovered.  He  was  glad  to  find  that  only  one  third  came  upon  the  funds 
of  the  Congress  and,  on  his  proposal,  seconded  by  Mr.  Johnston,  it  was 
resolved  "  That  the  cost  of  the  Report  be  not  increased  to  Societies  in  Union 
for  the  ensuing  year." 

Parliamentary  Bills  for  the  Protection  of  Ancient  Monuments. — Major 
Freer,  F.S.A.  (Leicester),  said  that,  at  the  request  of  the  Council,  he  would 
give  an  account  of  the  three  Bills  now  before  Parliament,  dealing  with  the 
preservation  of  Ancient  Monuments.  The  most  important  was  the  Govern- 
ment Bill  which  was  introduced  in  the  House  of  Lords  by  Earl  Beauchamp 
for  the  consolidation  and  amendment  of  previous  Acts.  Buildings  in  use  for 
ecclesiastical  purposes,  and  dwelling-houses  in  use  were  specially  excluded 
from  the  Bill. 

Major  Freer  also  gave  some  account  of  the  Report  from  the  Foreign  office 
of  the  steps  taken  by  other  Countries  to  preserve  their  Ancient  Monuments. 
These  were  much  more  drastic  than  those  hitherto  proposed  in  England 
and  applied  particularly  to  churches  still  in  use,  which  were  strictly  guarded 
against  any  attempt  at  alteration  or  alienation  of  their  goods  without 
consent  of  the  appointed  governing  body.  In  Germany,  £86,000  a  year  were 
voted  for  the  purposes  of  preservation,  and  considerable  sums  in  other 
countries.  In  Sweden,  an  Inventory  was  made  of  church  property,  and  bells 
were  not  allowed  to  be  melted  without  notice  being  given  and  permission 
obtained.  He  thought  it  was  hard  that  there  should  not  be  a  grant  from 
our  National  Funds  for  preservation  of  Antiquities.  The  three  Bills  had 
been  considered  by  the  County  Councils  Association  who  had  recommended 
the  addition  of  a  member  of  the  County  Council,  in  whose  jurisdiction  a 
monument  lay,  to  a  seat  on  the  Ancient  Monuments  Board  which  was 
proposed  by  the  Government  Bill.  He  wished  it  were  possible  to  include 
the  taking  and  maintaining  an  Inventory  of  church  goods,  the  necessity  of 
which  was  so  apparent,  and  concluded  by  expressing  his  desire  that  Clauses 


4 


5,  6  and  7  of  No.  2  Bill,  House  of  Commons,  should  be  incorporated  in 
the  Government  Bill,  by  this,  owners  of  ancient  monuments  would  be 
compelled  to  give  two  months